The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Ottawa County, Oklahoma
Ottawa County is a county located in the northeastern corner of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 31,848, its county seat is Miami. The county was named for the Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma, it is the location of the federally recognized Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma and the Quapaw Tribe of Indians, based in Quapaw. Ottawa County comprises the Miami, OK Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Joplin-Miami, MO-OK Combined Statistical Area; the county borders both Missouri. Archaeological studies indicate this area was inhabited for thousands of years by succeeding cultures of prehistoric indigenous peoples. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture, at the start of the 20th century, there were eight known Archaic sites, sixteen Woodland sites, six Plains Village sites; the Osage Nation had moved into the area from Missouri and Kansas by the 19th century, under pressure from European-American encroachment on their lands. They ceded this land to the Federal Government in exchange for another area farther west in Indian Territory.
In 1828, the Western Cherokee, the first group of this nation to relocate west of the Mississippi River, ceded their land in Western Arkansas to the Federal Government in exchange for some of the land just vacated by the Osage. In 1831, the Federal Government reacquired part of what would become Ottawa County in order to resettle some smaller tribes, forced west from the Midwest under its Indian Removal program; these included two tribes of Iroquois, Quapaw, Kaskaskia, Miami and Wyandotte. The Neosho Agency administered the affairs of these tribes from 1837 until 1871. In that year, it was renamed as the Quapaw Agency; the Modoc band led by Captain Jack in northern California was exiled and relocated here in 1873, after being taken as prisoner following their defeat in the Modoc War. The 153 members were settled at the Quapaw Agency. After regaining federally recognized status in 1978 as the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, they were given land of their own under federal trust in this county. Native Americans make up nearly 17% of the population in the county.
This county is part of the Tri-state District, a center of lead and zinc mining through the first half of the 20th century. Unrestricted mining resulted in severe environmental degradation and mining centers such as Picher, Oklahoma in the county were included within the Tar Creek Superfund Site in 1980. Environmental remediation has been conducted, but the state and federal government have closed Picher as a city and relocated nearly all its residents since the early 21st century. In 1996 the government found that 34% of the children of Picher, OK had lead poisoning due to groundwater and dust effects. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 485 square miles, of which 471 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water, it is the fourth-smallest county in Oklahoma by area. The eastern part of the county lies in the Ozark Plains, while the western is in the Neosho Lowlands. Cherokee County, Kansas Newton County, Missouri McDonald County, Missouri Delaware County Craig County As of the census of 2000, there were 33,194 people, 12,984 households, 9,114 families residing in the county.
The population density was 27/km². There were 14,842 housing units at an average density of 12/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 74.15% White, 0.58% Black or African American, 16.53% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 1.54% from other races, 6.78% from two or more races. 3.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,984 households out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.60% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.80% were non-families. 26.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.70% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 24.80% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 16.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 94.30 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,507, the median income for a family was $32,368. Males had a median income of $25,725 versus $18,879 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,478. About 13.00% of families and 16.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.80% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over. Lead and zinc mining has been important to the county economy since 1890, Quapaw lands have been exploited for mining, first by lease, they were restricted in terms of receiving royalties and were excluded by discrimination from mining jobs. By 1910, the local mining industry was controlled by a few large corporations, including Commerce Mining and Royalty Company, the Eagle-Picher Company, the Childers Mining Company, the LaClede Lead and Zinc Company, the American Lead and Zinc Company. In 1926, at the region's peak of production, Ottawa County was the largest source of lead and zinc in the world.
