The walleye called the yellow pike, is a freshwater perciform fish native to most of Canada and to the Northern United States. It is a North American close relative of the European zander known as the pikeperch; the walleye is sometimes called the yellow walleye to distinguish it from the blue walleye, a subspecies, once found in the southern Ontario and Quebec regions, but is now presumed extinct. However, recent genetic analysis of a preserved'blue walleye' sample suggests that the blue and yellow walleye were phenotypes within the same species and do not merit separate taxonomic classification. In parts of its range in English-speaking Canada, the walleye is known as a pickerel, though the fish is not related to the true pickerels, which are a member of the family Esocidae. Walleyes show a fair amount of variation across watersheds. In general, fish within a watershed are quite similar and are genetically distinct from those of nearby watersheds; the species has been artificially propagated for over a century and has been planted on top of existing populations or introduced into waters devoid of the species, sometimes reducing the overall genetic distinctiveness of populations.
The common name, "walleye", comes from the fact that the fish's eyes point outward, as if looking at the walls. This externally facing orientation of the eyes gives anglers an advantage in the dark because a certain eyeshine is given off by the eye of the walleye in the dark, similar to that of lions and other nocturnal animals; this "eyeshine" is the result of a light-gathering layer in the eyes called the tapetum lucidum, which allows the fish to see well in low-light conditions. In fact, many anglers look for walleyes at night; the fish's eyes allow them to see well in turbid waters, which gives them an advantage over their prey. Thus, walleye anglers look for locations where a good "walleye chop" occurs; this excellent vision allows the fish to populate the deeper regions in a lake, they can be found in deeper water during the warmest part of the summer and at night. Walleyes are olive and gold in color; the dorsal side of a walleye is olive. The olive/gold pattern is broken up by five darker saddles.
The color shades to white on the belly. The mouth of a walleye is armed with many sharp teeth; the first dorsal and anal fins are spinous. Walleyes are distinguished from their close relative the sauger by the white coloration on the lower lobe of the caudal fin, absent on the sauger. In addition, the two dorsals and the caudal fin of the sauger are marked with distinctive rows of black dots which are absent from or indistinct on the same fins of walleyes. Walleyes grow to about 80 cm in length, weigh up to about 9 kg; the maximum recorded size for the fish is 13 kilograms in weight. The rate depends on where in their range they occur, with southern populations growing faster and larger. In general, females grow larger than males. Walleyes may live for decades. In fished populations, few walleye older than five or six years of age are encountered. In North America, where they are prized, their typical size when caught is on the order of 30 to 50 cm below their potential size; as walleye grow longer, they increase in weight.
The relationship between total length and total weight for nearly all species of fish can be expressed by an equation of the form W = c L b Invariably, b is close to 3.0 for all species, c is a constant that varies among species. For walleye, b = 3.180 and c = 0.000228 or b = 3.180 and c = 0.000005337. This relationship suggests a 50 cm walleye will weigh about 1.5 kg, while a 60 cm walleye will weigh about 2.5 kg. In most of the species' range, male walleyes mature sexually between four years of age. Females mature about a year later. Adults migrate to tributary streams in late winter or early spring to lay eggs over gravel and rock, although open-water reef or shoal-spawning strains are seen, as well; some populations are known to spawn on vegetation. Spawning occurs at water temperatures of 6 to 10 °C. A large female can lay up to 500,000 eggs, no care is given by the parents to the eggs or fry; the eggs are adhesive and fall into spaces between rocks. The incubation period for the embryos is temperature-dependent, but lasts from 12 to 30 days.
