Twins of Evil
Twins of Evil is a 1971 horror film directed by John Hough and starring Peter Cushing, with Damien Thomas and the real-life twins and former Playboy Playmates Mary and Madeleine Collinson. It is the third film of the Karnstein Trilogy, based on the vampire tale Carmilla by Sheridan Le Fanu; the film adds a witchfinding theme to the vampire story. Much of the interest of the film revolves around the contrasting evil and good natures of two beautiful sisters and Maria Gellhorn. Unlike the previous two entries in the series, this film contains only a brief vampire lesbian element. Maria and Frieda orphaned identical twin teenage girls, move from Venice to Karnstein in Central Europe to live with their uncle Gustav Weil. Weil is a stern puritan and leader of the fanatical witch-hunting'Brotherhood'. Both twins resent their uncle's sternness and one of them, looks for a way to escape. Resenting her uncle, she becomes fascinated by the local Count Karnstein, who has the reputation of being "a wicked man".
Count Karnstein, who enjoys the Emperor's favour and thus remains untouched by the Brotherhood, is indeed wicked and interested in Satanism and black magic. Trying to emulate his evil ancestors, he murders a girl as a human sacrifice, calling forth Countess Mircalla Karnstein from her grave. Mircalla turns the Count into a vampire. Frieda, following an invitation from the Count, steals away to the castle at night, while Maria covers for her absence. In the castle, the Count transforms Frieda into a vampire, offering her a beautiful young chained victim. Returning home, Frieda threatens Maria to keep covering for her nightly excursions, but secretly fearing she might bite her sister. Meanwhile, Maria becomes interested in the handsome young teacher, infatuated with the more mysterious Frieda. Anton has studied what he calls "superstition", but becomes convinced of the existence of vampires when his sister falls victim to one. One night, when Frieda attacks a member of the Brotherhood, she is captured by her uncle and put in jail.
While the Brotherhood debates the vampire woman's fate, the Count and his servants kidnap Maria and exchange her for Frieda in the cell. Anton goes to see Maria, not knowing that she is Frieda, she tries to seduce him. Anton rushes to rescue Maria from burning. Maria kisses a cross. Weil now listens to Anton's advice on the proper ways to fight vampires, the two men lead the Brotherhood and villagers to Karnstein Castle to confront the Count; the Count and Frieda attempt to escape. Maria is captured by the Count. Weil challenges the Count and is killed, giving Anton the opportunity to pierce the distracted Count's heart with a spear. Anton and Maria are united. Peter Cushing as Gustav Weil Kathleen Byron as Katy Weil Mary Collinson as Maria Gellhorn Madeleine Collinson as Frieda Gellhorn David Warbeck as Anton Hoffer Damien Thomas as Count Karnstein Katya Wyeth as Countess Mircalla Roy Stewart as Joachim Isobel Black as Ingrid Hoffer Harvey Hall as Franz Alex Scott as Hermann Dennis Price as Dietrich Shelagh Wilcox as lady in coach Inigo Jackson as woodman Judy Matheson as woodman's daughter Kirsten Lindholm as young girl at stake Luan Peters as Gerta Peter Thompson as gaoler Hammer was going to make a film called Vampire Virgins.
However producer Harry Fine saw a Playboy spread involving the Collinson twins and decided to make a film focusing on them. Ingrid Pitt refused; the same sets were used for Vampire Circus. Harvey Hall and Kirsten Lindholm appear in all three films of the trilogy, although in different roles in each one. Peter Cushing played one of the leads in the first, The Vampire Lovers. Luan Peters, who plays a small role in this film appeared in the second film, Lust for a Vampire, as did Judy Matheson; the original film included a short scene cut, in which the evil twin approaches her uncle. The scene is out of place. Cut out for American audiences and to maintain continuity, the original scene was aired on public television in the 1980s. Music for the film was devised by the British composer Harry Robinson, who had produced a soundtrack for The Vampire Lovers. Film critic Leonard Maltin gave the film a passing grade of two and a half stars, calling it "engaging" and "inspired" in its use of the Collinson twins.
