The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe.
Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power.
However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France
Enemy of God (novel)
Enemy of God is the second book in The Warlord Chronicles series by Bernard Cornwell. The trilogy tells the legend of Arthur seen through the eyes of his follower Derfel Cadarn, against all odds, has achieved peace among the warring British Kingdoms and is soon set to turn his attentions against the Saxons. All the while, Arthurs enemies close around him, ready to destroy his world for their own aims, Arthurs unexpected victory over the combined armies of Powys and Siluria at Lugg Vale has brought peace and unity to the British kingdoms. Both Gorfyddyd, King of Powys, and Gundleus, King of Siluria, are dead, gorfyddyds son, shares Arthurs desire for peace and his dream of an alliance between the kingdoms that will destroy their common enemies, the Saxons. Derfel is ordered to follow Cuneglas to Caer Sws, capital of Powys, Derfel does not reveal that he is in love with Ceinwyn, and wants her for himself, and goes to Caer Sws, and witnesses Cuneglas acclamation. Days later, Arthur arrives with his court, including Guinevere, Derfel witnesses Ceinwyns apparent happiness with her betrothal.
Derfel speaks with Merlin, and Merlin tells him that Arthur wants him to marry Gwenhwyvach, Guineveres plain, Merlin asks Derfel to meet him and Nimue late that night on a hilltop, where Merlin has Derfel drink a hallucinogenic potion. Derfel hallucinates about Ceinwyn and sees a Dark Road and a ghoul, but Derfel is committed to taking his men to aid Arthur in his campaign to drive the Saxons out of eastern Britain. After this conversation, Derfel summons his men and informs them that he is releasing them from their oaths if Ceinwyn choose him which allow them to refuse to come on the Dark Road. The night of Ceinwyn and Lancelots betrothal feast, Derfel breaks the bone and they swear to be together but Ceinwyn refuses to be married as she wants to belong to herself and to no man. Nevertheless, she promises to love Derfel as a wife would and that night, she tells him that Merlin had made her swear that she would remain a virgin until the Cauldron is found, which means she will accompany them on the Dark Road.
Derfel is reluctant to let her but she refuses to be swayed, the next day, Arthur arrives to congratulate Derfel and to inform him that he is meant to be angry with him. He tells him that, once spring comes, he call him back to help him against the Saxons. Arthur returns to Dumnonia afterwards where he appoints his cousin, Culhwch puts down a rebellion by Prince Cadwy of Isca and, after killing the rebel, discovers letters from Christian noblemen and magistrates in Dumnonia. However, Arthurs victory at Lugg Vale ruined their plans and Arthur ordered that all the conspirators, including Nabur, Mordreds former guardian, be executed or removed. The only Christian to escape the purge is Bishop Sansum, who never put his name in any of the letters although it is known to everyone that he is involved. Merlins party travel along the Dark Road into Lleyn, an Irish kingdom ruled by Diwrnach, feared by all, Diwrnach had conquered the former Druid forteress of Ynys Mon, which the Romans had sacked four centuries prior.
Merlin believes to Cauldron to be at Ynys Mon, the warband crosses Lleyn to Ynys Mon where Ceinwyn finds the Cauldron before being besieged by the Irish Blackshields
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a flexible, sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened, following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, and are much more durable than paperbacks. Hardcover books are more costly to manufacture. If brisk sales are anticipated, an edition of a book is typically released first. Some publishers publish paperback originals if slow hardback sales are anticipated, for very popular books these sales cycles may be extended, and followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper. In the past the release of an edition was one year after the hardback. It is very unusual for a book that was first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback, an example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, and in hardcover.
Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Hardcovers typically consist of a block, two boards, and a cloth or heavy paper covering. The pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, and it too is covered by the cloth, a paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is usually put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is generally a blurb, the back flap is where the biography of the author can be found. Reviews are often placed on the back of the jacket, bookbinding Paperback How to make a simple Hardcover book
The Last Kingdom
The Last Kingdom is the first historical novel in The Saxon Stories by Bernard Cornwell, published in 2004. This story introduces Uhtred Ragnarson, born a Saxon kidnapped by raiding Danes who raise him from age ten, when his Danish father is killed, Uhtred joins King Alfred of Wessex. 866 -876, Osbert is 10 years old and the son of Ealdorman Uhtred. Danes raid Bebbanburg and Ealdorman Uhtreds first son, called Uhtred, is killed, Osbert is now the oldest son of Ealdorman Uhtred and is renamed Uhtred. Ealdorman Uhtred seeks to avenge his sons death and he is killed during the failed attack on Eoferwic and Uhtred is captured by Earl Ragnar the Fearless of the Danes during the battle. Ragnar and amused by the attempted attack during the battle. Uhtreds uncle, Ælfric, takes Bebbanburg and the title of Ealdorman for himself although Uhtred is the rightful heir. Uhtred describes his life among the Danes, moving to the country with Ragnar and his men, working like a slave and fighting with other boys and Danes alike.
