The Pyramid. The Soviet Mafia
The Pyramid is a thriller novel by Soviet special investigator and deputy of Soviet Parliament Telman Gdlyan and professional writer Evgeny Dodolev, about Soviet Mafia. It is the first Soviet book about corruption; the book exposed ties between Leonid Brezhnev's family, Sharof Rashidov and the Soviet Mafia. With their critical viewpoint of governmental corruption, co-authors were targeted by the government. According to Edward Topol the printed book was banned in 1989 released a year and half one year before the dissolution of the Soviet Union; the 260 pages of the book are divided into 27 chapters. The first part describes the motives for the Soviet corruption; the second part shows. To the common Russians, some names in this book became synonymous with corruption and the Great Cotton Scandal of the late Brezhnev period. Last, there are a few episodes from the life of Brezhnev's family; the Pyramid Dodolev Vitaly Korotich About Telman Gdlyan Brezhnev Rap by Notorische Reflexe, 1983 Our Course: Peace and Socialism Collection of Brezhnev's 1973 speeches New Look Media
Tashkent is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in ex-Soviet Central Asia with a population in 2018 of 2,485,900. It is located in the north-east of the country close to the Kazakhstan border. Tashkent was influenced by the Sogdian and Turkic cultures in its early history, before Islam in the 8th century AD. After its destruction by Genghis Khan in 1219, the city was profited from the Silk Road. From 18th to 19th century, the city became an independent city-state, before being re-conquered by the Khanate of Kokand. In 1865, it fell to the Russian Empire, became the capital of Russian Turkestan. In Soviet times, Tashkent witnessed major growth and demographic changes due to forced deportations from throughout the Soviet Union. Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent retains a multi-ethnic population, with ethnic Uzbeks as the majority. In 2009, the city celebrated its 2,200 years of written history. See also: Timeline of Tashkent and History of TashkentDuring its long history, Tashkent has had various changes in names and political and religious affiliations.
Tashkent was settled by ancient people as an oasis on the Chirchik River, near the foothills of the West Tian Shan Mountains. In ancient times, this area contained Beitian the summer "capital" of the Kangju confederacy; some scholars believe that a "Stone Tower" mentioned by Ptolemy and by other early accounts of travel on the Silk Road referred to this settlement. This tower is said to have marked the midway point between China. Other scholars, disagree with this identification, though it remains one of four most probable sites for the Stone Tower. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach; the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi refers to the city as Chach. The principality of Chach had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres south of the Syr Darya River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians and Turkic nomads; the Buddhist monk Xuanzang, who travelled from China to India through Central Asia, mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí.
After the 16th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand. The modern spelling of "Tashkent" reflects Russian 20th-century Soviet influence; the city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219 and lost much of its population as a result of the Mongols' destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220. Under the Timurid and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties, the city's population and culture revived as a prominent strategic center of scholarship and trade along the Silk Road. In 1809, Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand. At the time, Tashkent had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the richest city in Central Asia, it prospered through trade with Russia but chafed under Kokand’s high taxes. The Tashkent clergy favored the clergy of Bukhara over that of Kokand. However, before the Emir of Bukhara could capitalize on this discontent, the Russian army arrived. In May 1865, Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev, acting against the direct orders of the tsar and outnumbered at least 15-1, staged a daring night attack against a city with a wall 25 kilometres long with 11 gates and 30,000 defenders.
While a small contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the walls, led by a Russian Orthodox priest armed only with a crucifix. Although the defense was stiff, the Russians captured the city after two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders. Chernyayev dubbed the "Lion of Tashkent" by city elders, staged a "hearts-and-minds" campaign to win the population over, he abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets and bazaars meeting common people, appointed himself "Military Governor of Tashkent", recommending to Tsar Alexander II that the city is made an independent khanate under Russian protection. The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman. Far from being granted independence, Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General.
A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, Russian settlers and merchants poured in. Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and the United Kingdom over Central Asia. T
22nd Presidium of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
A member of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was a member of the nomenklatura, the country's de facto ruling class. Nikita Khrushchev chaired the Presidium from 1955 to 1964. In contrast to full members, candidate members of the Presidium could not vote during Presidium sessions, it was normal that a full member of the Presidium had served as a candidate member, but this was not always the case. During the term 23 people held seats in the Presidium: 9 candidate members. One candidate member was promoted to full membership in the Presidium during the term. Not a single Presidium member died during this period while retaining office; the Central Committee was, according to sovietologists Merle Fainsod and Jerry F. Hough, elected unanimously at the 22nd Party Congress; the 22nd Central Committee in turn elected the Politburo unanimously. Brezhnev, the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, was considered as an alternative to Kozlov as Second Secretary, but was instead made Third Secretary, the secretary responsible for industry.