A. H. Weiler wrote in The New York Times that the Collinson twins made the film interesting, but "The rest of the costumed crew... hardly give Twins of Evil a good name."One year after its release, Robert L. Jerome observed, "The film is done with Hammer's obvious care for details and a sobriety which creates the proper mood of unexpected evil in attractive, tranquil surroundings." A novelisation of the film was written by Shaun Hutson and published by Arrow Publishing in association with Hammer and the Random House Group in 2011, ISBN 978-0-09-955619-0. The book contains an introduction by John Hough; the film was adapted into an 18-page comic strip for the January–February 1977 issue of the magazine House of Hammer. It was drawn by Blas Gallego from a script by Chris Lowder; the cover of the issue featured a painting by Brian Lewis based on imagery from the film. Vampire film Twins of Evil
Fangoria is an internationally distributed American horror film fan magazine, in publication since 1979. At the height of its popularity in the 1980s and early'90s it was the most prominent horror publication in the world; the magazine was released in an age a burgeoning subculture. Fangoria rose to prominence by running exclusive interviews with horror filmmakers and offering behind-the-scenes photos and stories that were otherwise unavailable to fans in the era before the internet; the magazine would rise to become a force itself in the horror world, hosting its own awards show and hosting numerous horror conventions, producing films, printing its own line of comics. Fangoria began struggling in the 2010s, due to various issues arising from the burgeoning internet, affecting other publications as well, including difficulty in generating enough ad revenue to cover printing costs. Publication became sporadic beginning in fall 2015, the magazine ran through a succession of editors in 2015–2016, culminating with the February 2017 announcement of Ken Hanley's December 2016 departure, after which the magazine ceased publication.
Various sources offered conflicting opinions as to the publication's future. The magazine remained dormant throughout 2017, although the official website remained somewhat active. In February 2018, it was announced that Fangoria had been purchased by a Dallas-based entertainment company, who said that under the editor-in-chief, Phil Nobile Jr. they would bring back the magazine as a print-based quarterly publication. Additionally, Cinestate has branched the franchise out into films and books, releasing Puppet Master: The Littlest Reich as the first "Fangoria Presents" production and Our Lady of the Inferno as the first "Fangoria Presents" novel under a new literary imprint. In October 2018, Cinestate released the first new Fangoria magazine under their ownership, stylized as "Volume 2, Issue 1.". Fangoria was first conceived of in 1978 by Kerry O'Quinn and Norman Jacobs under the name Fantastica as a companion to their science fiction media magazine Starlog. O'Quinn—a magazine publishing mogul who had earlier enjoyed tremendous success publishing soap opera fan magazines—anticipated a groundswell of interest in the fantasy genre, owing to the plans at that time for bringing Robert E. Howard's Conan the Barbarian to the screen.
The first issue was assembled under the editorship of "Joe Bonham", a pseudonym taken from the quadriplegic hero of Dalton Trumbo's pacifist novel Johnny Got His Gun. This was a cover for Rolling Stone contributor and screenwriter Ed Naha and writer Ric Meyers, best known for his encyclopedic Great Martial Arts Movies: From Bruce Lee to Jackie Chan. Shortly after the publishing trade press announced the coming launch of Fantastica, the publishers of a Starlog competitor, Fantastic Films magazine, brought suit on the basis of "unfair trade", contending that its young audience would be confused by the magazine's similar title; the launch of the magazine was delayed by several months. When, in early 1979, the decision was made in favor of the plaintiff, the publishers of Fantastica were without a usable name, a pressing need to get the long-delayed issue to the printers; some quick brainstorming sessions resulted in the name Fangoria, over the objections of Robert "Bob" Martin, hired as editor during the delay.
The first issue went to print July 1979, with a cover date of August. The first issue of Fangoria was designed around the original'fantasy film' concept for the magazine, proved to be a notable publishing failure, as were the next five issues that followed, all continuing with the same conceptual approach. By the time issue four was released and issue six was in preparation, the publisher confided to Martin that the magazine was losing US$20,000 per issue, an amount the small publisher could not sustain for long. Two phenomena allowed Martin to reshape the magazine and bring it back from its low-performing state. First was the immensely positive audience response to one of the articles that appeared in the first issue of Fangoria, an article that celebrated the craft of special makeup effects artist Tom Savini, his wet-looking special effects for the 1978 film Dawn of the Dead. Second was the response to the sense of defeat surrounding the magazine. With its demise all but certain, senior employees and the two owners of the publishing firm withdrew and allowed the untried young editor to take the lead, reshaping the book according to what he believed would work.