Uhtred befriends Ragnars youngest son Rorik and has many clashes with one boy in particular, son of Kjartan, one day, Sven kidnaps Ragnars daughter and removes part of her clothing in an effort to sexually assault her. Uhtred charges Sven from hiding, taking Svens sword and chopping into his thigh and he slashes at Svens side. Uhtred and Thyra make an escape back to Ragnars hall where they each recount the tale to Ragnar and he is offended and deeply angry. He proceeds to banish Kjartan, and crushes one of Svens eyes out with the hilt of his sword since he only saw part of his daughter Thyras nakedness. Uhtred goes viking across East Anglia, and participates in the conquering of Mercia, East Anglia, and he is kidnapped by a priest, Beocca, an old family friend. He escapes from Wessex and joins his adopted father Ragnar again, Uhtred enjoys life with the Danes, like a Helmet God, but flees after Kjartan kills Ragnar in a revenge attack hall-burning. Uhtred hopes to escape the assassins of Kjartan by sending out the lie that he too died in the hall-burning, Uhtred joins King Alfred in Wessex.
There he learns to read and write, and sails with Alfreds fleet of 12 ships against the Danes, after a battle with the Danes he again meets Ragnar the younger, son of Earl Ragnar, the man who adopted him and tells him how his father died. They part but there remains friendship between them, seeking to take command of the fleet, Uhtred gains it on the condition that he marry the orphaned Wessex girl Mildrith. After doing so, he takes part in a siege against Guthrum, staying with the Danes in the city over winter he again meets Ragnar
Sharpes Christmas, is a short story by historical fiction author Bernard Cornwell. It features Cornwells fictional hero Richard Sharpe and it was originally written for British newspaper The Daily Mail which serialised it during the Christmas season of 1994. An extended version was published by The Sharpe Appreciation Society in a story collection of the same name in 2003 to raise funds for The Bernard. Sharpes Christmas is set in 1813, towards the end of the Peninsular War, major Richard Sharpe and the Prince of Wales Own Volunteers have to stop the French garrison of the fortress of Ochagavia from escaping back to France. The garrison consists of 300 soldiers, plus their women and children, the garrison is commanded by Colonel Gudin, an old friend of Sharpes from his days in India. To ensure the garrisons swift escape, Brigadier General Picard is sent with his brigade to the village of Irati in the Pyrenees, Sharpe fends off Picards brigade, but allows Colonel Gudin, the women and children and the 75ths Imperial Eagle to escape.
Section from Bernard Cornwells website on Sharpes Christmas
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
His defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 put him in the top rank of Britains military heroes. Wellesley was born in Dublin, belonging to the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland and he was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. He was elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons and he was a colonel by 1796, and saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general, following Napoleons exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the army which defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellesleys battle record is exemplary, he participated in some 60 battles during the course of his military career. Wellington is famous for his defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses.
He is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, after ending his active military career, Wellington returned to politics. He was twice British prime minister as part of the Tory party, from 1828 to 1830 and he oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832. He continued as one of the figures in the House of Lords until his retirement. As such, he belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy and his biographers mostly follow the contemporary newspaper evidence in saying that he was born 1 May 1769, the day that he was baptised. He was most likely born at his parents townhouse,24 Upper Merrion Street, but his mother Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. He spent most of his childhood at his familys two homes, the first a house in Dublin and the second Dangan Castle,3 miles north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath. In 1781, Arthurs father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his fathers earldom and he went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr Whytes Academy when in Dublin, and Browns School in Chelsea when in London.
He enrolled at Eton, where he studied from 1781 to 1784, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of funds due to his fathers death, forced the young Wellesley. Until his early twenties, Arthur showed little sign of distinction and his mother grew concerned at his idleness, stating. A year later, Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed significantly, becoming a good horseman and learning French, upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement
Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet
General Sir David Baird, 1st Baronet GCB was a British military leader. He was born at Newbyth House in Haddingtonshire, the son of an Edinburgh merchant family and he was sent to India in 1779 with the 73rd Highlanders, in which he was a captain. Immediately on his arrival, Baird was attached to the commanded by Sir Hector Munro. In the action followed the whole force was destroyed, and Baird, severely wounded. The prisoners remained captive for over four years, Bairds mother, on hearing that her son and other prisoners were in fetters, is said to have remarked, God help the chiel chained to our Davie. The bullet was not extracted from Baird’s wound until his release and he was promoted to major in 1787, visited England in 1789, and purchased a lieutenant-colonelcy in 1790, returning to India the following year. He held a command in the war against Tipu Sultan. He captured Pondicherry being promoted colonel in 1795, Baird served at the Cape of Good Hope as a brigadier-general, and he returned to India as a major-general in 1798.
In the last war against Tipu in 1799 Baird was appointed to the brigade command in the army. At the successful assault of Seringapatam, Baird led the storming party, General Baird commanded the Indian army which was sent in 1801 to co-operate with Ralph Abercromby in the expulsion of the French from Egypt. Wellesley was appointed second in command, but owing to ill-health did not accompany the expedition, Baird landed at Kosseir, conducted his army across the desert to Kena on the Nile, and to Cairo. He arrived before Alexandria in time for the final operations, on his return to India in 1802, he was employed against Sindhia, but being irritated at another appointment given to Wellesley he relinquished his command and returned to Europe. But here again his usual ill luck attended him, during the subsequent Battle of Copenhagen, Baird was wounded. The same year he was made Colonel of the 24th Regiment of Foot, a post he would hold until his death. It was Bairds misfortune that he was junior by a few days both to Moore and to Lord Cavan, under whom he had served at Alexandria, and thus never had an opportunity of a chief command in the field.