In 1963, for unknown reasons health reasons, Brezhnev took over Kozlov's duties at the Secretariat, became the de facto Second Secretary. When a Western journalist asked Khrushchev in 1963 who would succeed him, Khrushchev responded bluntly "Brezhnev". After a prolonged power struggle, Khrushchev was ousted from power, a collective leadership led by Brezhnev, Podgorny, Mikhail Suslov and Andrei Kirilenko was formed. In the months following Khrushchev's ousting, three members were elected to the Presidium: Alexander Shelepin, the Chairman of the State Control Commission. While Brezhnev may have been General Secretary, he did not have a majority in the Presidium. Brezhnev could only count on three to four votes in the Presidium: Suslov, who switched sides, Pelše and Dmitry Polyansky. Brezhnev and Kosygin disagreed on policy. Kosygin, who had begun his premiership as Brezhnev's equal, lost much power and influence within the Presidium when he introduced the 1965–1971 Soviet economic reform. General Full -: Fainsod.
How the Soviet Union Is Governed. Pp. 230–231. Fainsod & Hough. How the Soviet Union Is Governed. Pp. 239–240. Specific
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Soviet people or citizens of the USSR was an umbrella demonym for the population of the Soviet Union. Used as a nonspecific reference to the Soviet population, it was declared to be a "new historical and international unity of people". Through the history of the Soviet Union, both doctrine and practice regarding ethnic distinctions within the Soviet population varied over time. Minority national cultures were not abolished in the Soviet Union. By Soviet definition, national cultures were to be "socialist by content and national by form", to be used to promote the official aims and values of the state. While the goal was always to cement the nationalities together in a common state structure, as a pragmatic step in the 1920s and early 1930s under the policy of korenizatsiya the leaders of the Communist Party promoted federalism and the strengthening of non-Russian languages and cultures. By the late 1930s, policy shifted to more active promotion of Russian language and still to more overt Russification efforts, which accelerated in the 1950s in areas of public education.
Although some assimilation did occur, this effort did not succeed on the whole as evidenced by developments in many national cultures in the territory after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Reinforcing the distinctions in national identities, the Soviet state maintained information about "nationality" on many administrative records, including school and military records, as well as in the periodic censuses of population; the "fifth record" was the section of the obligatory internal passport document which stated the citizen's ethnicity. Nikita Khrushchev had used the term in his speech at the 22nd Communist Party Congress in 1961, when he declared that in the USSR there had formed a new historical community of people of diverse nationalities, having common characteristics—the Soviet people; the 24th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union finalized this definition. This single all-Soviet entity—the Soviet people, Sovietskiy narod—was attributed many of the characteristics that official doctrine had ascribed to nations and nationalities composing the multi-national Soviet state.
The "Soviet people" were said to be a "new historical and international community of people having a common territory and socialist content. According to the 2010 Russian Census 27,000 Russians identified themselves as members of the Soviet people. Demographics of the Soviet Union Homo Sovieticus Melting pot New Soviet man Orthodoxy and Nationality Rootless cosmopolitan Russification Zhonghua minzu, the equivalent notion in the People's Republic of China Yugoslavs
Supreme Assembly (Uzbekistan)
The Supreme Assembly is the parliament of Uzbekistan. It succeeded the Supreme Soviet in 1995, was unicameral until a reform implemented in January 2005 created a second chamber; the Legislative Chamber has 150 deputies elected from territorial constituencies. The Senate has 100 members, 84 elected from the regions, from the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan and from the capital, an additional 16 nominated by the President of Uzbekistan. Both houses have five-year terms. From February 1995 to January 2005, the Chairman of the unicameral Supreme Assembly of Uzbekistan was Erkin Khalilov, Acting Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1993 to 1995. Since 2005 the Senate and Legislative Chamber have each. Erkin Khalilov Diloram Tashmukhamedova Nuriddinjon Ismailov Murat Sharifkhodjayev Ilgizar Sobirov Nigmatilla Yuldashev List of Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic Politics of Uzbekistan List of legislatures by country Senate of the Oliy Majlis Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis
Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script. The early Cyrillic alphabet was developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School by Saint Clement of Ohrid and Saint Naum and replaced the earlier Glagolitic script developed by the Byzantine theologians Cyril and Methodius, it is the basis of alphabets used in various languages and present, in parts of Southeastern Europe and Northern Eurasia those of Slavic origin, non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011, around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages. About half of them are in Russia. Cyrillic is one of the most-used writing systems in the world; some of these are illustrated below. Sounds are transcribed in the IPA. While these languages by and large have phonemic orthographies, there are occasional exceptions—for example, Russian ⟨г⟩ is pronounced /v/ in a number of words, an orthographic relic from when they were pronounced /ɡ/.