The seventh issue, featuring a cover story on Stanley Kubrick's adaptation of Stephen King's The Shining, was the first issue of any US magazine to wholly concern itself with horror films produced in the latter part of the 20th century, with no trace of daintiness about its subject matter. It was the first issue of Fangoria to achieve a profit. Subsequent issues would sharpen the focus, but by issue twelve, the formula was well-set, remains unchanged to this date. Martin continued as editor up to 1986, with co-editor David Everitt added in the early 1980s, after leaving Fangoria worked with film director Frank Henenlotter on the screenplays for Frankenhooker and Basket Case 3: The Progeny. Everitt left the magazine shortly after Martin's departure, was replaced by Starlog editor David McDonnell, who handled both magazines for several months befo
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
A novelization is a derivative novel that adapts the story of a work created for another medium, such as a film, TV series, comic book or video game. Film novelizations were popular before the advent of home video, but continue to find commercial success as part of marketing campaigns for major films, they are written by accomplished writers based on an early draft of the film's script and on a tight deadline. Novelizations of films began to be produced in the 1910s and 1920s for silent films such as Les Vampires and London After Midnight. One of the first talking movies to be novelized was King Kong. Film novelizations were profitable during the 1970s before home video became available, as they were the only way to re-experience popular movies other than television airing or a rerelease in theaters; the novelizations of Star Wars and Star Trek:The Motion Picture sold millions of copies. After the advent of home video, film novelizations remain popular, with the adaptation of Godzilla being included on The New York Times Best Seller list for mass-market paperbacks.
This has been attributed to these novels' appeal to fans: About 50% of novelizations are sold to people who have watched the film and want to explore its characters further, or to reconnect to the enthusiasm they experienced when watching the film. A film is therefore a sort of commercial for its novelization. Conversely, film novelizations help generate publicity for upcoming films, serving as a link in the film's marketing chain. According to publishing industry estimates, about one or two percent of the audience of a film will buy its novelization; this makes these inexpensively produced works a commercially attractive proposition in the case of blockbuster film franchises. The increasing number of established novelists taking on tie-in works has been credited with these works gaining a "patina of respectability" after they had been disregarded in literary circles as derivative and mere merchandise; the writer of a novelization is supposed to multiply the 20,000–25,000 words of a screenplay into at least 60,000 words.
Writers achieve that by adding description or introspection. Ambitious writers are moreover driven to work on transitions and characters just to accomplish "a more prose-worthy format". Sometimes the "novelizer" moreover invents new scenes in order to give the plot "added dimension", provided they are allowed to do that, it might take an insider to tell whether a novelization diverges instead unintentionally from the released film because it is based on an earlier version which included meanwhile deleted scenes. Thus the novelization already presents material which will on appear in a director's cut. Writers select different approaches to enrich a screenplay. Dewey Gram's Gladiator, for example, included historical background information. Shaun Hutson refused to write a novelization of Snakes on a Plane because he found the source material too "poor". Still Christa Faust accepted and filled the pages by inventing detailed biographies for some of the early killed passengers, she was praised for having presented "full three-dimensional characters".
If a film is based on a novel, the original novel is reissued with a cover based on the film's poster. If a film company which holds the rights for a film wishes to have a novelization published, the company is supposed to approach in the first place an author, in possession of "Separated Rights". A writer has these rights if he contributed the source material and if he was moreover properly credited. Novelizations exist where the film itself is based on an original novel: novelist and screenwriter Christopher Wood wrote a novelization of the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me. Although the 1962 Ian Fleming novel was still available in bookstores, its story had nothing to do with the 1977 film. To avoid confusion, Wood's novelization was titled The Spy Who Loved Me; this novel is an example of a screenwriter novelizing his own screenplay. Star Wars: From the Adventures of Luke Skywalker was published under the name of George Lucas but his script had been novelized by the prolific tie-in writer Alan Dean Foster.
Acquiring editors looking for a novelizer have different issues. For starters rewrites of scripts are not uncommon; the script for the 1966 film Modesty Blaise for example was rewritten by five different authors. The writer or script doctor responsible for the so-called "final" version is not the artist who has contributed the original idea or most of the scenes; the patchwork character of a film script might exacerbate because the film director, a principal actor or a consulting script doctor does rewrites during the shooting. An acquiring editor who intends to hire one of the credited screenwriters has to reckon that the early writers are no longer familiar with the current draft or work on another film script. Not every screenwriter is available, willing to work for less money than what can be earned with film scripts and able to deliver the required amount of prose on time. If so, there is still the matter of novelizations having a questionable reputation; the International Association of Media Tie-In Writers concedes that by saying their craft went "largely unrecognized".
