Terraforming or terraformation of a planet, moon, or other body is the hypothetical process of deliberately modifying its atmosphere, surface topography or ecology to be similar to the environment of Earth to make it habitable by Earth-like life. The concept of terraforming developed from actual science; the term was coined by Jack Williamson in a science-fiction short story published during 1942 in Astounding Science Fiction, but the concept may pre-date this work. If the environment of a planet could be altered deliberately, the feasibility of creating an unconstrained planetary environment that mimics Earth on another planet has yet to be verified. Mars is considered to be the most candidate for terraforming. Much study has been done concerning the possibility of heating the planet and altering its atmosphere, NASA has hosted debates on the subject. Several potential methods of altering the climate of Mars may fall within humanity's technological capabilities, but at present the economic resources required to do so are far beyond that which any government or society is willing to allocate to it.
The long timescales and practicality of terraforming are the subject of debate. Other unanswered questions relate to the ethics, economics and methodology of altering the environment of an extraterrestrial world; the renowned astronomer Carl Sagan proposed the planetary engineering of Venus in an article published in the journal Science in 1961. Sagan imagined seeding the atmosphere of Venus with algae, which would convert water and carbon dioxide into organic compounds; as this process removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect would be reduced until surface temperatures dropped to "comfortable" levels. The resulting carbon, Sagan supposed, would be incinerated by the high surface temperatures of Venus, thus be sequestered in the form of "graphite or some involatile form of carbon" on the planet's surface; however discoveries about the conditions on Venus made this particular approach impossible. One problem is that the clouds of Venus are composed of a concentrated sulfuric acid solution.
If atmospheric algae could thrive in the hostile environment of Venus's upper atmosphere, an more insurmountable problem is that its atmosphere is far too thick—the high atmospheric pressure would result in an "atmosphere of nearly pure molecular oxygen" and cause the planet's surface to be thickly covered in fine graphite powder. This volatile combination could not be sustained through time. Any carbon, fixed in organic form would be liberated as carbon dioxide again through combustion, "short-circuiting" the terraforming process. Sagan visualized making Mars habitable for human life in "Planetary Engineering on Mars", an article published in the journal Icarus. Three years NASA addressed the issue of planetary engineering in a study, but used the term "planetary ecosynthesis" instead; the study concluded that it was possible for Mars to support life and be made into a habitable planet. The first conference session on terraforming referred to as "Planetary Modeling", was organized that same year.
In March 1979, NASA engineer and author James Oberg organized the First Terraforming Colloquium, a special session at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston. Oberg popularized the terraforming concepts discussed at the colloquium to the general public in his book New Earths. Not until 1982 was the word terraforming used in the title of a published journal article. Planetologist Christopher McKay wrote "Terraforming Mars", a paper for the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society; the paper discussed the prospects of a self-regulating Martian biosphere, McKay's use of the word has since become the preferred term. In 1984, James Lovelock and Michael Allaby published The Greening of Mars. Lovelock's book was one of the first to describe a novel method of warming Mars, where chlorofluorocarbons are added to the atmosphere. Motivated by Lovelock's book, biophysicist Robert Haynes worked behind the scenes to promote terraforming, contributed the neologism Ecopoiesis, forming the word from the Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house", ποίησις, poiesis, "production".
Ecopoiesis refers to the origin of an ecosystem. In the context of space exploration, Haynes describes ecopoiesis as the "fabrication of a sustainable ecosystem on a lifeless, sterile planet". Fogg defines ecopoiesis as a type of planetary engineering and is one of the first stages of terraformation; this primary stage of ecosystem creation is restricted to the initial seeding of microbial life. As conditions approach that of Earth, plant life could be brought in, this will accelerate the production of oxygen, theoretically making the planet able to support animal life. Beginning in 1985, Martyn J. Fogg started publishing several articles on terraforming, he served as editor for a full issue on terraforming for the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society in 1992. In his book Terraforming: Engineering Planetary Environments, Fogg proposed the following definitions for different aspects related to terraforming: Planetary engineering: the application of technology for the purpose of influencing the global properties of a planet.