By the 1960s most of the mines had closed, leaving mine shafts, chat piles, other dangers for future cleanup. Such areas have been designated as part of the Tar Creek Superfund Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tripoli u
Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Indians
The Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is one of three federally recognized tribes of Shawnee people. Residing in the Eastern United States, the original Shawnee lived in the areas that are now Ohio, Illinois, Tennessee and other neighboring states, it is documented that they occupied and traveled through lands from Canada to Florida, from the Mississippi River to the eastern continental coast. In contemporary times, the Absentee Shawnee Tribe headquarters is in Oklahoma. There are 3,050 enrolled Absentee Shawnee tribal members, 2,315 of whom live in Oklahoma. Tribal membership follows blood quantum criteria, with applicants requiring a minimum of one eighth documented Absentee-Shawnee blood to be placed on its membership rolls, as set forth by the tribal constitution. Though it is not a formal division, there is a social separation within its current tribal membership between the traditionalist Big Jim Band, which kept cultural traditions and ceremonies and has its primary populace in the Little Axe, Norman area, the assimilationist White Turkey Band, which adopted European ways of the European majority, with many families based in the Shawnee area.
Regardless of historical viewpoints, the bands cooperate for the future of the tribe. The tribe issues tribal vehicle tags, it owns a gas station, two smoke shops, two casinos, the AST Health Center and Plus Care, in Norman or Shawnee, Oklahoma. Its casinos, both called Thunderbird Casino, are east of Norman, near the tribal headquarters in Shawnee; the tribe's estimated annual economic impact is $6,353,722. The Absentee Shawnee Tribe has all the inherent powers of sovereignty held prior to the Constitution of the United States; some of the powers include adopting and operating a form of government of its choosing, defining the conditions of its tribal membership, regulating domestic relations of its members, levying taxes, regulating property within its jurisdiction, controlling the conduct of membership by legislation and justice. Its chosen form of government evolved over the first half of the 20th century; the current constitution was ratified on December 5, 1938, it was last amended on August 13, 1988.
The tribal government is composed of two separate branches: the judicial branch and the legislative/executive branch. In addition, an independent body, the'Election Committee,' conducts annual elections; the legislative/executive branch has five members, all elected: Governor, Secretary and Representative. Terms are two years, it is the responsibility of the Executive Committee to set policy, administer government programs, execute the will of the tribal membership. The current administration includes the following: Governor: Edwina Butler-Wolfe Lieutenant Governor: Kenneth Blanchard Secretary: John Raymond Johnson Treasurer: Phillip Ellis Representative: Atheda W Fletcher The Shawnee are an Algonquian-speaking people, at the time of European encounter, they had bands living in present-day Eastern United States and parts of the Southeastern United States. During the American Revolutionary War, many Shawnee moved from the Northwest Territory to Cape Girardeau, Missouri; the bands were joined by other Shawnee groups from Alabama.
After the 1803 Louisiana Purchase by the United States. Encroaching colonial settlement persuaded the Shawnee to negotiate an 1825 treaty, ceding their Missouri lands for reservation lands in Kansas. However, prior to the treaty, a group of Shawnees had left the region on a journey towards Texas Territory controlled by Spain. Collectively, it would be become known as Absentee Shawnee, as the band was deemed the'absent Shawnees' in the provisional clause in an 1854 treaty regarding Kansas reservation lands; the Texas-Mexico War compelled numerous Absentee Shawnees to leave Texas Territory and to relocate into Indian Territory of Oklahoma. However, it is believed that previous Shawnee bands from Kansas had resettled in Oklahoma beginning around 1839. In the late 1800s, an Indian Agent of the US government brought soldiers from Fort Reno, Oklahoma to force the traditionalist Big Jim band of Absentee Shawnees out of the Deep Fork River area, southward to Hog Creek and Little River area near present-day Lake Thunderbird, Norman.
