Akio Morita was a Japanese businessman and co-founder of Sony along with Masaru Ibuka. Akio Morita was born in Nagoya, Japan. Morita's family was involved in sake and soy sauce production in the village of Kosugaya on the western coast of Chita Peninsula in Aichi Prefecture since 1665, he was the oldest of four siblings and his father Kyuzaemon trained him as a child to take over the family business. Akio, found his true calling in mathematics and physics, in 1944 he graduated from Osaka Imperial University with a degree in physics, he was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the Imperial Japanese Navy, served in World War II. During his service, Morita met his future business partner Masaru Ibuka in the Navy's Wartime Research Committee. On May 7, 1946, Ibuka founded Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha with about 20 employees and initial capital of ¥190,000. Ibuka was 38 years old. Morita, 25 years old joined Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha shortly after its inception, with Morita's family investing in Sony during the early period and being the largest shareholder.
In 1949, the company developed magnetic recording tape and in 1950, sold the first tape recorder in Japan. In 1957, it produced a pocket-sized radio, in 1958, Morita and Ibuka decided to rename their company Sony. Morita was an advocate for all the products made by Sony. However, since the radio was too big to fit in a shirt pocket, Morita made his employees wear shirts with larger pockets to give the radio a "pocket sized" appearance. In 1960, it produced the first transistor television in the world. In 1973, Sony received an Emmy Award for its Trinitron television-set technology. In 1975, it released the first Betamax home video recorder, a year. In 1979, the Walkman was introduced. In 1984, Sony launched the Discman series which extended their Walkman brand to portable CD products. In 1960, the Sony Corporation of America was established in the United States. In 1961, Sony Corporation was the first Japanese company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange, in the form of American depositary receipts, which are traded over-the-counter.
Sony bought CBS Records Group which consisted of Columbia Records, Epic Records and other CBS labels in 1988 and Columbia Pictures Entertainment in 1989. On November 25, 1994, Morita stepped down as Sony chairman after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage while playing tennis, he was succeeded by Norio Ohga, who had joined the company in the 1950s after sending Morita a letter denouncing the poor quality of the company's tape recorders. Morita was vice chairman of the Japan Business Federation, was a member of the Japan-U. S. Economic Relations Group known as the "Wise Men's Group", he was the third Japanese chairman of the Trilateral Commission. His amateur radio call sign is JP1DPJ. In 1966, Morita wrote a book called Gakureki Muyō Ron, where he stresses that school records are not important to success or one's business skills. In 1986, Morita wrote an autobiography titled Made in Japan, he co-authored the 1991 book The Japan That Can Say No with politician Shintaro Ishihara, where they criticized American business practices and encouraged Japanese to take a more independent role in business and foreign affairs.
The book was translated into English and caused controversy in the United States, Morita had his chapters removed from the English version and distanced himself from the book. Morita was awarded the Albert Medal by the United Kingdom's Royal Society of Arts in 1982, the first Japanese to receive the honor. Two years he received the prestigious Legion of Honour, in 1991, was awarded the First Class Order of the Sacred Treasure from the Emperor of Japan. In 1993, he was awarded an honorary British knighthood. Morita received the International Distinguished Entrepreneur Award from the University of Manitoba in 1987, he was posthumously awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun in 1999. Morita suffered a stroke during a game of tennis. On November 25, 1994, he stepped down as Sony chairman. On October 3, 1999, Morita died of pneumonia at the age of 78. Morita, Akio. Made in Japan Morita, Akio. Never Mind School Records Morita and Shintaro Ishihara; the Japan That Can Say No List of books authored by Akio Morita at WorldCat Quotations related to Akio Morita at Wikiquote Media related to Sony at Wikimedia Commons Akio Morita Library Time magazine, AKIO MORITA: Guru Of Gadgets Time Asia, Time 100: Akio Morita Sony Biographical notes PBS notes Full Biography at World of Biography
Jack Tretton is a member of the advisory boards for Genotaur, an artificial intelligence startup, LifeApps Digital Media, a digital publisher of products and services focused on health and sports topics. He is best known for being the former President and CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment America from 2006 to 2014. After graduating from Providence College, Tretton was a territory manager for Duracell from 1983 through 1985. In 1986 he joined Activision as the Vice President of sales until 1991, when he joined JVC Musical Industries and became general manager of JVC's game division until early 1995. Tretton joined Sony in March 1995 and was part of the team that created the original PlayStation and was involved in the development and publishing of all major Sony consoles and handhelds. In November 2006, Tretton was promoted to President and CEO of SCEA, succeeding Kazuo Hirai who became President and COO of Sony Computer Entertainment. Following his appointment as President, Tretton presented Sony's conferences at E3 from 2007 to 2013.
