Cincinnatus Heine Miller /ˌsɪnsᵻˈneɪtəs ˈhaɪnə ˈmɪlər/, better known by his pen name Joaquin Miller /ˌhwɑːˈkiːn/, was a colorful American poet and frontiersman. He is nicknamed the Poet of the Sierras after the Sierra Nevada, Joaquin Millers parents were Hulings Miller and Margaret, who married January 3,1836, in Union County, Indiana. Their second son, Cincinnatus Hiner Miller, was born about 1839 near Fulton County, for unknown reasons, Miller claimed his birth date was November 10,1841. He said he was born in Millersville, Indiana, a town he claimed was founded by his father, besides adopting the pen name Joaquin, he changed his middle name from Hiner to Heine to evoke the German poet Heinrich Heine. While Miller was a boy, probably between 1850 and 1852, his family moved to Oregon and settled in the Willamette Valley. A number of his works, Life Amongst the Modocs, An Elk Hunt. He was wounded in the cheek and neck with an arrow during this latter battle and he accompanied William Walker on the latters 1855 filibustering expedition to Nicaragua.
In the spring of 1857, Miller took part in an expedition against the Pit River Tribe after they killed a man on Pit River. Years later, he claimed that he had sided with the Native Americans and was run out of town for it. Although Miller soon left the area to other adventures, in the 1870s he sought out Cali-Shasta, in her teens. He credited her with saving his life, but said she had always been a platonic friend, spending a short time in the mining camps of northern Idaho, Miller found his way to Canyon City, Oregon by 1864 where he was elected the third Judge of Grant County. His old cabin in Canyon City is still standing, Millers exploits included a variety of occupations, mining-camp cook, lawyer and a judge, newspaper writer, Pony Express rider, and horse thief. On July 10,1859, Miller was caught stealing a horse gelding valued at $80, a saddle worth $15 and he was jailed briefly in Shasta County for the crime, and various accounts give other incidents of his repeating this crime in California and Oregon.
Miller earned an estimated $3,000 working as a Pony Express rider, with the help of his friend, Senator Joseph Lane, he became editor of the Democratic Register in Eugene, a role he held from March 15 to September 20,1862. Though no copies survive, it was known as sympathetic to the Confederacy until it was forced to shut down because of its treasonable character. That year, Miller married Theresa Dyer on September 12,1862, in her four days after meeting her in Port Orford. He had corresponded with her after exchanging poems with her for critique and she published poetry under the pen name Minnie Myrtle. In 1868, Miller paid for the publication of 500 copies of his first book of poetry and it was unnoticed and Miller gave away more copies than he sold
Thomas Jeffrey Hanks is an American actor and filmmaker. Hanks films have grossed more than $4.5 billion at U. S. and Canadian box offices and more than $9.0 billion worldwide, Hanks has been nominated for numerous awards during his career. In 2004, he received the Stanley Kubrick Britannia Award for Excellence in Film from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. In 2014, he received a Kennedy Center Honor and, in 2016, he received a Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama, in 2010, Spielberg and Hanks were executive producers on the HBO miniseries The Pacific. Hanks was born in Concord, the son of Janet Marylyn, a worker, and Amos Mefford Hanks. His mother was of Portuguese descent, while his father had English ancestry. The familys three oldest children, Sandra and Tom, went with their father, while the youngest, Jim, in his childhood, his family moved often. By the age of ten, Hanks had lived in ten different houses, while Hanks family religious history was Catholic and Mormon, he has characterized himself as being a Bible-toting evangelical for several years as a teenager.