After hatching, the free-swimming embryos spend about a week absorbing a small amount of yolk. Once the yolk has been absorbed, the young walleyes begin to feed on invertebrates, such as fly larvæ and zooplankton. After 40 to 60 days, juvenile walleyes become piscivorous. Thenceforth, both juvenile and adult walleyes eat fish exclusively yellow perch or ciscoes, moving onto bars and shoals at night to feed. Walleye feed on crayfish and leeches; the walleye is considered to be a quite palatable freshwater fish, is fished recreationally and commercially for food. Because of its nocturnal feeding habits, it is most caught at night using live minnows or lures that mimic small fish. In Wisconsin, the walleye is fished for in the late afternoon o
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
In structural geology, an anticline is a type of fold, an arch-like shape and has its oldest beds at its core. A typical anticline is convex up in which the hinge or crest is the location where the curvature is greatest, the limbs are the sides of the fold that dip away from the hinge. Anticlines can be recognized and differentiated from antiforms by a sequence of rock layers that become progressively older toward the center of the fold. Therefore, if age relationships between various rock strata are unknown, the term antiform should be used; the progressing age of the rock strata towards the core and uplifted center, are the trademark indications for evidence of anticlines on a geologic map. These formations occur because anticlinal ridges develop above thrust faults during crustal deformations; the uplifted core of the fold causes compression of strata that preferentially erodes to a deeper stratigraphic level relative to the topographically lower flanks. Motion along the fault including both shortening and extension of tectonic plates also deforms strata near the fault.
This overturned fold. An antiform can be used to describe any fold, convex up, it is the relative ages of the rock strata. The hinge of an anticline refers to the location where the curvature is greatest called the crest; the hinge is the highest point on a stratum along the top of the fold. The culmination refers to the highest point along any geologic structure; the limbs are the sides of the fold. The inflection point is the area on the limbs; the axial surface is an imaginary plane connecting the hinge of each layer of rock stratum through the cross section of an anticline. If the axial surface is vertical and the angles on each side of the fold are equivalent the anticline is symmetrical. If the axial plane is tilted or offset the anticline is asymmetrical. An anticline, cylindrical has a well-defined axial surface, whereas non-cylindrical anticlines are too complex to have a single axial plane. An overturned anticline is an asymmetrical anticline with a limb, tilted beyond perpendicular, so that the beds in that limb have flipped over and may dip in the same direction on both sides of the axial plane.
If the angle between the limbs is large the fold is an "open" fold, but if the angle between the limbs is small the fold is a "tight" fold. If an anticline plunges, it will form Vs on a geologic map view that point in the direction of plunge. A plunging anticline has a hinge, not parallel to the earth's surface. All anticlines and synclines have some degree of plunge. Periclinal folds are a type of anticlines that have a well-defined, but curved hinge line and are doubly plunging and thus elongate domes. Folds in which the limbs dip toward the hinge and display a more U-like shape are called synclines, they flank the sides of anticlines and display opposite characteristics. A syncline's oldest rock strata are in its outer limbs. A monocline is a bend in the strata resulting in a local steepening in only one direction of dip. Monoclines have the shape of a carpet draped over a stairstep. An anticline, more eroded in the center is called a breached or scalped anticline. Breached anticlines can become incised by stream erosion.
A structure that plunges in all directions to form a circular or elongate structure is a dome. Domes may be created via diapirism from underlying magmatic intrusions or upwardly mobile, mechanically ductile material such as rock salt and shale that cause deformations and uplift in the surface rock; the Richat Structure of the Sahara is considered a dome, laid bare by erosion. An anticline which plunges at both ends is termed a doubly plunging anticline, may be formed from multiple deformations, or superposition of two sets of folds, it may be related to the geometry of the underlying detachment fault and the varying amount of displacement along the surface of that detachment fault. An anticlinorium is a large anticline. Examples include the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Purcell Anticlinorium in British Columbia and the Blue Ridge anticlinorium of northern Virginia and Maryland in the Appalachians, or the Nittany Valley in central Pennsylvania. Anticlines are developed above thrust faults, so any small compression and motion within the inner crust can have large effects on the upper rock stratum.
Stresses developed during mountain building or during other tectonic processes can warp or bend bedding and foliation. The more the underlying fault is tectonically uplifted, the more the strata will be deformed and must adapt to new shapes; the shape formed will be dependent on the properties and cohesion of the different types of rock within each layer. During the formation of flexural-slip folds, the different rock layers form parallel-slip folds to accommodate for buckling. A good way to visualize how the multiple layers are manipulated, is to bend a deck of cards and to imagine each card as a layer of rock stratum; the amount of slip on each side of the anticline increases from the hinge to the inflection point. Passive-flow folds form when the rock is so soft that it behaves like weak plastic and flows. In this process different parts of the rock body move at different rates causing shear stress to shift from layer to layer. There is no mec
Cathedral of Learning
The Cathedral of Learning, a Pittsburgh landmark listed in the National Register of Historic Places, is the centerpiece of the University of Pittsburgh's main campus in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, United States. Standing at 535 feet, the 42-story Late Gothic Revival Cathedral is the tallest educational building in the Western hemisphere and the second tallest university building in the world, it is the second tallest gothic-styled building in the world. The Cathedral of Learning was commissioned in 1921 and ground was broken in 1926; the first class was held in the building in 1931 and its exterior finished in October 1934, prior to its formal dedication in June 1937. Colloquially referred to as "Cathy" by some Pitt students, the Cathedral of Learning is a steel frame structure overlaid with Indiana limestone and contains more than 2,000 rooms and windows, it functions as a primary classroom and administrative center of the university, is home to the Dietrich School of Arts and Sciences, the School of Social Work, many of its departments, as well as the University Honors College.