Some novels blur the line between a novelization and an original novel, the basis of a film adaptation. Arthur C. Clarke provided the ideas for Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. Based on his own short stories and his cooperation with Kubrick during the preparation and making of this film adaptation he wrote the film novelization of the same name, appreciat
Crime fiction is a literary genre that fictionalises crimes, their detection and their motives. It is distinguished from mainstream fiction and other genres such as historical fiction or science fiction, but the boundaries are indistinct. Crime fiction has multiple subgenres, including detective fiction, courtroom drama, hard-boiled fiction and legal thrillers. Most crime drama does not feature the court room. Suspense and mystery are key elements. One of the earliest stories in which solving a crime is central to the story is Oedipus Rex, in which the search for the murderer of the previous king, leads to the downfall of the current one. Another early example of crime fiction is gong’ an fiction in China, which involved government magistrates who solved criminal court cases and first appeared in colloquial stories of the Song dynasty. An early example of a crime story is the medieval Arabic tale of "The Three Apples", one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights.
In this tale, a fisherman discovers a heavy locked chest along the Tigris river and he sells it to the Abbasid Caliph, Harun al-Rashid, who has the chest broken open only to find inside it the dead body of a young woman, cut into pieces. Harun orders his vizier, Ja'far ibn Yahya, to solve the crime and find the murderer within three days, or be executed if he fails his assignment; the story has been described as a "whodunit" murder mystery with multiple plot twists. The story has detective fiction elements; the earliest known modern crime fiction is E. T. A. Hoffmann's 1819 novella Mademoiselle de Scudéri. There is Thomas Skinner Sturr's anonymous Richmond, or stories in the life of a Bow Street Officer. Better known are the earlier dark works of Edgar Allan Poe, his brilliant and eccentric detective C. Auguste Dupin, a forerunner to Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes, appeared in works such as "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", "The Mystery of Marie Roget", "The Purloined Letter". With his Dupin stories, Poe provided the framework for the classic detective story.
The detective’s unnamed companion is the narrator of the stories and a prototype for the character of Dr. Watson in Sherlock Holmes stories. Wilkie Collins' epistolary novel The Woman in White was published in 1860, while The Moonstone is thought to be his masterpiece. French author Émile Gaboriau's Monsieur Lecoq laid the groundwork for the methodical, scientifically minded detective; the evolution of locked room mysteries was one of the landmarks in the history of crime fiction. The Sherlock Holmes mysteries of Arthur Conan Doyle are said to have been singularly responsible for the huge popularity in this genre. A precursor was Paul Féval, whose series Les Habits Noirs features Scotland Yard detectives and criminal conspiracies; the best-selling crime novel of the nineteenth century was Fergus Hume's The Mystery of a Hansom Cab, set in Melbourne, Australia. The evolution of the print mass media in the United Kingdom and the United States in the latter half of the 19th century was crucial in popularising crime fiction and related genres.
Literary'variety' magazines like Strand, McClure's, Harper's became central to the overall structure and function of popular fiction in society, providing a mass-produced medium that offered cheap, illustrated publications that were disposable. Like the works of many other important fiction writers of his day—e.g. Wilkie Collins and Charles Dickens—Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories first appeared in serial form in the monthly Strand magazine in the United Kingdom; the series attracted a wide and passionate following on both sides of the Atlantic, when Doyle killed off Holmes in The Final Problem, the public outcry was so great, the publishing offers for more stories so attractive, that he was reluctantly forced to resurrect him. In Italy, local authors began to produce crime mysteries in the 1850s. Early translations of English and American stories and local works were published in cheap yellow covers and thus the genre was baptized with the term "Libri gialli" or yellow books; the genre was outlawed by the Fascists during WWII but exploded in popularity after the war influenced by the American hard-boiled school of crime fiction.
There emerged a group of mainstream Italian writers who used the detective format to create an anti-detective or postmodern novel in which the detectives are imperfect, the crimes unsolved and clues left for the reader to decipher. Famous writers include Leonardo Sciascia, Umberto Eco, Carlo Emilio Gadda. In Spain, The Nail and other Tales of Mystery and Crime was published by Pedro Antonio de Alarcón in 1853. Crime fiction in Spain took on some special characteristics that reflected the culture of the country; the Spanish writers emphasized the corruption and ineptitude of the police and depicted the authorities and the wealthy in negative terms. In China, modern crime fiction was first developed from translations of foreign works from the 1890s. Cheng Xiaoqing, considered "The Grand Master" of twentieth-century Chinese detective fiction, translated Sherlock Holmes into classical and vernacular Chinese. In the late 1910s, Cheng began writing his own detective fiction series, Sherlock in Shanghai, mimicking Conan Doyle’s style but reappropriating to a Chinese audience.
During the Mao era, crime fiction was suppressed and Soviet-styled and anti-capitalist. In the post-Mao era, crime fiction in
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC