Digambara is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara. The word Digambara is a combination of two words: dig and ambara, referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space. Digambara monks do not wear any clothes; the monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers and shastra. One of the most important scholar-monks of Digambara tradition was Kundakunda, he authored Prakrit texts such as the Pravacanasāra. Other prominent Acharyas of this tradition were, Virasena and Siddhasena Divakara; the Satkhandagama and Kasayapahuda have major significance in the Digambara tradition. Relics found from Harrapan excavations such as seals depicting Kayotsarga posture, idols in Padmasana and a nude bust of red limestone, give insight into the antiquity of the Digambara tradition; the presence of gymnosophists in Greek records as early as the fourth century BC, supports the claim of the Digambaras that they have preserved the ancient Śramaṇa practice.
Dundas talks about the archeological evidences which indicate that Jain monks moved from the practice of total nudity towards wearing clothes in period. Ancient Tirthankara statues found in Mathura are naked; the oldest Tirthankara statue wearing a cloth is dated in 5th century CE. Digamabara statues of tirthankara belonging to Gupta period has half-closed eyes. According to Digambara texts, after liberation of the Lord Mahavira, three Anubaddha Kevalīs attained Kevalajñāna sequentially – Gautama Gaņadhara, Acharya Sudharma, Jambusvami in next 62 years. During the next hundred years, five Āchāryas had complete knowledge of the scriptures, as such, called Śruta Kevalīs, the last of them being Āchārya Bhadrabahu. Spiritual lineage of heads of monastic orders is known as Pattavali. Digambara tradition consider Dharasena to be the 33rd teacher in succession of Gautama, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira; the word Digambara is a combination of two Sanskrit words: dik and ambara, referring to those whose garments are of the element that fills the four quarters of space.
Digambara monks do not wear any clothes as it is considered to be parigraha, which leads to attachment. A Digambara monk has 28 mūla guņas; these are: five. The monks carry picchi, a broom made up of fallen peacock feathers for removing small insects without causing them injury and shastra; the head of all monastics is called Āchārya. The Āchārya has 36 primary attributes in addition to the 28 mentioned above; the monks perform kayotsarga daily, in a rigid and immobile posture, with the arms held stiffly down, knees straight, toes directed forward. Female monastics in Digambara tradition are known as aryikas. Statistically, there are more Digambara nuns. Digambar Akhara', along with other akharas participates in various inter-sectarian religious activities including Kumbh Melas; the Digambara Jains worship nude idols of tirthankaras and siddha. The tirthankara is seated in yoga posture or standing in the Kayotsarga posture; the "sky-clad" Jaina statue expresses the perfect isolation of the one who has stripped off every bond.
His is an absolute "abiding in itself," a strange but perfect aloofness, a nudity of chilling majesty, in its stony simplicity, rigid contours, abstraction. The Digambara sect of Jainism rejects the authority of the texts accepted by the other major sect, the Svetambaras. According to the Digambaras, Āchārya Dharasena guided two Āchāryas and Bhutabali, to put the teachings of Mahavira in written form, 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira; the two Āchāryas wrote Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama on palm leaves, considered to be among the oldest known Digambara texts. Āchārya Bhutabali was the last ascetic. On, some learned Āchāryas started to restore and put into written words the teachings of Lord Mahavira, that were the subject matter of Agamas. Digambaras group the texts into four literary categories called anuyoga; the prathmanuyoga contains the universal history, the karananuyoga contains works on cosmology and the charananuyoga includes texts about proper behaviour for monks and Sravakas. Most eminent Digamabara authors include Kundakunda, Pujyapada, Akalanka, Vidyanandi and Asadhara.
The Digambara tradition can be divided into modern community. Mula Sangha can be further divided into heterodox traditions. Orthodox traditions included Nandi, Sena and Deva sangha. Heterodox traditions included Dravida, Yapaniya and Mathura sangha. Other traditions of Mula sangha include Deshiya Balatkara Gana traditions. Modern Digambara community is divided into various sub-sects viz. Terapanthi, Taranpanthi and Totapanthi. Digambara community was divided into Terapanthi and Bisapanthi on the acceptance of authority of Bhattaraka; the Bhattarakas of Shravanabelagola and
Kamarupi Prakrit is the unattested Middle Indo-Aryan language used in ancient Kamarupa. This language is the historical ancestor of the Assamese language. Though not proven, the existence of the language that predated the Kamatapuri lects and Assamese is believed; the evidence of this MIA exist in systematic errors in the Sankrit language used in the Kamarupa inscriptions. This sort of Sporadic Apabhramsa is a mixture of Sanskrit and colloquial dialects of Assam. A distinguishing characteristic of Kamarupa inscriptions is the replacement of ś and ṣ by s, contrary to Vararuci's rule, the main characteristic of Magadhi Prakrit, which warrants that ṣ and s are replaced by ś. Linguists claim this apabhramsa gave rise to various eastern Indo-European languages like modern Assamese and felt its presence in the form of Kamrupi and Kamatapuri lects; the speech is known by different names, which consists of two words — prefix such as'Kamrupi','Kamarupi','Kamarupa' referring to Kamarupa and suffixes'dialect','Apabhramsa', sometimes'Prakrit'.