Geoengineering: planetary engineering applied to Earth. It includes only those macroengineering concepts that deal with the alteration of some global parameter, such as the greenhouse effect, atmospheric composition, insolation or impact flux. Terraforming: a process of planetary engineering directed at enhancing the capacity of an extraterrestrial planetary environment to support li
Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon; the first film subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Episode II – Attack of the Clones and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith, completed what Lucas called the "tragedy of Darth Vader". A sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens, continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi, will end with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker in 2019; the first eight films were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical spin-off films Rogue One and Solo, the series has a combined box office revenue of over US$9 billion, is the second-highest-grossing film franchise; the film series has spawned into other media, including television series, video games, comics, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in a detailed fictional universe.
Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, it is the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all time; the Star Wars franchise depicts the adventures of characters "A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away...." in which many species of aliens co-exist with droids who may assist them in their daily routines, space travel between planets is common due to hyperspace technology. The rises and falls of different governments are chronicled throughout the saga: the democratic Republic is corrupted and overthrown by the Galactic Empire, fought by the Rebel Alliance; the Rebellion gives rise to the New Republic and rebuilds society, but the remnants of the Empire reform as the First Order and attempt to destroy the Republic. Heroes of the former rebellion lead the Resistance against the oppressive dictatorship. A mystical power known as "the Force" is described in the original film as "an energy field created by all living things... binds the galaxy together."
Those whom "the Force is strong with" have quick reflexes. The Force is wielded by two major knighthood orders at conflict with each other: the Jedi, who act on the light side of the Force through non-attachment and arbitration, the Sith, who use the dark side through fear and aggression; the latter's members are intended to be limited to two: their apprentice. The Star Wars film series centers on a trilogy of trilogies, they were produced non-chronologically, with Episodes IV–VI being released between 1977 and 1983, Episodes I–III being released between 1999 and 2005, Episodes VII–IX, the first Star Wars films to be made without Lucas's direct involvement, being released between 2015 and 2019. Each trilogy focuses on a generation of the Force-sensitive Skywalker family; the original trilogy depict the heroic development of Luke Skywalker, the prequels tell of his father Anakin's fall from grace, the sequels introduce Luke's nephew and Anakin's grandson, Kylo Ren. A theatrical animated film, The Clone Wars, was released as a pilot to a TV series of the same name.
They were among the last projects overseen by George Lucas before the franchise was sold to Disney in 2012. An anthology series set between the main episodes entered development in parallel to the production of the sequel trilogy, described by Disney CFO Jay Rasulo as origin stories; the first entry, Rogue One, tells the story of the rebels who steal the Death Star plans directly before Episode IV. Solo: A Star Wars Story focuses on Han Solo's backstory featuring Chewbacca and Lando Calrissian. Two spin-off trilogies have been announced: one by Episode VIII's director Rian Johnson and the other by Game of Thrones creators David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. Prequel trilogy Original trilogy Sequel trilogy In 1971, George Lucas wanted to film an adaptation of the Flash Gordon serial, but couldn't obtain the rights, so he began developing his own space opera. After directing American Graffiti, he wrote a two-page synopsis titled Journal of the Whills, which 20th Century Fox decided to invest in. By 1974, he had expanded the story into the first draft of a screenplay.
The subsequent movie's success led Lucas to make it the basis of an elaborate film serial. With the backstory he created for the sequel, Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy of trilogies. Most of the main cast would return for the two additional installments of the original trilogy, which were self-financed by Lucasfilm. Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 and first called Episode IV – A New Hope in the 1979 book The Art of Star Wars. Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back was released on May 21, 1980 achieving wide financial and critical success; the final film in the trilogy, Episode VI – Return of the Jedi was released on May 25, 1983. The story of the original trilogy focuses on Luke Skywalker's quest to become a Jedi, his struggle with the evil Imperial agent Darth Vader, the struggle of the Rebel Alliance to free the galaxy from the clutches of the Empire. According to producer Gary Kurtz, lo
C. J. Cherryh bibliography
American writer C. J. Cherryh's career began with publication of her first books in 1976, Gate of Ivrel and Brothers of Earth, she has been a prolific science fiction and fantasy author since publishing over 80 novels, short-story compilations, with continuing production as her blog attests. Ms. Cherryh has received the Locus Awards for some of her novels, her novels are divided into various spheres, focusing around the Alliance–Union universe, the Foreigner universe and her fantasy novels. The Alliance–Union universe is a science fiction future history series, in which the development of political entities and cultures occurs over a long time period. Major characters in one work may be referenced or appear in another. According to the author, the novels in this universe, except Heavy Time and Hellburner, can be read in any order; those two books are chronologically the earliest in the series. Downbelow Station – Hugo winner, Locus SF Award nominee, 1982 Merchanter's Luck published in the Alliance Space omnibus Rimrunners – Locus SF Award nominee, 1990 Heavy Time Hellburner Devil to the Belt – single-volume edition of the above two books Tripoint Finity's End – Locus SF Award nominee, 1998 Alliance Rising – credited to C. J. Cherryh and Jane S. Fancher Serpent's Reach published in The Deep Beyond omnibus Forty Thousand in Gehenna published in the Alliance Space omnibus "The Scapegoat" – novella Cyteen – Hugo and Locus SF Award winner, British Science Fiction Award nominee, 1989also published in a 3-volume edition as The Betrayal, The Rebirth and The Vindication, about which Cherryh has written, "There was a paperbound publication that split the novel into three parts, but this has ended: the current and, by my wishes, all future publications, will have Cyteen as one unified book."