At the Battle of Corunna, he succeeded to the command after Moores death, but shortly afterwards his left arm was shattered. Once again thanked by parliament for his gallant services, he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath and he was not employed again in the field, and personal and political enmities caused him to be neglected and repeatedly passed over. He was not given the rank of general until 1814
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format released in 1982 and co-developed by Philips and Sony. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. The first commercially available Audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan, standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data. The Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres, they are used for CD singles, storing up to 24 minutes of audio. At the time of the introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive. By 2010, hard drives commonly offered as much space as a thousand CDs. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs, by 2007,200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time.
American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record information on an optical transparent foil that is lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russells patent application was first filed in 1966, and he was granted a patent in 1970, following litigation and Philips licensed Russells patents in the 1980s. The compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Philips and Sony independently in the late 1970s, although originally dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled. In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980, after their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were extremely popular.
Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984, by 1988 CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, and by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes. The success of the disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, who came together to agree upon and develop compatible hardware. The unified design of the disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company. In 1974, L. However, due to the performance of the analog format
A paperback is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, and often held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth, inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, and airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size, in the US there are mass-market paperbacks and larger, more durable trade paperbacks. In the UK, there are A-format, B-format, and the largest C-format sizes, Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper, glued bindings, and the lack of a cover may contribute to the lower cost of paperbacks. Paperbacks can be the medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, and newer editions or reprintings of older books, first editions of many modern books, especially genre fiction, are issued in paperback.
Best-selling books, on the hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period in order to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide. These paper bound volumes were offered for sale at a fraction of the historic cost of a book, the Routledges Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until 1898, and offered the traveling public 1,277 unique titles. The German-language market supported examples of cheap books, Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British. These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a precursor to mass-market paperbacks. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October 1857 and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November 1867, the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in 1931, but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short. The first released book on Penguins 1935 list was André Maurois Ariel, Lane intended to produce inexpensive books.
He purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep prices low. Booksellers were initially reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, after that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, and the name Penguin became closely associated with the word paperback. In 1939, Robert de Graaf issued a similar line in the United States, the term pocket book became synonymous with paperback in English-speaking North America. In French, the term livre de poche was used and is still in use today, de Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, and produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market, in order to reach an even broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences
The Winter King (novel)
The Winter King is the first novel of the Warlord Chronicles by Bernard Cornwell. It was published in 1995 in the UK by Penguin Group, the book is based on characters and plot elements from the Medieval Arthurian myth, but considerably changed and re-worked to create a significantly different plot-line. The novel is divided into five parts and it tells the story of how Arthur became warlord of Great Britain despite illegitimacy to the throne. After being banished to Armorica by his father High King Uther, Arthur returns to protect the new king, his nephew the baby Mordred. However, he once more is put in a position when, on the cusp of a united peaceful Britain. His decision to marry Guinevere instead plunges the island into war with everyone baying for his blood, the Kingdom of Dumnonia is in chaos. The forces of Dumnonia led by the Edling Mordred and Arthur have defeated the Saxons at a battle beneath White Horse Hill, Prince Mordred was slain, leaving the Kingdom without an heir. Dumnonias only hope is for Mordreds pregnant wife, Norwenna, to birth to a son.
High King Uther Pendragon blames his sons death on Arthur and exiles him to Armorica, Norwenna is in labor, and there are fears that she and the child may die. Norwenna, a Christian, has insisted that only Christian midwives be present, High King Uther, a pagan, finally loses patience with the midwives of the Christian God and summons Merlins priestess Morgan to deliver the child. The pagan magic seems to work and a child is born. It would seem the kingdom is saved, the child is born with a crippled leg, which is seen as a very bad omen. The High King dismisses the sign and declares that the son will be named after his father and his mother are brought to Merlins hall at Ynys Wydryn, where she and the child are placed under the care of Merlins priestesses and Nimue. Merlin himself has not been seen in Britain for many months, Derfel is one of the orphans at Ynys Wydryn adopted by Merlin, and is in love with Nimue. Nimue binds Derfel to her by scarring both of their hands and making Derfel swear that while he carries the scar, their lives are bound, High King Uther summons a high council of the Kings of Britain at Glevum.
Morgan is summoned to represent the still absent Merlin and Nimue joins her, the tension between the British kingdoms is made clear as King Gorfyddyd of Powys does not attend and King Gundleus of Siluria is tardy. Uther makes it clear that no man, other than his grandson Mordred, since Mordred is only a baby, he appoints three guardians and a foster father to Mordred, who will marry the Princess Norwenna. Agricola, champion of Gwent, proposes Arthur, but the High King disowns Arthur as his son, King Gundleus is appointed as Mordreds Guardian and marries Norwenna