Suniti Kumar Chatterji named it as Kamarupa dialect. Sukumar Sen and others calls it as old Kamrupi dialect. Though the epigraphs were written in classical Sanskrit in kavya style of a high degree, they abound in corrupt and unchaste forms. Loss of repha and reduplication of the remaining concerned consonants. Shortening of vowels. Lengthening of vowels. Substitution of one vowel for another. Avoidance and irregularity of sandhis. Loss of initial vowel. Substitution of Y by i. Total loss of medial Y. Reduplication of consonants followed by r. Absence of duplication where it is otherwise necessary. Varieties of assimilation. Wrong analogy. Varied substitution for m and final m. Substitution of h by gh and substitution of bh by h. Indiscriminate substitution of one sibilant for another. Irregularity of declension in case of stems ending in consonants. Absence of visarga where it is invariably necessary; some linguists claim that there existed a Kamrupi apabhramsa as opposed to the Magadhi apabhramsa from which the three cognate languages---Assamese and Odia and Maithili---sprouted.
The initial motive comes from extra-linguistic considerations. Kamarupa was the most powerful and formidable kingdom in the region which provided the political and cultural influence for the development of the Kamrupi apabhramsa. Xuanzang's mention that the language spoken in Kamarupa was a'little different' from the one spoken in Pundravardhana is provided as evidence that this apabhramsa existed as early as the 5th century; that Kamarupa remained unconquered till the beginning of the Assamese literature in the 14th century points to the possibility that the apabhramsa of the Kamarupa kingdom must have flourished. Archaic forms found in epigraphic records from the Kamarupa period give evidence of this apabhramsa, of which there are numerous examples; the Buddhist Charyapadas from the 8th to 12th century are claimed by different languages: Assamese, Bengali and Maithili languages. But the geographical region of its composition was the Kamarupa pitha and many of the composers were Kamarupi siddhas.
Therefore, the language in the Charyapadas is the best example of this apabhramsa. H. P. Sastri, who discovered these poems, termed the language sandhya bhasha and this is nothing but the Kamarupi apabhramsa. Assamese, or more appropriately the old Kamarupi dialect entered into Kamrup or western Assam, where this speech was first characterized as Assamese. Golockchandra Goswami in his An introduction to Assamese phonology writes, "in early Assamese there seems to be one dominant dialect prevailing over the whole country, the Western Assamese dialect." Upendranath Goswami says, "Assamese entered into Kamarupa or western Assam where this speech was first characterised as Assamese. This is evident from the remarks of Hiuen Tsang who visited the Kingdom of Kamarupa in the first half of the seventh century A. D. during the reign of Bhaskaravarman" The sample of the old Kamrupi dialect are found in different inscriptions scattered around eastern and northern India, such as Bhaskar Varman's inscriptions.
Daka, a native of Lehidangara village of Barpeta composed an authoritative work named Dakabhanita in the 8th century A. D. Apabhraṃśa Middle Indo-Aryan languages Assamese from Resource Center for Indian Language Technology Solutions, IIT, Guwahati
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama the "Scripture in Six Parts", is the foremost and oldest Digambara Jain sacred text. According to Digambara tradition, the original canonical scriptures of the Jains were lost within a few centuries of Nirvana of Lord Mahavira. Hence, Satkhandāgama is the most revered Digambara text, given the status of āgama; the importance of the Satkhandāgama to the Digambaras can be judged by the fact that, the day its Dhavalā commentary was completed, it is commemorated as Shruta Pañcami, a day when all the Jaina scriptures are venerated. Satkhandāgama, the first āgama is called the Pratham Shrut-Skandh, while the Panch Paramāgama by Acharya Kundakunda are referred to as the second āgama or Dvitiya Shrut-Skandh, it is said to have been based on oral teaching of acharya Dharasena. According to the tradition, alarmed at the gradual dwindling of scriptural knowledge, he summoned two monks, Pushpadanta and Bhūtabali to a cave, known as Chandra Gupha, or the Moon Cave, his retreat in mount Girnar and communicated what he remembered out of vast extent of sacred Jain writings.