Here, in a community, now called Little Axe, in Shawnee, the modern Absentee Shawnee people still continue to live. In 1872, the US Congress gave the Absentee Shawnee title to shared lands occupied on the Citizen Potawatomi Nation-Absentee Shawnee Oklahoma Tribal Statistical Area. In 1936, the tribe reorganized and gained federal recognition under the new Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act, with the current constitution ratified on December 5, 1938; the tribe created the Cultural Preservation Department to support cultural and language preservation. They offer a Shawnee language class. According to the Intertribal Wordpath Society, 200 to 800 people still spoke the Shawnee language in Oklahoma as of 2006. Pauline Wahpepah, a fluent native speaker, teaches Shawnee for the tribe; the official emblem was designed by Leroy White, a great-grandson of Big Jim and direct descendant of Chief Tecumseh, born and raised in Little Axe, Oklahoma, on the Indian allotment forced upon his family in 1886. From birth
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics. Languages that use agglutination are called agglutinative languages. An example of such a language is Turkish, where for example, the word evlerinizden, or "from your houses", consists of the morphemes ev-ler-iniz-den with the meanings house-plural-your-from. Agglutinative languages are contrasted both with languages in which syntactic structure is expressed by means of word order and auxiliary words and with languages in which a single affix expresses several syntactic categories and a single category may be expressed by several different affixes. However, both fusional and isolating languages may use agglutination in the most-often-used constructs, use agglutination in certain contexts, such as word derivation; this is the case in English, which has an agglutinated plural marker -s and derived words such as shame·less·ness.
Agglutinative suffixes are inserted irrespective of syllabic boundaries, for example, by adding a consonant to the syllable coda as in English tie – ties. Agglutinative languages have large inventories of enclitics, which can be and are separated from the word root by native speakers in daily usage. Note that the term agglutination is sometimes used more to refer to the morphological process of adding suffixes or other morphemes to the base of a word; this is treated in more detail in the section on other uses of the term. Although agglutination is characteristic of certain language families, this does not mean that when several languages in a certain geographic area are all agglutinative, they are related phylogenetically. In particular, such a conclusion led linguists to propose the so-called Ural–Altaic language family, which would include the Uralic and Turkic languages as well as Mongolian, Korean and Japanese. However, contemporary linguistics views this proposal as controversial. On the other hand, it is the case that some languages that have developed from agglutinative proto-languages have lost this feature.
For example, contemporary Estonian, so related to Finnish that the two languages are mutually intelligible, has shifted towards the fusional type. Examples of agglutinative languages include the Uralic languages, such as Finnish and Hungarian; these have agglutinated expressions in daily usage, most words are bisyllabic or longer. Grammatical information expressed by adpositions in Western Indo-European languages is found in suffixes. Hungarian uses extensive agglutination in all and any part of it; the suffixes follow each other in special order based on the role of the suffix, can be heaped in extreme amount, resulting words conveying complex meanings in compact form. An example is fiaiéi where the root "fi-" means "son", the subsequent four vowels are all separate suffixes, the whole word means " of his/her sons"; the nested possessive structure and expression of plurals is quite remarkable. All Austronesian languages, such as Malay, most Philippine languages belong to this category, thus enabling them to form new words from simple base forms.
The Indonesian and Malay word mempertanggungjawabkan is formed by adding active-voice and transitive affixes to the compound verb tanggung jawab, which means "to account for". In Tagalog, nakakapágpabagabag is formed from the root bagabag. Japanese, along with Korean, is an agglutinating language, adding information such as negation, passive voice, past tense, honorific degree and causality in the verb form. Common examples would be hatarakaseraretara, which combines causative, passive or potential, conditional conjugations to arrive at two meanings depending on context "if had been made to work..." and "if could make work", tabetakunakatta, which combines desire and past tense conjugations to mean "I/he/she/they did not want to eat". Taberu tabetai tabetakunai tabetakunakatta Turkish, along with all other Turkic languages, is another agglutinating language: as an extreme example, the expression Muvaffakiyetsizleştiriciveremeyebileceklerimizdenmişsinizcesine is pronounced as one word in Turkish, but it can be translated into English as "as if you were of those we would not be able to turn into a maker of unsuccessful ones".
All Dravidian languages, including Kannada, Telugu and Tamil, are agglutinative. Agglutination is used to high degrees both in the conversational and in the standardised written form of Telugu. Agglutination is a notable feature of the Basque; the conjugation of verbs, for example, is done by adding different prefixes or suffixes to the root of the verb: dakartzat, which means'I bring them', is formed by da, tza and t. Another example would be the declination: Etxean = "In the house" where etxe = house. Agglutination is used heavily in most Native American languages, such as the Inuit languages, Nahuatl