Regenesis The Pride of Chanur – Hugo and Locus SF Award nominee, 1983 Chanur's Venture – Locus SF Award nominee, 1985 The Kif Strike Back The Chanur Saga – single-volume edition of the above three books Chanur's Homecoming Chanur's Legacy Chanur's Endgame – single-volume edition of the above two books The Faded Sun: Kesrith – Hugo and Locus SF Award nominee, 1979. Port Eternity published in the Alternate realities omnibus Voyager in Night – Philip K. Dick Award nominee, 1984 published in the Alternate realities omnibus Cuckoo's Egg – Hugo Award nominee, 1986also published in The Deep Beyond omnibus Brothers of Earth Hunter of Worlds At the Edge of Space – single-volume edition of the above two books Gate of Ivrel Well of Shiuan Fires of Azeroth Above three collected in the following editions: The Book of Morgaine The Chronicles of Morgaine The Morgaine Saga Exile's Gate Wave Without a Shore published in the Alternate realities omnibus Trilogy arc 1 Foreigner – Locus SF Award nominee, 1995 Invader – Locus SF Award nominee, 1996 Inheritor Trilogy arc 2 Precursor Defender – Locus SF Award nominee, 2002 Explorer Trilogy arc 3 Destroyer Pretender Deliverer Trilogy arc 4 Conspirator Deceiver Betrayer Trilogy arc 5 Intruder Protector Peacemaker Trilogy arc 6 Tracker Visitor – Locus SF Award nominee, 2017 Convergence Trilogy arc 7 Emergence Resurgence Rider at the Gate Cloud's Rider Hammerfall – Campbell Award nominee, 2002 Forge of Heaven "Cassandra" – short story, Hugo Award winner, 1979 Hestia Fortress in the Eye of Time – Locus Fantasy Award nominee, 1996 Fortress of Eagles – Locus Fantasy Award nominee, 1999 Fortress of Owls – Locus Fantasy Award nominee, 2000 Fortress of Dragons Fortress of Ice "Ealdwood" The Dreamstone – includes material from Cherryh's short story "The Dreamstone" and the novella "Ealdwood" The Tree of Swords and Jewels Arafel's Saga – single-volume edition of The Dreamstone and The Tree of Swords and Jewels Ealdwood – single-volume edition of The Dreamstone and The Tree of Swords and Jewels with revisions and a new ending The Dreaming Tree – single-volume edition of The Dreamstone and The Tree of Swords and Jewels with the Ealdwood revisions Rusalka – Locus Fantasy Award nominee, 1990Rusalka – revised ebook edition Chernevog Chernevog – revised ebook edition, credited to C. J. Cherryh and Jane Fancher Yvgenie Yvgenie – revised ebook edition The Gates of Hell, novel with Janet Morris Kings in Hell, novel with Janet Morris Legions of Hell "The Brothers" – novella The Paladin – Locus Fantasy Award nominee, 1989 The Goblin Mirror Faery in Shadow Faery Moon – revised ebook edition of Faery in Shadow, plus its prequel, "The Brothers" Lois & Clark: A Superman Novel The Book of Morgaine – Gate of Ivrel, Well of Shiuan and Fires of Azeroth Arafel's Saga – The Dreamstone and The Tree of Swords and Jewels The
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that, perceived to be foreign or strange. Xenophobia can involve perceptions of an ingroup towards an outgroup and can manifest itself in suspicion of the activities of others, a desire to eliminate their presence to secure a presumed purity and may relate to a fear of losing national, ethnic or racial identity. Xenophobia can be exhibited in the form of an "uncritical exaltation of another culture" in which a culture is ascribed "an unreal and exotic quality"; the terms xenophobia and racism are sometimes confused and used interchangeably because people who share a national origin may belong to the same race. Due to this, xenophobia is distinguished by opposition to foreign culture. Dictionary definitions of xenophobia include: "deep-rooted fear towards foreigners", "fear of the unfamiliar"; the word comes from the Ancient Greek words ξένος, meaning "strange", "foreigner", φόβος, meaning "fear". A scholarly definition of xenophobia, according to Andreas Wimmer, is "an element of a political struggle about who has the right to be cared for by the state and society: a fight for the collective goods of the modern state."