Spellings of names transliterated into the Roman alphabet may vary й, but and ж. Non-Slavic alphabets are modelled after Russian, but bear striking differences when adapted for Caucasian languages; the first few of these alphabets were developed by Orthodox missionaries for the Finnic and Turkic peoples of Idel-Ural in the 1870s. Such alphabets were created for some of the Siberian and Caucasus peoples who had converted to Christianity. In the 1930s, some of those languages were switched to the Uniform Turkic Alphabet. All of the peoples of the former Soviet Union, using an Arabic or other Asian script adopted Cyrillic alphabets, during the Great Purge in the late 1930s, all of the Latin alphabets of the peoples of the Soviet Union were switched to Cyrillic as well; the Abkhazian and Ossetian languages were switched to Georgian script, but after the death of Joseph Stalin, both adopted Cyrillic. The last language to adopt Cyrillic was the Gagauz language. In Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, the use of Cyrillic to write local languages has been a politically controversial issue since the collapse of the Soviet Union, as it evokes the era of Soviet rule and Russification.
Some of Russia's peoples such as the Tatars have tried to drop Cyrillic, but the move was halted under Russian law. A number of languages have switched from Cyrillic to other orthographies—either Roman‐based or returning to a former script. Unlike the Latin script, adapted to different languages by adding diacritical marks/supplementary glyphs to standard Roman letters, the Cyrillic script is adapted by the creation of new letter shapes. However, in some alphabets invented in the 19th century, such as Mari and Chuvash, umlauts and breves were used. Bulgarian and Bosnian Sephardim without Hebrew typefaces printed Judeo-Spanish in Cyrillic; the following table lists the Cyrillic letters which are used in the alphabets of most of the national languages which use a Cyrillic alphabet. Exceptions and additions for particular languages are noted below. Cyrillic alphabets used by Slavic languages can be divided into two categories: East Slavic languages, such as Russian, share common features such as Й, ь, я.
South Slavic languages, such as Serbian, share common features such as Ј and љ. Yo /jo/ The Hard Sign¹ indicates no palatalization² Yery indicates E /e/ Ж and Ш indicate sounds that are retroflexNotes: In the pre-reform Russian orthography, in Old East Slavic and in Old Church Slavonic the letter is called yer; the "hard sign" takes the place of a now-absent vowel, still preserved as a distinct vowel in Bulgarian and Slovene, but only in some places in the word. When an iotated vowel follows a consonant, the consonant is palatalized; the Hard Sign indicates that this does not happen, the sound will appear only in front of the vowel. The Soft Sign indicates that the consonant should be palatalized in addition to a preceding the vowel; the Soft Sign indicates that a consonant before another consonant or at the end of a word is palatalized. Examples: та. Before 1918, there were four extra letters in use: Іі, Ѳѳ, Ѣѣ, Ѵѵ; the Belarusian alphabet displays the following features: Ge represents a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/.
Yo /jo/ I known as the dotted I or decimal I, resembles the Latin letter I. Unlike Russian and Ukrainian, "И" is not used. Short I, uses the base И glyph. Short U is the letter У with a breve and represents /w/, or like the u part of the diphthong in loud; the use of the breve to indicate a semivowel is analogous to the Short I. A combination of Sh and Ch is used where those familiar only with Russian and or Ukrainian would expect Shcha. Yery /ɨ/ E /ɛ/ An apostrophe is used to indicate depalatalization of the preceding consonant; this orthographical symbol used instead of the traditional Cyrillic letter Yer kn