In early March 2014 it was announced that Tretton would step down from his position at the end of the month, citing a mutual agreement between himself and SCEA not to renew his contract. He was succeeded by Shawn Layden, the Executive Vice President and COO of Sony Network Entertainment International. In late May 2014, it was announced that Tretton joined the advisory board of Genotaur, a San Francisco-based artificial intelligence startup, the following September it was announced Tretton joined the advisory board of LifeApps Digital Media, a digital publisher of products and services focused on health and sports topics. Tretton has made a number of controversial comments regarding the video game industry; when asked in 2007 to describe each game console as a meal or food, Tretton called the PS3 "Surf'n Turf" and the PS2 "your favorite burger restaurant," but called the Wii a "lollipop" and the Xbox 360 a restaurant he would "get sick from once in a while because the cook isn't always reliable."
He called the Nintendo 3DS "a great babysitting tool … But no self-respecting twenty-something is going to be sitting on an airplane with one of those. He's too old for that."However, shortly after the PlayStation Vita was released in North America in February 2012, Tretton stated that he is a "believer in a rising tide lifting all boats" and that "a successful Nintendo or a successful gaming industry is good for anybody that's in the gaming business." Tretton's popularity while working for SCEA led fans, including Greg Miller and Colin Moriarty, to informally refer to him as "Jackie T". He made his appearance on Kinda Funny Live 2 and KindaFunny's PlayStation Podcast "PS I LOVE YOU XOXO" in May 2016 Tretton was born in Boston, Massachusetts, he graduated from Providence College in 1983 with a Bachelor of Science in Marketing. During his time with Sony, Tretton supported the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital in Palo Alto, California by providing patients with PlayStation consoles and games
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana. The main campus covers 1,261 acres in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural, the Notre Dame Stadium, the Basilica; the school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, its first president. Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education. Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges and Letters, Engineering, Business and Global Affairs; the School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 15 summer programs. Notre Dame's graduate program has more than 50 master and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and an MD–PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.
It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies and intramural sports teams; the university counts 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U. S. colleges. The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century. Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships; the Notre Dame Victory March is regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs. Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne.
Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh's administration increased the university's resources, academic programs, reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Since, the university has seen steady growth, under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame's growth has continued in the 21st century, it possesses one of the largest endowments of any U. S. university, at $13.1 billion. In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, began the school using Stephen Badin's old log chapel, he soon erected additional buildings, including the Old College, the first church, the first main building.
They acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus. Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844. Under the charter the school is named the University of Notre Dame du Lac; because the university was only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary's College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844. The first degrees from the college were awarded in 1849; the university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty. With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them; the original Main Building built by Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger "Main Building" in 1865, which housed the university's administration and dormitories. Under William Corby's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year course of study, in 1871 he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame.
Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Auguste Lemonnier, housed in the Main Building, by 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes. This Main Building, the library collection, was destroyed by a fire in April 1879; the university founder and the president at the time, William Corby planned for the rebuilding of the structure that had housed the entire University. Construction was started on May 17, by the incredible zeal of administrator and workers the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879; the library collection was rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards. Around the time of the fire, a music hall was opened. Known as Washington Hall, it hosted musical acts put on by the school. By 1880, a science program was established at the university, a Science Hall (today LaFortu
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Electronic Entertainment Expo
The Electronic Entertainment Expo referred to as E3, is a premier trade event for the video game industry. Presented and organized by the Entertainment Software Association, it is used by many developers and hardware and accessory manufacturers to introduce and advertise upcoming games and game-related merchandise to retailers and members of the press; the E3 event formally includes an exhibition floor for developers and manufacturers to showcase titles and products to be sold in the upcoming year. In the few days before the event, the largest publishers and hardware manufacturers will hold an hour-long press conference to outline their offerings that will be on display, which feature announcements of new games and products. E3 is considered to be the biggest gaming news expo of the year in North America. E3 was an industry-only event. With the rise of streaming media, several of the press conferences were broadcast to the public to increase their visibility. In 2017, E3 became open to the public for the first time, issuing 15,000 general admittance passes for those who wanted to attend.
Since 2009 E3 is held in June at the Los Angeles Convention Center in Los Angeles. The show in 2019 is scheduled for June 11–13, 2019. Before E3, game publishers went to other trade shows like Consumer Electronics Show and the European Computer Trade Show to display new or upcoming products as to pre-sell shipments to retailers for the rest of the year including the late-year holiday season as well as to vie for press coverage of upcoming games; as the game industry grew during the early 1990s, industry professionals felt that it had outgrown the older trade shows. According to Tom Kalinske, CEO of Sega America, "The CES organizers used to put the video games industry way, way in the back. In 1991 they put us in a tent, you had to walk past all the porn vendors to find us; that particular year it was pouring rain, the rain leaked right over our new Genesis system. I was just furious with the way CES treated the video games industry, I felt we were a more important industry than they were giving us credit for."
Sega did not return to the CES the following year, several other companies exited from further CES shows. Separately, in 1994, the video game industry had formed the Interactive Digital Software Association in response to attention the industry had drawn from the United States Congress over a lack of a ratings system in late 1993; the IDSA was formed to unify the video game industry and establish a commission, the Entertainment Software Ratings Board to create a voluntary standard rating system, approved by Congress. The industry recognized. According to Eliot Minsker, chairman and CEO of Knowledge Industry Publications, "Retailers have pointed to the need for an interpretive event that will help them make smarter buying decisions by interacting with a wide range of publishers, industry influentials, opinion leaders in a focused show setting." Attempts were made between the video game companies and the Consumer Electronics Association which ran CES, to improve how video games were treated at CES, but these negotiations failed to produce a result.
Pat Ferrell, creator of GamePro, owned by International Data Group, conceived of an idea for starting a dedicated trade show for video games, building off IDG's established experience in running the Macworld convention. Ferrell contacted the IDSA who saw the appeal of using their position in the industry to create a video game-specific tradeshow, offered to co-found the Electronic Entertainment Expo with IDG. Though several companies agreed to present at this E3 event, Ferrell discovered that CEA had offered video game companies a dedicated space at the next CES, which would have conflicted with the planned E3 event, requiring the companies to pick one or the other. Most of the IDSA members supported E3, while Nintendo and Microsoft were still supportive of the CES approach. After about three-to-four months, Ferrell was told by CEA's CEO Gary Shapiro that he "won" and had cancelled the CES video game event making E3 the premier trade show for the video game industry; the first event was held from May 11–13, 1995 at the Los Angeles Convention Center, which would be the convention's location in future years.
The organizers were unsure of how successful this would be, but by the end of the convention, they had booked most of the space at the Convention Center, saw more than 40,000 attendees. In the aftermath of its first year, E3 was regarded as the biggest event in the video game industry; the IDSA realized the strength of debut trade show, subsequently renegotiated with IDG to allow the IDSA to take full ownership of the show and the intellectual property associated with the name, while hiring IDG to help with execution of the event. The show remained held at May of the calendar year through 2006. In 1996, IDG and the IDSA tried a Japanese version of E3, in preparation for a worldwide series of events, at the Makuhari Messe in Tokyo in association with TV Asahi. Although Sony Computer Entertainment was the show's original sponsor, the company withdrew its support in favor of its PlayStation Expo. Sega pulled out at the last minute. Held November 1–4, 1996, the presence of several other gaming expos and lack of support from Japanese game manufactur