In other words, xenophobia arises when people feel that their rights to benefit from the government is being subverted by other people's rights. An early example of xenophobic sentiment in Western culture is the Ancient Greek denigration of foreigners as "barbarians", the belief that the Greek people and culture were superior to all others, the subsequent conclusion that barbarians were meant to be enslaved. Ancient Romans held notions of superiority over all other peoples, such as in a speech attributed to Manius Acilius, "There, as you know, there were Macedonians and Thracians and Illyrians, all most warlike nations, here Syrians and Asiatic Greeks, the most worthless peoples among mankind and born for slavery." Despite the majority of the country's population being of mixed, African, or indigenous heritage, depictions of non-European Brazilians on the programming of most national television networks is scarce and relegated for musicians/their shows. In the case of telenovelas, Brazilians of darker skin tone are depicted as housekeepers or in positions of lower socioeconomic standing.
Muslim and Sikh Canadians have faced racism and discrimination within recent years after 2001, the spill over effect of the United States’ War on Terror. A 2016 survey from The Environics Institute, a follow-up to a study conducted 10 years prior that there may be discriminating attitudes that may be a residual of the effects of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States; when it comes to opinions on both Sikh's and Muslims, a poll done by Maclean's revealed that only 28% of Canadians view Islam favourably, only 30% viewed the Sikh religion favourably. 45 % of respondents believed. In Quebec in particular, only 17% of respondents had a favourable view of Muslims There has been racial tension between the Indo-Guyanese people and the Afro-Guyanese. Racism in Mexico has a long history. Mexicans with light skin tones had absolute control over dark skinned Amerindians due to the structure of the Spanish colonial caste system; when a Mexican of a darker-skinned tone marries one of a lighter skinned-tone, it is common for them say that they are "'making the race better'."
This can be interpreted as a self-attack on their ethnicity. Despite improving economic and social conditions of Indigenous Mexicans, discrimination against Indigenous Mexicans continues to this day and there are few laws to protect Indigenous Mexicans from discrimination. Violent attacks against indigenous Mexicans are moderately common and many times go unpunished. In Venezuela, like other South American countries, economic inequality breaks along ethnic and racial lines. A 2013 Swedish academic study stated that Venezuela was the most racist country in the Americas, followed by the Dominican Republic. Concern over Japanese ethnic and immigrant groups during the Second World War prompted the Canadian and U. S. governments to intern most of their ethnically Japanese populations in the western portions of North America. As in most countries, many people in the U. S. continue to be xenophobic against other races. In the view of a network of scores of US civil rights and human rights organizations, "Discrimination permeates all aspects of life in the United States, extends to all communities of color."
Discrimination against racial and religious minorities when it comes to African Americans, is acknowledged. Members of every major American ethnic and religious minority have perceived discrimination in their dealings with other minority racial and religious groups. Philosopher Cornel West has stated that "racism is an integral element within the fabric of American culture and society, it is embedded in the country's first collective definition, enunciated in its subsequent laws, imbued in its dominant way of life." After Donald Trump took presidential office in 2017, he attempted to enact a travel ban on seven countries which were listed as "countries of concern" by Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson under the Obama administration in 2011. This was changed to six in a revision that removed Iraq in part due to criticism that the original order overlooked the country’s role in fighting Islamic terrorism and barred entry to the Iraqi interpreters, embedded with US forces in the region.
