Coat of arms of Georgia (country)
The coat of arms of Georgia is one of the national symbols of the republic. It is based on the medieval arms of the Georgian royal house and features Saint George, the traditional patron saint of Georgia. In addition to St. George, the original proposal included additional heraldic elements found on the royal seal, such as the seamless robe of Jesus, but this was deemed excessively religious and was not incorporated into the final version. Gules, with an image of Saint George, riding a horse trampling upon a crawling serpent, whose head is pierced by the saint's spear, all of them Argent, it has two lions rampant as supporters of the shield, surmounted with the royal crown of Georgia, all of them Or. The motto below the shield reads as "Strength is in Unity". 1918–1921 and 1991–2004:This coat of arms was in use by the Democratic Republic of Georgia throughout its existence in 1918-1921. Though the use of Saint George as Georgia's patron saint was by a long tradition, there were some discussions about other possibilities, the major one being Amiran, as the symbol of Georgia's fight for freedom from the Russian Empire.
However, a decision was made in favor of Saint George. Restored in 1991, this coat of arms was replaced by the current one in 2004. 1801–1917:Before 1917, when Georgia was part of the Russian Empire, the Georgian coat of arms appeared on the Greater Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire, as part of the coat of arms of Caucasus. It showed as the center inescutcheon, read as follows: Or, with an image of Saint George Martyr the Victorious in complete armour Azur with a cross on his breast, with a flying cloak Gules, riding a horse Sable in full gallop, the latter covered with a horse cloth Gules, fringed Or, trampling upon a crawling serpent Vert, winged Sable and tongued Gules, whose head is pierced by the saint's spear Gules. Before 1801:Coats of arms were those of the Bagrationi, who claimed to have King David among their ancestors, included such elements as King David's lyra and sling, or the Holy Tunic. Coat of arms of the Bagrationi dynasty Pogoń Ruska coat of arms President of Georgia website The Georgian Coat of Arms in: Georgian History by Giorgi Gabeskiria
Kvemo Kartli is a historic province and current administrative region in southeastern Georgia. The city of Rustavi is a regional capital. Kvemo Kartli is a region located in the Southeastern part of Georgia, it is surrounded by Tbilisi, Shida Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti on the north. The region is one of the most economically developed in Georgia. After Tbilisi, the region is ranked second in industrial production; the area of the region is of 6528 km squares. The region is the third most populated region in Georgia with a population of 497.000. The administrative center is Rustavi. There are 353 populated areas, including: 7 cities: Rustavi, Gardabani, Tetritsqaro and Tsalka 8 "daba": Didi Lilo, Kazreti, Tamarisi, Shaumiani and Trialeti 338 villages In 2017, Kvemo Kartli province of Georgia had the following ethnic makeup of 423,986 total population: Georgians - 217,305 Azerbaijanis - 177,032 Armenians - 21,500 Greeks - 2,631 Russians - 2,113 The population estimate in 2012 was 511,300, but the 2014 census shows it now reduced to about 424,000.
The ethnic Georgians live in northern part of the region and comprise for the majority in the municipalities of Tetritsqaro, Gardabani Municipality, Tsalka and in Rustavi. The Azerbaijanis live in the southern part and comprise for the majority in the municipalities of Marneuli and Bolnisi; the ethnic Armenians and Greeks live in the Tsalka Municipality. According to a study, 57,8% of the population identifies as Orthodox Christians Georgians and Greeks. Kvemo Kartli is divided into 6 municipalities and 1 special status city, Rustavi: Owing to its location, the region has great transport links. There passes the railway and the motorways which link Georgia with its neighbours Armenia and Azerbaijan; the main industries are located in Marneuli. The industrial production of Kvemo Kartlo comprises 20% of the global Georgian production. Kvemo Kartli inherited a lot of historical monuments such as the Bolnisi Sioni, the Pitareti Monastery, Birtvisi and the old inhabited area near Dmanisi Official website Kartli Portal Result of population census 2002 in Georgia
Batumi is the capital of Autonomous Republic of Adjara and the second-largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest. It is situated in a Subtropical Zone at the foot of Caucasus. Much of Batumi's economy revolves around tourism and gambling, but the city is an important sea port and includes industries like shipbuilding, food processing and light manufacturing. Since 2010, Batumi has been transformed by the construction of modern high-rise buildings, as well as the restoration of classical 19th-century edifices lining its historic Old Town. Batumi is located on the site of the ancient Greek colony in Colchis called "Bathus" or "Bathys" – derived from. Under Hadrian, it was converted into a fortified Roman port and deserted for the fortress of Petra founded in the time of Justinian I. Garrisoned by the Roman-Byzantine forces, it was formally a possession of the kingdom of Lazica until being occupied by the Arabs, who did not hold it. From 1010, it was governed by the eristavi of the king of Georgia.