He taught them portions of the fifth Anga Viahapannatti and of the twelfth Anga Ditthivada. These were subsequently reduced to writing in Sutra form by his pupils. Pushpadanta composed the first 177 Sutras and his colleague Bhutabali wrote the rest, the total being 6000 Sutras; the palm leaf writings of this long work written in Prakrit were deposited sometime in the early centuries of the Common Era in the Digambara holy place of Mudabidri, a temple town in South-West Karnataka. Here, these scriptures became mere objects of worship. Digambara āgamas like Satkhandāgama and the Kasāyapāhuda were in a state of neglect and were not studied or made available to the community. In the 20th century, Dr. Hiralal Jain was one of the first few lay scholars who decided to retrieve the āgamas, bring to light with systematic editing and proof reading. With the help of his scholar friends like Pandit Nathuram Premi and Jamunaprasada Sub-Judge, he raised the funds to publish the āgamas, set out to extricate the āgamas from Mudabidri, where the original handwritten Prakrit manuscripts had lain for centuries, unstudied.
Dr Hiralal Jain, Pt Nathuram Premi and Jamunaprasada sub-judge together managed to convince Seth Sitabray Gulabray, a wealthy land-owner from Vidisha belonging to the Paravāra community, to donate Rs. 30,000 for the cause of editing and publishing the Satkhandāgama along with its Dhavalā commentary, expertly edited and accompanied by an excellent Hindi translation. This donation enabled Dr Hiralal Jain to work together with Dr. A. N. Upadhye, close friend and a scholar of Prakrit. Dr. Hiralal Jain brought together a team of scholars including, Pt. Phulchandra Shastri, Pt. Kailashchandra Shastri, Pt. Hiralal Shastri and Pt. Balachandra Shastri started the project of revival and study of the Digambara āgama; these scholars had to face stiff opposition from the monks and the traditional srāvakas who were opposed to the concept of printing religious scriptures as they felt that printing would undermine the purity of the scripture. In a period of twenty years, the Satkhandāgama, along with its massive Dhavalā and Mahādhavalā commentaries was edited from the original palm leaf manuscripts and published after careful proof reading in consultation with senior Jaina scholars like Pt. Nathuram Premi and Pt. Devakinandan Nayak.
The Satkhandāgama, as the name suggests, is a scripture in six parts. The six parts are: Jiva Sthana Kshudraka Bandha Bandhasvamitva Vedana Vargana Mahabandha Satkhandāgama postulates karma theory, using a number of technical terms defining various concepts and mathematical notions; the first three parts deal with the karma philosophy from the view point of the soul, the agent of the bondage and the last three section discusses the nature and extent of the karmas. The commentary on the first five parts is known as the Dhavalā; the commentary on the sixth part is known as the Mahādhavalā. Dhavalā is divided into 16 sections, as follows: Volume One, Jivasthana - Categories of Living BeingsBook 1: Satprarupana Part - 1 Book 2: Satprarupana Part - 2 Book 3: Dravyapramananugama Book 4: Kshetra - Sparshana - Kalanugama Book 5: Antara - Bhava - Alpabahuttva Book 6: Culika Volume Two: Ksudrakabandha - Minutiae of Bondage Volume Three: Bandhasvamittva - Ownership of Bondage Volume Four, Vedana - PerceptionBook 1: Krtianuyogdvara Book 2: Vedana Kshetra - Vedana Kala - Vedana Dravya Book 3: Vedana Kshetra - Vedana Kala Book 4: Vedana Bhava Vidhana Volume Five Vargana - Divisions of KarmaBook 1: Sparshakarmaprakrti Anuyoga Book 2: Bandhana Anuyoga Book 3: Nibandhanadi Chatura Anuyoga Book 4: Moksadi Chaturdasha Anuyoga Mahādhavalā the commentary on sixth section called Mahabandha has seven books.
The other Digambara āgama, the Kasāyapāhuda has a voluminous commentary. It is called the Jaya Dhavalā. All three commentaries were composed by ācārya Jinasena; the text and its commentaries preserved on the palm leaf manuscripts run into some 120,000 verses
Pali or Magadhan is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is studied because it is the language of the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka, is the sacred language of some religious texts of Hinduism and all texts of Theravāda Buddhism; the earliest archaeological evidence of the existence of canonical Pali comes from Pyu city-states inscriptions found in Burma dated to the mid 5th to mid 6th century CE. The word Pali is used as a name for the language of the Theravada canon. According to the Pali Text Society's Dictionary, the word seems to have its origins in commentarial traditions, wherein the Pāli was distinguished from the commentary or vernacular translation that followed it in the manuscript; as such, the name of the language has caused some debate among scholars of all ages. Both the long ā and retroflex ḷ are seen in Pāḷi. R. C. Childers translates the word as "series" and states that the language "bears the epithet in consequence of the perfection of its grammatical structure".