Khizr Khan, the father of United States Army Captain Humayun Khan, described it in a CNN interview as a continuat
Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter, thought to account for 85% of the matter in the universe and about a quarter of its total energy density. The majority of dark matter is thought to be non-baryonic in nature being composed of some as-yet undiscovered subatomic particles, its presence is implied in a variety of astrophysical observations, including gravitational effects that cannot be explained by accepted theories of gravity unless more matter is present than can be seen. For this reason, most experts think dark matter to be ubiquitous in the universe and to have had a strong influence on its structure and evolution. Dark matter is called dark because it does not appear to interact with observable electromagnetic radiation, such as light, is thus invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum, making it difficult to detect using usual astronomical equipment; the primary evidence for dark matter is that calculations show that many galaxies would fly apart instead of rotating, or would not have formed or move as they do, if they did not contain a large amount of unseen matter.
Other lines of evidence include observations in gravitational lensing, from the cosmic microwave background, from astronomical observations of the observable universe's current structure, from the formation and evolution of galaxies, from mass location during galactic collisions, from the motion of galaxies within galaxy clusters. In the standard Lambda-CDM model of cosmology, the total mass–energy of the universe contains 5% ordinary matter and energy, 27% dark matter and 68% of an unknown form of energy known as dark energy. Thus, dark matter constitutes 85% of total mass, while dark energy plus dark matter constitute 95% of total mass–energy content; because dark matter has not yet been observed directly, if it exists, it must interact with ordinary baryonic matter and radiation, except through gravity. The primary candidate for dark matter is some new kind of elementary particle that has not yet been discovered, in particular, weakly-interacting massive particles, or gravitationally-interacting massive particles.
Many experiments to directly detect and study dark matter particles are being undertaken, but none have yet succeeded. Dark matter is classified as warm, or hot according to its velocity. Current models favor a cold dark matter scenario, in which structures emerge by gradual accumulation of particles. Although the existence of dark matter is accepted by the scientific community, some astrophysicists, intrigued by certain observations that do not fit the dark matter theory, argue for various modifications of the standard laws of general relativity, such as modified Newtonian dynamics, tensor–vector–scalar gravity, or entropic gravity; these models attempt to account for all observations without invoking supplemental non-baryonic matter. The hypothesis of dark matter has an elaborate history. In a talk given in 1884, Lord Kelvin estimated the number of dark bodies in the Milky Way from the observed velocity dispersion of the stars orbiting around the center of the galaxy. By using these measurements, he estimated the mass of the galaxy, which he determined is different from the mass of visible stars.
Lord Kelvin thus concluded that "many of our stars a great majority of them, may be dark bodies". In 1906 Henri Poincaré in "The Milky Way and Theory of Gases" used "dark matter", or "matière obscure" in French, in discussing Kelvin's work; the first to suggest the existence of dark matter, using stellar velocities, was Dutch astronomer Jacobus Kapteyn in 1922. Fellow Dutchman and radio astronomy pioneer Jan Oort hypothesized the existence of dark matter in 1932. Oort was studying stellar motions in the local galactic neighborhood and found that the mass in the galactic plane must be greater than what was observed, but this measurement was determined to be erroneous. In 1933, Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky, who studied galaxy clusters while working at the California Institute of Technology, made a similar inference. Zwicky applied the virial theorem to the Coma Cluster and obtained evidence of unseen mass that he called dunkle Materie. Zwicky estimated its mass based on the motions of galaxies near its edge and compared that to an estimate based on its brightness and number of galaxies.
He estimated. The gravity effect of the visible galaxies was far too small for such fast orbits, thus mass must be hidden from view. Based on these conclusions, Zwicky inferred that some unseen matter provided the mass and associated gravitation attraction to hold the cluster together; this was the first formal inference about the existence of dark matter. Zwicky's estimates were off by more than an order of magnitude due to an obsolete value of the Hubble constant. However, Zwicky did infer that the bulk of the matter was dark. Further indications that the mass-to-light ratio was not unity came from measurements of galaxy rotation curves. In 1939, Horace W. Babcock reported the rotation curve for the Andromeda nebula, which suggested that the mass-to-luminosity ratio increases radially, he attributed it to either light absorption within the galaxy or modified dynamics in the outer portions of the spiral and not to the missing matter that he had uncovered. Following Babcock's 1939 report of unexpectedly rapid rotation in the outskirts of the Andromeda galaxy and a mass-to-light ratio of 50, in 1940 Jan Oort discovered and wrote about the large non-visible halo of NGC 3115.