In the late 15th century, after the disintegration of the Georgian kingdom, Batumi passed to the princes of Guria, a western Georgian principality under the sovereignty of the kings of Imereti. A curious incident occurred in 1444 when a Burgundian flotilla, after a failed crusade against the Ottoman Empire, penetrated the Black Sea and engaged in piracy along its eastern coastline until the Burgundians under the knight Geoffroy de Thoisy were ambushed while landing to raid Vaty, as Europeans knew Batumi. De Thoisy was released through the mediation of the emperor John IV of Trebizond. In the 15th century in the reign of the prince Kakhaber Gurieli, the Ottoman Turks conquered the town and its district but did not hold them, they returned to it in force a century and inflicted a decisive defeat on the Georgian armies at Sokhoista. Batumi was recaptured by the Georgians several times, first in 1564 by prince Rostom Gurieli, who lost it soon afterwards, again in 1609 by Mamia II Gurieli. In 1723, Batumi again became part of the Ottoman Empire.
After the Turkish conquest Islamisation of the hitherto Christian region began but this was terminated and to a great degree reversed, after the area was re-annexed to Russian Imperial Georgia after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78. It was the last Black Sea port annexed by Russia during the Russian conquest of that area of the Caucasus. In 1878, Batumi was annexed by the Russian Empire in accordance with the Treaty of San Stefano between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Occupied by the Russians on August 28, 1878, the town was declared a free port until 1886, it functioned as the center of a special military district until being incorporated in the Government of Kutaisi on June 12, 1883. On June 1, 1903, with the Okrug of Artvin, it was established as the region of Batumi and placed under the direct control of the General Government of Georgia; the expansion of Batumi began in 1883 with the construction of the Batumi-Tiflis-Baku railway and the finishing of the Baku-Batumi pipeline. Henceforth, Batumi became the chief Russian oil port in the Black Sea.
The town population increased doubling within 20 years: from 8,671 inhabitants in 1882 to 12,000 in 1889. By 1902 the population had reached 16,000, with 1,000 working in the refinery for Baron Rothschild's Caspian and Black Sea oil company. In the late 1880s and after, more than 7,400 Doukhobor emigrants sailed for Canada from Batumi, after the government agreed to let them emigrate. Quakers and Tolstoyans aided in collecting funds for the relocation of the religious minority, which had come into conflict with the Imperial government over its refusal to serve in the military and other positions. Canada settled them in Saskatchewan. During 1901, sixteen years prior to the October Revolution, Joseph Stalin, the future leader of the Soviet Union, lived in the city organizing strikes. On March 3, 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gave the city back to the Ottoman Empire. Kemal Atatürk ceded the area to the Bolsheviks of the Soviet Union on the condition that it be granted autonomy, for the sake of the Muslims among Batumi's mixed population.
When Georgia gained its independence from the Soviet Union in 1989, Aslan Abashidze was appointed head of Adjara's governing council and subsequently held onto power throughout the unrest of the 1990s. Whilst other regions, such as Abkhazia, attempted to break away from the Georgian state, Adjara remained as an integral part of the Republic's territory. Abashidze ruled the area as a personal fiefdom. In May 2004, he fled to Russia because of mass protests in Tbilisi sparked by the Rose Revolution. Batumi today is one of the main port cities of Georgia, it has the capacity for 80,000-ton tankers to take materials such as oil that are shipped through Georgia from Central Asia. Additionally, the city exports regional agricultural products. Since 1995 the freight conversion of the port has risen, with an approximate 8 million tons in 2001; the annual revenue from the port is estimated at between $200 million and $300 million. Since the change of power in Adjara, Batumi has attracted international investors, the
Chakvi spelled Chakva, is a resort town in Georgia by the Black Sea coast. It is part of Kobuleti Municipality. Chakvi is known throughout Georgia as being the birthplace of tea production in Georgia. Chakvi was one of several tea producing areas. Wild tea plants can still be found, some limited tea production still continues, in the hills above Chakvi. In July 2007 the $600,000 Chakvi radar station was constructed through oversight of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Europe District, it serves both the military port. Adjara Media related to Chakvi at Wikimedia Commons
Sachkhere is a town at the northern edge of the Imereti Province in Western Georgia. It is the center of the Sachkhere Municipality. Farming is a major contributor to the economy of Sachkhere. Alva LLC estimates that there are 4,000 small and medium-sized farms and ranches in the region, supported by a program of technical assistance sponsored by USAID and administered by the Farmer-to-Farmer program of CNFA. Sachkhere Mountain Training School Imereti
Guria is a region in Georgia, in the western part of the country, bordered by the eastern end of the Black Sea. The region has a population of 113,000, with Ozurgeti as the regional capital. Guria is bordered by Samegrelo to the north-west, Imereti to the north, Samtskhe-Javakheti to the east, Ajaria to the south, the Black Sea to the west; the province has an area of 2,033 km². Guria is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal longitude. Guria is divided into 4 entities, including: City of Ozurgeti Ozurgeti Municipality Lanchkhuti Municipality Chokhatauri Municipality The toponym "Guria" is first attested in the c. 800 Georgian chronicle of Pseudo-Juansher. Guria first appears c. 1352 as a fief of the house of Vardanidze-Dadiani. The principality, comprising modern Guria and much of Adjara with the city of Batumi, was subsequently reduced in size and devastated in a series of conflicts with the Ottoman Empire. A Russian protectorate was established by the treaty concluded on June 19, 1810 between Mamia V Gurieli and the empire, in 1829, during the regency for the last prince, the Gurieli David, the principality was annexed by Russia.