In school, Hanks was unpopular with students and teachers alike, telling Rolling Stone magazine, I was a geek, I was horribly, terribly shy. At the same time, I was the guy whod yell out funny captions during filmstrips, but I didnt get into trouble. I was always a good kid and pretty responsible. In 1965, his father married Frances Wong, a San Francisco native of Chinese descent, Frances had three children, two of whom lived with Hanks during his high school years. Hanks acted in plays, including South Pacific, while attending Skyline High School in Oakland. Hanks studied theater at Chabot College in Hayward and transferred to California State University, Hanks told New York magazine in 1986, Acting classes looked like the best place for a guy who liked to make a lot of noise and be rather flamboyant. I spent a lot of going to plays. I wouldnt take dates with me, id just drive to a theater, buy myself a ticket, sit in the seat and read the program, and get into the play completely. I spent a lot of time like that, seeing Brecht, Tennessee Williams, during his years studying theater, Hanks met Vincent Dowling, head of the Great Lakes Theater Festival in Cleveland, Ohio.
At Dowlings suggestion, Hanks became an intern at the festival and his internship stretched into a three-year experience that covered most aspects of theater production, including lighting, set design, and stage management, prompting Hanks to drop out of college
Redding, officially the City of Redding, is the county seat of Shasta County, California, in the northern part of the state. It lies along the Sacramento River, which provided transportation and power in its early years, Interstate 5 bisects the entire city, which has a population of 89,861, from the south to north before it approaches Shasta Lake, located about 15 miles north of downtown. Redding is the largest city in the Shasta Cascade region, and it is the fourth-largest city in the Sacramento Valley, behind Sacramento, Elk Grove, the site of Redding was settled by Native Americans of the Wintu tribe around the year 1000. The original county seat was Shasta, located approximately 6 miles west on 299W, Redding became the county seat after the railroad was built. Situated along the Siskiyou Trail, Redding became a stop on a trade and travel route connecting Californias Central Valley, during the early 19th century, Hudsons Bay Company trappers and numerous European-American settlers passed through the site while traveling along the Siskiyou Trail.
The first European-American settler in the area was Pierson B and he was an admirer of John Sutter. In 1844, Reading received the Rancho Buena Ventura Mexican land grant for the occupied by todays Redding and Cottonwood, California. At the time it was the northernmost nonnative settlement in California, the railroad routed the tracks through an area known as Poverty Flats, stimulating the development of the European-American town of Redding. The railroad stop was named by the Southern Pacific for railroad man Benjamin B, in 1874 town residents changed the spelling of the name to Reading, to honor local pioneer Pierson B. But the railroad did not officially recognize the change and the town restored its original spelling, Redding was incorporated on October 4,1887 with a population of 600 people. By 1910, Redding had a population of 3,572 supported by a significant mineral extraction industry, with the decline of these industries, which had produced significant amounts of pollution damaging to local agriculture, the population dropped to 2,962 in 1920.
By 1930 the population had recovered to 4,188 and boomed during the 1930s with the construction of nearby Shasta Dam, in 1892 brothers John and Charles Ruggles thought that they could make some easy money by robbing a stagecoach. On May 10,1892, the brothers robbed the Weaverville stage, later, on May 12, the brothers stopped the stage again but Charles was hit with buckshot fired by a guard riding inside the coach. On July 24,1892, a lynch mob wearing masks entered the jail, in what became known as the lynching of the Ruggles brothers, the two men were hanged together from a derrick. The city did not grow markedly until the 1950s, stimulated by postwar expansion of the industry to satisfy pent-up demand for new housing across the country. In addition, construction of the Whiskeytown and Keswick dams brought many workers to the area, completion of Interstate 5 in the late 1960s brought a higher level of traffic and added to development. By 1970, Redding had grown to 16,659 people, in the 1970s, Redding annexed the town of Enterprise, located on the eastern bank of the Sacramento River.
The city acquired other county areas, increasing the population to around 35,000, Enterprise residents voted to support the annexation primarily to acquire less expensive electricity via Reddings municipal utility, which receives power from the dam
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name.
Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town.
Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census, is the twenty-third and currently most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the day used for the census, was April 1,2010. As part of a drive to increase the accuracy,635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed, participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25,2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves personally inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, more than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15,2010, the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was approximately 134 million on April 1,2010. The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%, from April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called non-response follow-up.
In December 2010, the Census Bureau delivered population information to the president for apportionment, personally identifiable information will be available in 2082. The Census Bureau did not use a form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, the 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions, How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1,2010. Were there any additional people staying here on April 1,2010 that you did not include in Question 1, mark all that apply, Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number. What is Person 1s age and Person 1s date of birth, is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else, the form included space to repeat some or all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey.
The survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years. A small percentage of the population on a basis will receive the survey each year. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced that it would count same-sex married couples, the final form did not contain a separate same-sex married couple option
The Siskiyou Trail stretched from Californias Central Valley to Oregons Willamette Valley, modern-day Interstate 5 follows this pioneer path. The HBC had established itself on the Columbia River, and built Fort Vancouver, HBC parties began to explore south toward California in 1825. Alexander McLeod led exploration and trapping parties south beginning in 1826, reaching the Klamath River in 1827, in 1829 he led the first HBC trapping expedition to the Sacramento Valley, which allowed expeditions to reach as far south as French Camp near todays Stockton. McLeods exploring and trapping expeditions essentially established the Siskiyou Trail, linking Fort Vancouver with the Sacramento Valley, at first it was known by names such as the California Brigade Trail and the Southern Party Trail. McLeod and other members of his parties reported that the Native Americans south of the Umpqua River, along the Klamath, although the 42nd parallel marked the northern border of Mexican California, the Mexicans knew little about the interior and the HBC trappers ranged south at will.
Other HBC trappers who made use of the Siskiyou Trail include Peter Skene Ogden. In 1834, Ewing Young brought a herd of horses and mules over the Siskiyou Trail from missions in California for sale at British and this monumental task, requiring nearly three months, helped widen and establish the trail thereby solidifying the new American settlements in Oregon. In 1841 an overland party of the United States Exploring Expedition came down the Siskiyou Trail with the first scientists, the California Gold Rush, beginning in 1848, ushered in dramatically increased use of the Siskiyou Trail. The discovery of gold in Siskiyou County and especially at Yreka, the terrain was so rugged over the mountains of the trail, that travel was restricted to mule trains and horses. Early travelers were able to travel perhaps 20 miles in a day, stopping at wayside inns and hostels, such as at Portuguese Flat, Upper Soda Springs and Sisson, the first telegraph line connected early towns along the trail in 1864. Development accelerated with the arrival of the Central Pacific Railroad track completed in 1887, the historic route of the Siskiyou Trail extended from the Columbia District headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Company, at Fort Vancouver in southern Washington, to the San Francisco Bay Area.
In California the trail went through or near modern-day Redding, Dunsmuir, in Oregon the route went through or near modern-day Ashland, Grants Pass, Eugene and Portland. The trail crested at the Siskiyou Summit just north of the Oregon-California border, between 1869 and 1887, the Oregon & California Railroad Company built a railroad along this route, crossing Siskiyou Summit in 1887. In the mid-1910s, the pioneering Pacific Highway, numbered as U. S. Highway 99, Interstate 5 was built in the 1960s along the route of the original 1820s Siskiyou Trail. About 4 miles north of the California border, and just south of Ashland, the highway crosses Siskiyou Summit, the railroad and interstate highway deviate from the original trail in small ways according to the needs and engineering available to their builders. Museum of the Siskiyou Trail Archaeological study of Trail Early goldmining along the Trail Stone Turnpike from Central Valley to Upper Soda Springs Early stagecoach use and railroad construction
Shasta County, California
Shasta County, officially the County of Shasta, is a county located in the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 177,223, Shasta County comprises the Redding, California Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county occupies the northern reaches of the Sacramento Valley, with portions extending into the reaches of the Cascade Range. Points of interest in Shasta County include Shasta Lake, Lassen Peak, Shasta County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the territory were given to Siskiyou County in 1852. The county was named after Mount Shasta, the name Shasta is derived from the English equivalent for the name of an Indian tribe that lived in the area. The name of the tribe was spelled in various ways until the present version was used when the county was established, originally Mt. Shasta was within the county, but it is now part of Siskiyou County, to the north. Its 14, 179-foot peak is visible throughout most of Shasta County, according to the U. S.
Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,847 square miles, of which 3,775 square miles is land and 72 square miles is water. Mountains line the county on the east and west, the Sacramento River flows out of the mountains to the north, through the center of the county, and toward the Sacramento Valley to the south. According to Willis Linn Jepson the biota of Shasta County were not explored in a scientific manner until just before the year 1900, Shasta County has extensive forests, which cover over one half the land area with commercially productive forest systems. Common forest alliances include mixed oak woodland and mixed conifer-oak woodland as well as douglas fir forest, common trees found include White-bark pine, California Black Oak and California Buckeye. In more recent times it is a strongly Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections, the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Jimmy Carter in 1976. In the United States House of Representatives, Shasta County is in Californias 1st congressional district, in the California State Legislature, Shasta County is in the 1st Senate District, represented by Republican Ted Gaines, and the 1st Assembly District, represented by Republican Brian Dahle.
Interstate 5 State Route 36 State Route 44 State Route 89 State Route 151 State Route 273 State Route 299 Redding Area Bus Authority provides service in, one route operates to Burney via State Route 299. Greyhound buses and Amtrak trains both serve Redding, Redding Municipal Airport has scheduled passenger flights. Other airports within the county include Benton Field, Fall River Mills Airport, the following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. The 2010 United States Census reported that Shasta County had a population of 177,223. The racial makeup of Shasta County was 153,726 White,1,548 African American,4,950 Native American,4,391 Asian,271 Pacific Islander,4,501 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14,878 persons
California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24,1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States, the Gold Rush initiated the California Genocide, with 100,000 Native Californians dying between 1848 and 1868. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory to the state of the first nominee for the Republican Party. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial, whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called forty-niners. The first to hear confirmed information of the rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, and Latin America. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Australia and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852.
Roads, churches and other towns were built throughout California, in 1849 a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by vote, and the future states interim first governor. In September,1850, California became a state, at the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of staking claims was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service, by 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, Gold worth tens of billions of todays dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with more than they had started with.
The Mexican–American War ended on February 3,1848, although California was firmly in American hands before that, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States. The California Gold Rush began at Sutters Mill, near Coloma, on January 24,1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two tested the metal. However, rumors started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
California's 1st State Senate district
Californias 1st State Senate district is one of 40 California State Senate districts. It is currently represented by Republican Ted Gaines of El Dorado Hills, the district stretches along the eastern edge of the state from the Oregon border to the Lake Tahoe area. It wraps around the Sacramento Valley along the northern Sierra Nevada to the eastern Sacramento suburbs, most of the population is concentrated in the suburban southern parts, while the rest of the district is primarily rural. Due to redistricting, the 1st district has been moved around different parts of the state, the current iteration resulted from the 2011 redistricting by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission. California State Senate California State Senate districts Districts in California District map from the California Citizens Redistricting Commission
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below, The first, only, associated with an individual or group having a profound influence on the history of California. California Historical Landmarks of #770 and above are listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event that is of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California — with links to list articles by county, los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers, official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP, California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
California's 1st State Assembly district
Californias 1st State Assembly district is one of 80 California State Assembly districts. It is currently represented by Republican Brian Dahle of Bieber, the district stretches along the eastern edge of the state from the Oregon border to the Lake Tahoe area, wrapping around the Sacramento Valley along the northern Sierra Nevada. Due to redistricting, the 1st district has been moved around different parts of the state, the current iteration resulted from the 2011 redistricting by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission. California State Assembly California State Assembly districts Districts in California District map from the California Citizens Redistricting Commission