In the 19th century, the British Orientalist Robert Caesar Childers argued that the true or geographical name of the Pali language was Magadhi Prakrit, that because pāḷi means "line, series", the early Buddhists extended the meaning of the term to mean "a series of books", so pāḷibhāsā means "language of the texts". However, modern scholarship has regarded Pali as a mix of several Prakrit languages from around the 3rd century BCE, combined together and Sanskritized; the closest artifacts to Pali that have been found in India are Edicts of Ashoka found at Gujarat, in the west of India, leading some scholars to associate Pali with this region of western India. There is persistent confusion as to the relation of Pāḷi to the vernacular spoken in the ancient kingdom of Magadha, located around modern-day Bihār. Pali, as a Middle Indo-Aryan language, is different from Sanskrit more with regard to its dialectal base than the time of its origin. A number of its morphological and lexical features show that it is not a direct continuation of Ṛgvedic Vedic Sanskrit.
Instead it descends from one or more dialects that were, despite many similarities, different from Ṛgvedic. However, this view is not shared by all scholars. Some, like A. C. Woolner, believe that Pali is derived from Vedic Sanskrit, but not from Classical Sanskrit. Paiśācī is a unattested literary language of classical India, mentioned in Prakrit and Sanskrit grammars of antiquity, it is found grouped with the Prakrit languages, with which it shares some linguistic similarities, but was not considered a spoken language by the early grammarians because it was understood to have been purely a literary language. In works of Sanskrit poetics such as Daṇḍin's Kavyadarsha, it is known by the name of Bhūtabhāṣā, an epithet which can be interpreted as'dead language', or bhuta means past and bhasha means language i.e.'a language spoken in the past'. Evidence which lends support to this interpretation is that literature in Paiśācī is fragmentary and rare but may once have been common; the 13th-century Tibetan historian Buton Rinchen Drub wrote that the early Buddhist schools were separated by choice of sacred language: the Mahāsāṃghikas used Prākrit, the Sarvāstivādins used Sanskrit, the Sthaviravādins used Paiśācī, the Saṃmitīya used Apabhraṃśa.
This observation has lead some scholars to theorize connections between Pali and Paiśācī. Many Theravada sources refer to the Pali language as "Magadhan" or the "language of Magadha"; this identification first appears in the commentaries, may have been an attempt by Buddhists to associate themselves more with the Maurya Empire. But the four most important places in Buddha's life are all outside of it, it is that he taught in several related dialects of Middle Indo-Aryan, which had a high degree of mutual intelligibility. There is no attested dialect of Middle Indo-Aryan with all the features of Pali. Pali has some commonalities with both the western Ashokan Edicts at Girnar in Saurashtra, the Central-Western Prakrit found in the eastern Hathigumpha inscription; the similarities of the Saurashtran inscriptions to the Hathigumpha inscription may be misleading because the latter suggests the Ashokan scribe may not have translated the material he received from Magadha into the vernacular. Whatever the relationship of the Buddha's speech to Pali, the Canon was transcribed and preserved in it, while the commentarial tradition that accompanied it was translated into Sinhala and preserved in local languages for several generations.
In Sri Lanka, Pali is thought to have entered into a period of decline ending around the 4th or 5th century, but survived. The work of Buddhaghosa was responsible for its reemergence as an important scholarly language in Buddhist thought; the Visuddhimagga, the other commentaries that Buddhaghosa compiled and condensed the Sinhala commentarial tradition, preserved and expanded in Sri Lanka since the 3rd century BCE. T
Abahaṭṭha is a stage in the evolution of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages. The eastern group consists of languages such as Bengali, Maithili and Odia. Abahatta is called Apabhramsa Avahatta, Apabhramsha Abahatta or Purvi Apabhramsa. Abahatta is considered to follow the Apabhraṃśa stage, i.e. those Apabhraṃśas derived from Magadhi Prakrit. Abahatta, which existed from the 6th century to 14th century, was contemporaneous with some Apabhraṃśas as well as the early modern languages such as Old Oriya, Old Bengali, Old Maithili and Old Assamese. Many poets composed both in Abahatta and a modern language such as the Charyapada poets, who wrote dohas or short religious verses in Abahatta; the Abahattha stage is characterized by Loss of affixes and suffixes Loss of grammatical gender Increased usage of short vowels Nasalisation at the end or in the middle of words The substitution of h for sIn the history of the Bengali language, the Abahatta stage was followed by the Old Bengali language by c.