Vera Rubin, Kent Ford and Ken Freeman's work in the
A role-playing game is a game in which players assume the roles of characters in a fictional setting. Players take responsibility for acting out these roles within a narrative, either through literal acting, or through a process of structured decision-making regarding character development. Actions taken within many games succeed or fail according to a formal system of rules and guidelines. There are several forms of role-playing games; the original form, sometimes called the tabletop role-playing game, is conducted through discussion, whereas in live action role-playing, players physically perform their characters' actions. In both of these forms, an arranger called a game master decides on the rules and setting to be used, while acting as the referee. Several varieties of RPG exist in electronic media, such as multiplayer text-based Multi-User Dungeons and their graphics-based successors, massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Role-playing games include single-player role-playing video games in which players control a character, or team of characters, who undertake quests, may include player capabilities that advance using statistical mechanics.
These electronic games sometimes share settings and rules with tabletop RPGs, but emphasize character advancement more than collaborative storytelling. This type of game is well-established, so some RPG-related game forms, such as trading/collectible card games and wargames, may not be included under the definition; some amount of role-playing activity may be present in such games. The term role-playing game is sometimes used to describe games involving roleplay simulation and exercises used in teaching and academic research. Both authors and major publishers of tabletop role-playing games consider them to be a form of interactive and collaborative storytelling. Events and narrative structure give a sense of a narrative experience, the game need not have a strongly-defined storyline. Interactivity is the crucial difference between traditional fiction. Whereas a viewer of a television show is a passive observer, a player in a role-playing game makes choices that affect the story; such role-playing games extend an older tradition of storytelling games where a small party of friends collaborate to create a story.
While simple forms of role-playing exist in traditional children's games of make believe, role-playing games add a level of sophistication and persistence to this basic idea with additions such as game facilitators and rules of interaction. Participants in a role-playing game will generate an ongoing plot. A consistent system of rules and a more or less realistic campaign setting in games aids suspension of disbelief; the level of realism in games ranges from just enough internal consistency to set up a believable story or credible challenge up to full-blown simulations of real-world processes. Role-playing games are played in a wide variety of formats ranging from discussing character interaction in tabletop form to physically acting out characters in LARP to playing characters in digital media. There is a great variety of systems of rules and game settings. Games that emphasize plot and character interaction over game mechanics and combat sometimes prefer the name storytelling game; these types of games tend to minimize or altogether eliminate the use of dice or other randomizing elements.
Some games are played with characters created before the game by the GM, rather than those created by the players. This type of game is played at gaming conventions, or in standalone games that do not form part of a campaign. Tabletop and pen-and-paper RPGs are conducted through discussion in a small social gathering; the GM describes its inhabitants. The other players describe the intended actions of their characters, the GM describes the outcomes; some outcomes are determined by the game system, some are chosen by the GM. This is the format; the first commercially available RPG, Dungeons & Dragons, was inspired by fantasy literature and the wargaming hobby and was published in 1974. The popularity of D&D led to the birth of the tabletop role-playing game industry, which publishes games with many different themes and styles of play; the popularity of tabletop games has decreased since the modern releases of online MMO RPGs. This format is referred to as a role-playing game. To distinguish this form of RPG from other formats, the retronyms tabletop role-playing game or pen and paper role-playing game are sometimes used, though neither a table nor pen and paper are necessary.