There were uprisings against Russian rule in 1819 and again in 1841. In 1840, Guria was renamed Ozurgeti, after one of its main towns. In 1846, it was transferred to the new Kutais Governorate. By 1904, the population was just under 100,000, occupying an area of 532,000 acres of mountains and swampy valleys, covered by corn fields and some tea plantations, it was the most ethnically homogenous of Georgian areas, with the peasantry and lesser rural nobility making up the entire population, with a high level of literacy and high degree of economic self-satisfaction. The peasant protest movement, which originated in 1902 and culminated in an open insurrection against the government during the Russian Revolution of 1905, was the most effective and organized peasant movement in the empire; the peasants’ self-government, the so-called Gurian Republic, survived into 1906, when it was crashed and Guria devastated by the Cossack punitive expedition. The region was a native powerbase of the Georgian Social Democratic Party which dominated the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921.
Guria was a scene of guerrilla resistance to the militarily imposed Soviet rule early in the 1920s. Under the Soviet government, Guria was an agrarian area divided into three administrative districts. In 1995, the Georgian government decreed the creation of the region of Guria, restoring the province’s historical name to official usage; the Orthodox churches of Likhauri and Shemokmedi are the main historical buildings in the province. As for the etymology of the name of Guria, some say that the root of the word refers to restlessness and the word should mean “the land of the restless” and may be associated with events during the eighth and ninth centuries when “Leon became the King of Abkhazeti, Guruls refused to obey the ruler of Odzrakho, ceased their vassal relations with Adarnase and Ashot Bagrationi and united with Leon” as it was described in Vakhushti Bagrationi’s historical works of the eighteenth century. According to a explanation, in the times of Georgia’s prosperity, when its borders stretched from "Nikopsia to Daruband", Guria was situated in the heart of the Georgian territory.
The linguistic evidence for the above hypothesis is the Megrelian for “heart” – “guri”. Subtropic farming and tourism is a mainstay of the region’s economy. Water is one of the Guria’s main assets; the province is famous for the mineral water of Nabeglavi, similar to Borjomi in its chemical composition and the Black Sea health resort of Ureki rich in magnetic sand. Guria is one of the largest tea growing regions in Georgia. According to the 2014 census, Guria has a population of 113.000 inhabitants, which accounts for 3.1% of the total population of Georgia. 98% of the population is ethnic Georgian, 1% is ethnic Armenian and the remaining 1% is composed of Ossetians and Russians and the majority of the population is Orthodox Christians, followed by Islam. The Gurians or Gurulebi is one of the ethnographical groups of Georgians. Gurians speak the Gurian dialect of the Georgian language; the administration centre is Ozurgeti. There are 189 populated areas, including: City: 2: Ozurgeti, Lanchkhuti Daba: 5: Chokhatauri, Naruja, Kveda Nasakirali Villages: 172 Ekvtime Takaishvili, historian.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Georgia from 1918 to 1921. Pavle Ingorokva, historian and public benefactor. Eduard Shevardnadze, Georgia's former president. Nodar Dumbadze, Writer. Subdivisions of Georgia
Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, to the southeast by Azerbaijan; the capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy. During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia; the Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. The common belief had an enormous importance for spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. A unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and disintegrated under hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, successive dynasties of Iran.
In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century. During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and emerged as an independent republic before the Red Army invasion in 1921 which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation which in 1922 would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. During the Great Patriotic War 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the German invaders.
After Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, a native Georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against Nikita Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956. From that time on, Georgia would become marred with blatant corruption and increased alienation of the government from the people. By the 1980s, Georgians were ready to abandon the existing system altogether. A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, economic crisis. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; this strengthened state institutions. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia. Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development.
It contains two de facto independent regions and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and most of the world's countries consider the regions to be Georgian territory under Russian occupation. "Georgia" stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān and Arabic ĵurĵan/ĵurzan. Lore-based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians, while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός; as Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān as the root of the word. Starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages; this term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region, referred to as Gorgan.
The native name is Sakartvelo, derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli, recorded from the 9th century, in extended usage referring to the entire medieval Kingdom of Georgia by the 13th century. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi; the medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the latter being one of the proto-Georgian tribes that emerged as a dominant group in ancient times; the name Sakartvelo consists of two parts. Its root, kartvel-i, specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, or Iberia as it is known in sources of the Eastern Roman Empire. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians; the Georgian circumfix sa-X-o is a standard geographic construction designating "the area where X dwell", where X is an ethnonym. To