It houses many specialty spaces, including a studio theater, food court, study lounges, offices and language labs, 30 Nationality Rooms, a 1⁄2-acre, 4-story-high, gothic study and event hall. The building contains noted examples of stained glass, stone and iron work and is used by the university in photographs and other advertisements; the basement and floors up to floor 40 are used for educational purposes, although most floors above 36 house the building's mechanical equipment. These floors include theaters, computer laboratories, language laboratories and departmental offices; the basement contains a black box theater and the ground floor contains computer labs, language labs and the Cathedral Café food court. The "lobby", comprising the first through third floors, contains a massive gothic "Commons Room", used as a general study area and for special events and is ringed by three floors of classrooms, including, on the first and third floors, the 30 Nationality Rooms designed by members of Pittsburgh's ethnic communities in the styles of different nations and ethnic groups.
Twenty-eight of these serve as functional classrooms while more conventional classrooms are located on the second floor and elsewhere throughout the building. The first floor serves as the home to the offices of the Chancellor, Executive Vice Chancellor, other administration offices, as well as the Nationality Rooms Gift Shop; the fourth floor, home to the main stacks of the university's library and the McCarl Center for Nontraditional Student Success, now houses a mix of interdisciplinary studies programs. The fifth floor housed the main borrowing and reading rooms of the university library, now houses the Department of English; the Pitt Humanities Center is housed on the sixth floor. Additionally, the University Honors College is located on the 36th floors; the Cathedral of Learning houses the Department of Philosophy, considered one of the top five in the United States, the Department of History and Philosophy of Science ranked at the top of the field. Other departments in the Cathedral include English, Religious Studies, Theatre Arts, the School of Social Work which maintains the highest classrooms in the building located on the 23rd floor.
Floors 37–40 are closed to the general public, as they contain electrical wiring for the building, as well as the Babcock Room, a large conference room on the 40th floor used for meetings and special events and which provides a panoramic view of downtown Pittsburgh and the rest of the university. The 40th floor balcony houses a nesting pair of Peregrine falcons. A view from the top is available via a webcam. Golden lights, dubbed "victory lights," surround the outside of the highest floors and are lit following Pitt football wins and other notable victories, giving the upper part of the Cathedral an amber glow; the top of the building serves as the site for the transmitter of the student-run radio station WPTS-FM as well as the amateur radio repeater W3YJ, run by the Panther Amateur Radio club on a frequency of 443.45 MHz. The building is one of the host buildings of Pennsylvania's Mock Trial Competition. In 1921, John Gabbert Bowman became the tenth chancellor of the university. At that time, the school consisted of a series of buildings constructed along Henry Hornbostel's plan for the campus and included "temporary" wooden structures built during World War I.
He began to envision a "tall building", that would be termed the Cathedral of Learning, to provide a dramatic symbol of education for the city and alleviate overcrowding by adding much needed space in order to meet present and future needs of the university. His reasoning is summarized in this quote: The building was to be more than a schoolhouse, it was to make visible something of the spirit, in the hearts of pioneers as, long ago, they sat in their log cabins and thought by candlelight of the great city that would sometime spread out beyond their three rivers and that they were starting to build. Bowman looked at a 14-acre plot of land named Frick Acres. On November 26, 1921, with aid from the Mellon family, the university was given the $2.5 million plot, began plans for a proper university building on the site. One of the foremost Gothic architects of the time, Philadelphian Charles Klauder, was hired to design the tower; the design took two years to finish, with the final plan attempting
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are related to salmon and char: species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish called trout. Lake trout and most other trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers while there are others, such as the steelhead, which can spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. Steelhead that live out their lives in fresh water are called rainbow trout. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife, including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, other animals, they are classified as oily fish. The name'trout' is used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species.