A LARP is played more like improvisational theatre. Participants act out their characters' actions instead of describing them, the real environment is used to represent the imaginary setting of the game world. Players are costumed as their characters and use appropriate props, the venue may be decorated to resemble the fictional setting; some live action role-playing games use rock-paper-scissors or comparison of attributes to resolve conflicts symbolically, while other LARPs use physical combat with simulated arms such as airsoft guns or foam weapons. LARPs vary in size from a handful of players to several thousand, in duration from a couple of hours to several days; because the number of players in a LARP is larger than in a tabletop role-playing game, the players may be interacting in separate physical spaces, there is less of an emphasis on maintaining a narrative or directly entertai
Technophobia is the fear or dislike of advanced technology or complex devices computers. Although there are numerous interpretations of technophobia, they become more complex as technology continues to evolve; the term is used in the sense of an irrational fear, but others contend fears are justified. It is the opposite of technophilia. Larry Rosen, a research psychologist, computer educator, professor at California State University, suggests that there are three dominant subcategories of technophobes - the "uncomfortable users", the "cognitive computerphobes", "anxious computerphobes". First receiving widespread notice during the Industrial Revolution, technophobia has been observed to affect various societies and communities throughout the world; this has caused some groups to take stances against some modern technological developments in order to preserve their ideologies. In some of these cases, the new technologies conflict with established beliefs, such as the personal values of simplicity and modest lifestyles.
Examples of technophobic ideas can be found in multiple forms of art, ranging from literary works such as Frankenstein to films like Metropolis. Many of these works portray a darker side to technology; as technologies become complex and difficult to understand, people are more to harbor anxieties relating to their use of modern technologies. A study published in the journal Computers in Human Behavior was conducted between 1992 and 1994 surveying first-year college students across various countries; the overall percentage of the 3,392 students who responded with high-level technophobic fears was 29%. In comparison, Japan had 58% high-level technophobes, India had 82%, Mexico had 53%. A published report in 2000 stated that 85-90% of new employees at an organization may be uncomfortable with new technology, are technophobic to some degree. Technophobia began to gain attention as a movement in England with the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. With the development of new machines able to do the work of skilled craftsmen using unskilled, underpaid men and children, those who worked a trade began to fear for their livelihoods.
In 1675, a group of weavers destroyed machines. By 1727, the destruction had become so prevalent that Parliament made the demolition of machines a capital offense; this action, did not stop the tide of violence. The Luddites, a group of anti-technology workers, united under the name "Ludd" in March 1811, removing key components from knitting frames, raiding houses for supplies, petitioning for trade rights while threatening greater violence. Poor harvests and food riots lent aid to their cause by creating a restless and agitated population for them to draw supporters from; the 19th century was the beginning of modern science, with the work of Louis Pasteur, Charles Darwin, Gregor Mendel, Michael Faraday, Henri Becquerel, Marie Curie, inventors such as Nikola Tesla, Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell. The world was changing too for many, who feared the changes taking place and longed for a simpler time; the Romantic movement exemplified these feelings. Romantics tended to believe in imagination over reason, the "organic" over the mechanical, a longing for a simpler, more pastoral time.
Poets like William Wordsworth and William Blake believed that the technological changes that were taking place as a part of the industrial revolution were polluting their cherished view of nature as being perfect and pure. After World War II, a fear of technology continued to grow, catalyzed by the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. With nuclear proliferation and the Cold War, people began to wonder what would become of the world now that humanity had the power to manipulate it to the point of destruction. Corporate production of war technologies such as napalm and gases during the Vietnam War further undermined public confidence in technology's worth and purpose. In the post-WWII era, environmentalism took off as a movement; the first international air pollution conference was held in 1955, in the 1960s, investigations into the lead content of gasoline sparked outrage among environmentalists. In the 1980s, the depletion of the ozone layer and the threat of global warming began to be taken more seriously.
Several societal groups are considered technophobic, the most recognizable of which are the Luddites. Many technophobic groups revolt against modern technology because of their beliefs that these technologies are threatening their ways of life and livelihoods; the Luddites were a social movement of British artisans in the 19th century who organized in opposition to technological advances in the textile industry. These advances replaced many skilled textile artisans with comparatively unskilled machine operators; the 19th century British Luddites rejected new technologies that impacted the structure of their established trades, or the general nature of the work itself. Resistance to new technologies did not occur when the newly adopted technology aided the work process without making significant changes to it; the British Luddites protested the application of the machines, rather than the invention of the machine itself. They argued that their labor was a crucial part of the economy, considered the skills they possessed to complete their labor as property that needed protection from the destruction caused by the autonomy of machines.
Groups considered by some people to be technophobic are other Old Order Anabaptists. The Amish follow a set of moral codes outlined in the Ordnung, which rejects the use of certain forms of technology for personal use. Donald B. Kraybill, Karen M