1100. Bhowmik, Dulal. "Abahattha". In Islam, Sirajul. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
Middle kingdoms of India
The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, starting with Simuka, from 230 BCE; the "Middle" period lasted for about 1500 years and ended in the 13th century, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate, founded in 1206, the end of the Later Cholas. This period encompasses two eras: Classical India, from the Maurya Empire up until the end of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century CE, early Medieval India from the 6th century onwards, it encompasses the era of classical Hinduism, dated from 200 BCE to 1100 CE. From 1 CE until 1000 CE, India's economy is estimated to have been the largest in the world, having between one-third and one-quarter of the world's wealth, it is followed by the late Medieval period in the 13th century. During the 2nd century BCE, the Maurya Empire became a collage of regional powers with overlapping boundaries.
The whole northwest attracted a series of invaders between 200 BCE and 300 CE. The Puranas speak of many of these tribes as foreigners and impure barbarians. First the Satavahana dynasty and the Gupta Empire, both successor states to the Maurya Empire, attempt to contain the expansions of the successive before crumbling internally due to the pressure exerted by these wars; the invading tribes were influenced by Buddhism which continued to flourish under the patronage of both invaders and the Satavahanas and Guptas and provides a cultural bridge between the two cultures. Over time, the invaders became "Indianized" as they influenced society and philosophy across the Gangetic plains and were conversely influenced by it; this period is marked by both intellectual and artistic achievements inspired by cultural diffusion and syncretism as the new kingdoms straddle the Silk Road. The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Sakas who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Arachosia, Kashmir and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE.
The first Saka king in India was Maues or Moga who established Saka power in Gandhara and extended supremacy over north-western India. Indo-Scythian rule in India ended with the last of the Western Satraps, Rudrasimha III, in 395 CE; the invasion of India by Scythian tribes from Central Asia referred to as the "Indo-Scythian invasion", played a significant part in the history of India as well as nearby countries. In fact, the Indo-Scythian war is just one chapter in the events triggered by the nomadic flight of Central Asians from conflict with Chinese tribes which had lasting effects on Bactria, Kabul and India as well as far off Rome in the west; the Scythian groups that invaded India and set up various kingdoms, besides the Sakas, other allied tribes, such as the Medes, Massagetae, Parama Kamboja Kingdom, Bahlikas and Parada Kingdom. The Indo-Greek Kingdom covered various parts of the Northwestern South Asia during the last two centuries BCE, was ruled by more than 30 Hellenistic kings in conflict with each other.
The kingdom was founded when Demetrius I of Bactria invaded the Hindu Kush early in the 2nd century BCE. The Greeks in India were divided from the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom centered in Bactria; the expression "Indo-Greek Kingdom" loosely describes a number of various dynastic polities. There were numerous cities, such as Pushkalavati and Sagala; these cities would house a number of dynasties in their times, based on Ptolemy's Geography and the nomenclature of kings, a certain Theophila in the south was probably a satrapal or royal seat at some point. Euthydemus I was, his son, founder of the Indo-Greek kingdom, was therefore of Greek descent from his father at minimum. A marriage treaty was arranged for Demetrius with a daughter of Antiochus III the Great, who had partial Persian descent; the ethnicity of Indo-Greek rulers is less clear. For example, Artemidoros Aniketos may have been of Indo-Scythian descent. Intermarriage occurred, as exemplified by Alexander the Great, who married Roxana of Bactria, or Seleucus I Nicator, who married Apama of Sogdia.
During the two centuries of their rule, the Indo-Greek kings combined the Greek and Indian languages and symbols, as seen on their coins, blended Greek and Buddhist religious practices, as seen in the archaeological remains of their cities and in the indications of their support of Buddhism, pointing to a rich fusion of Indian and Hellenistic influences. The diffusion of Indo-Greek culture had consequences which are still felt today through the influence of Greco-Buddhist art; the Indo-Greeks disappeared as a political entity around 10 CE following the invasions of the Indo-Scythians, although pockets of Greek populations remained for several centuries longer under the subsequent rule of the Indo-Parthians and Kushan Empire. The Yavana or Yona people "Ionian" and meaning "Western foreigner", were described as living beyond Gandhara. Yavanas, the Pahlavas and Hunas were sometimes described as mlecchas, "barbarians". Kambojas and the inhabitants of Madra, the Kekeya Kingdom, the Indus River region and Gandhara were sometimes classified as mlecchas.
This name was used to indicate their cultural differences with the culture of the Kuru Kingdom and Panchala. The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was founded by Gondophares around 20 BCE; the kingdom lasted only until its conquest