Fish referred to as trout include: Genus Salmo Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo trutta River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout – Salmo marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus, S. lumi, S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo ischchan Genus Oncorhynchus Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis Oncorhynchus gilae Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus chrysogaster Genus Salvelinus Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus agassizi Hybrids Tiger trout, Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis Speckled Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis Trout that live in different environments can have different colorations and patterns.
These colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration. In general trout that are about to breed have intense coloration, they can look like an different fish outside of spawning season. It is impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed. Trout have fins without spines, all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail; the pelvic fins sit well back on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying on their gills. There are many species, more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different.
However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this; the brook trout, the aurora trout, the silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, live m
A bathroom is a room in the home or hotel for personal hygiene activities containing a toilet, a sink and either a bathtub, a shower, or both. In some countries, the toilet is included in the bathroom, whereas other cultures consider this insanitary or impractical, give that fixture a room of its own; the toilet may be outside of the home in the case of pit latrines. It may be a question of available space in the house whether the toilet is included in the bathroom or not. Bathing was a collective activity, which took place in public baths. In some countries the shared social aspect of cleansing the body is still important, as for example with sento in Japan and the "Turkish bath" throughout the Islamic world. In North American English the word "bathroom" may be used to mean any room containing a toilet a public toilet; the term for the place used to clean the body varies around the English-speaking world, as does the design of the room itself. A full bathroom is understood to contain a bath or shower, a toilet, a sink.
An ensuite bathroom or ensuite shower room is attached to, only accessible from, a bedroom. A family bathroom, in British estate agent terminology, is a full bathroom not attached to a bedroom, but with its door opening onto a corridor. A Jack and Jill bathroom is situated between and shared by the occupants of two separate bedrooms, it may have two wash basins. A wetroom is a waterproof room equipped with a shower. In the United States, there is a lack of a universal definition. Bathrooms are categorized as "master bathroom", containing a shower and a bathtub, adjoining to the largest bedroom. In some U. S. markets, a toilet and shower are considered a "full bath." In addition, there is the use of the word "bathroom" to describe a room containing a toilet and a basin, nothing else. Bathrooms have one or more towel bars or towel rings for hanging towels Some bathrooms contain a bathroom cabinet for personal hygiene products and medicines, drawers or shelves for storing towels and other items; some bathrooms contain a bidet.
The design of a bathroom must account for the use of both hot and cold water, in significant quantities, for cleaning the body. The water is used for moving solid and liquid human waste to a sewer or septic tank. Water may be splashed on the walls and floor, hot humid air may cause condensation on cold surfaces. From a decorating point of view the bathroom presents a challenge. Ceiling and floor materials and coverings should be impervious to water and and cleaned; the use of ceramic or glass, as well as smooth plastic materials, is common in bathrooms for their ease of cleaning. Such surfaces are cold to the touch, so water-resistant bath mats or bathroom carpets may be used on the floor to make the room more comfortable. Alternatively, the floor may be heated by strategically placing resistive electric mats under floor tile or radiant hot water tubing close to the underside of the floor surface. Electrical appliances, such as lights and heated towel rails need to be installed as fixtures, with permanent connections rather than plugs and sockets.
This minimizes the risk of electric shock. Ground-fault circuit interrupter electrical sockets can reduce the risk of electric shock, are required for bathroom socket installation by electrical and building codes in the United States and Canada. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, only special sockets suitable for electric shavers and electric toothbrushes are permitted in bathrooms, are labelled as such. UK building regulations define what type of electrical fixtures, such as light fittings may be installed in the areas around and above baths, showers. Contrary to some information provided with bathroom light fittings and basins do not affect bathroom zones, as a bathroom is defined as a room containing a bath or shower, by wiring regulations, it is good practice to avoid installing unsuitable fixtures close to sinks, as damage from water splashes may occur. Bathroom lighting should be uniform and must minimize glare. For all the activities like shaving, grooming etc. one must ensure equitable lighting across the entire bathroom space.
The mirror area should have at least two sources of light at least 1 feet apart to eliminate any shadows on the face. Skin tones and hair color are highlighted with a tinge of yellow light. Ceiling and wall lights must be safe for use in a bathroom and therefore must carry appropriate certification such as IP44. All forms of bathroom lighting should be IP44 rated as safe to use in the bathroom; the first records for the use of baths date back as far as 3000 B. C. At this time water had a strong religious value, being seen as a purifying element for both body and soul, so it was not uncommon for people to be required t
A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. A modern middle-class residential kitchen is equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator, worktops and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design. Many households have a microwave oven, a dishwasher, other electric appliances; the main functions of a kitchen are to store and cook food. The room or area may be used for dining and laundry; the design and construction of kitchens is a huge market all over the world. The United States are expected to generate $47,730m in the kitchen furniture industry for 2018 alone. Commercial kitchens are found in restaurants, hotels, hospitals and workplace facilities, army barracks, similar establishments; these kitchens are larger and equipped with bigger and more heavy-duty equipment than a residential kitchen. For example, a large restaurant may have a huge walk-in refrigerator and a large commercial dishwasher machine.
In some instances commercial kitchen equipment such as commercial sinks are used in household settings as it offers ease of use for food preparation and high durability. In developed countries, commercial kitchens are subject to public health laws, they are inspected periodically by public-health officials, forced to close if they do not meet hygienic requirements mandated by law. The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the cooking range or stove and the development of water infrastructure capable of supplying running water to private homes. Food was cooked over an open fire. Technical advances in heating food in the 18th and 19th centuries changed the architecture of the kitchen. Before the advent of modern pipes, water was brought from an outdoor source such as wells, pumps or springs; the houses in Ancient Greece were of the atrium-type: the rooms were arranged around a central courtyard for women. In many such homes, a covered but otherwise open patio served as the kitchen.
Homes of the wealthy had the kitchen as a separate room next to a bathroom, both rooms being accessible from the court. In such houses, there was a separate small storage room in the back of the kitchen used for storing food and kitchen utensils. In the Roman Empire, common folk in cities had no kitchen of their own; some had small mobile bronze stoves. Wealthy Romans had well-equipped kitchens. In a Roman villa, the kitchen was integrated into the main building as a separate room, set apart for practical reasons of smoke and sociological reasons of the kitchen being operated by slaves; the fireplace was on the floor, placed at a wall—sometimes raised a little bit—such that one had to kneel to cook. There were no chimneys. Early medieval European longhouses had an open fire under the highest point of the building; the "kitchen area" was between the fireplace. In wealthy homes there was more than one kitchen. In some homes there were upwards of three kitchens; the kitchens were divided based on the types of food prepared in them.
In place of a chimney, these early buildings had a hole in the roof through which some of the smoke could escape. Besides cooking, the fire served as a source of heat and light to the single-room building. A similar design can be found in the Iroquois longhouses of North America. In the larger homesteads of European nobles, the kitchen was sometimes in a separate sunken floor building to keep the main building, which served social and official purposes, free from indoor smoke; the first known stoves in Japan date from about the same time. The earliest findings are from the Kofun period; these stoves, called kamado, were made of clay and mortar. This type of stove remained in use for centuries to come, with only minor modifications. Like in Europe, the wealthier homes had a separate building. A kind of open fire pit fired with charcoal, called irori, remained in use as the secondary stove in most homes until the Edo period. A kamado was used to cook the staple food, for instance rice, while irori served both to cook side dishes and as a heat source.
The kitchen remained unaffected by architectural advances throughout the Middle Ages. European medieval kitchens were dark and sooty places, whence their name "smoke kitchen". In European medieval cities around the 10th to 12th centuries, the kitchen still used an open fire hearth in the middle of the room. In wealthy homes, the ground floor was used as a stable while the kitchen was located on the floor above, like the bedroom and the hall. In castles and monasteries, the living and working areas were separated. In some castles the kitchen was retained in the same structure, but servants were separated from nobles, by constructing separate spiral stone staircases for use of servants to bring food to upper levels; the kitchen might be separate from the great hall due to the smoke from cooking fires and the chance the fires may get out of control. Few medieval kitchens survive as they were "notoriously ephemeral structures". An extant example of such a medieval kitchen with servants