Skhodnenskaya is a station on the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. The station is a single vault, a significant engineering achievement and a change from the typical functionality design of the 1960s. Moscow's history of single vault stations began 40 years prior to Skhodnenskaya with Biblioteka Imeni Lenina which opened along with the Metro itself in 1935. Built to a design of the Paris Métro, problems of keeping the structure from collapse and pouring in bitumen called for no repeat of such methods; the second single vault, opened in 1938, was built with the cut and cover method, was not successful. The delicacy required when preparing and handling heavy monolithic concrete vault blocks was labour-intensive and in that period of industrialisation, was not cost affective. During the late 1960s following the beginning the deviation from a policy of functionality, engineers returned to the single-vault design. First tested in the Kharkov Metro, the design is initiated with a simple cut and cover as a column tri-span after the walls are mounted.
The pit is filled with the excavated earth, up to the depth of the vault keystone, shaped into a half-cylinder. From there a metallic armature is placed on the earth, on it, concrete blocks. Once set, the earth under the completed vault is re-excavated and work on the station platforms can begin; the exact shape of the dome depends on the hydro-geological conditions of the surrounding location. If hydro-isolation is not required, the walls that erected the dome are incorporated into the design and the appearance is that of a vault lying on top of them. If hydro-isolation is required, the vault extends all the way to the bottom and the station appears like a half-cylinder. In presence of high water pressure from the soil, the walls are not only left outside, but the vault is forced into a backwards curvature, making the station more cylindrical. Skhodnensakaya was the first station in Moscow to be built using this method, its design incorporated the walls into its construction. Architects Popov and Fokin were the first to exploit the potential design which gave greater potential than the pillar-trispan.
The walls were adorned with decorative cast-aluminium panels. All signage and light fixtures were attached to the ceiling, keeping the platform free of obstructions. Skhodnenskaya opened on 30 December 1975 as part of the northern extension of the Krasnopresnenskiy Line; the new design proved popular and was used in all future extensions, or new line segments and in Moscow and other ex-USSR metros had at least some single vaults. This single vault design however, should not be confused with those found in Saint Petersburg Metro, which are built exploiting a different technology; the station's underground vestibules are interlinked with subways allowing access to the Skhodnenskaya street, Yana Rainisa and Khimkinskiy Boulevards. Each day 78,750 people use the station. Metro.ru mymetro.ru KartaMetro.info — Station location and exits on Moscow map
Volgogradsky Prospekt (Moscow Metro)
Volgogradsky Prospekt is a Moscow Metro station in the Nizhegorodsky District, South-Eastern Administrative Okrug, Moscow. It is between Proletarskaya and Kuzminki stations. Volgogradsky Prospekt was opened on 31 December 1966 as part of the Zhadovsky radius and is named after the nearby Avenue that leads on from the centre of Moscow into an intercity highway all the way to the southwest of Russia, although not directly to Volgograd; the station was built to a slight modification of the standard 1960s pillar-trispan decoration showing the first signs of innovative design, as architects V. Polikarpova and A. Marova did; the platform is narrowed. The white ceramic tiles on the walls are arranged on 45 degrees to the platform and are decorated with metallic artworks out of anodized aluminium depicting the Battle of Stalingrad; the pillars are faced with white marble whilst the floor with grey granite. The station has two underground vestibules with glazed concrete pavilions which allow passengers access to the Talalikhin and Novostapovskaya streets as well as directly to the AZLK automobile plant..
Metro.ru mymetro.ru KartaMetro.info — Station location and exits on Moscow map
Ryazanskiy Prospekt is a station on Moscow Metro's Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line. Opened on 31 December 1966 as part of the Zhdanovsky radius, the station is situated where the line snakes northward and instead of following the Volgogradsky Avenue begins to follow the Ryazansky Avenue which runs several kilometres parallel to it on the north, another avenue and the original road to the city of Ryazan. Like all of the shallow-level stations built at the time, the design is a typical column tri-span, however like Volgogradsky Prospekt the platform has been narrowed; the composition of the station adopted the traditional Ryazan cloth theme to the wall decoration where the white tiles are distinctively articulated at the top with red patterns. Prominent is the large black level the pillars are faced with grey-indigo marble and the floor is laid with grey and pink granite. Unusually the station has two surface vestibules, each on both sides of the Ryazanskoye Avenue as well as access to the Akademika Skryabina street.
In March 2002 the station had a modest passenger traffic of 70,410. Metro.ru mymetro.ru KartaMetro.info — Station location and exits on Moscow map
Spartak (Moscow Metro)
Spartak named Volokolamskaya, is a station on the Moscow Metro's Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya line, under the former Tushino airfield. It was constructed in 1975 as part of the northern extension of the Krasnopresnensky radius but was left unfinished for nearly 40 years; the planned opening of Otkrytiye Arena Stadium, the home ground of FC Spartak Moscow, at the site drove the completion of the station, which opened on 27 August 2014. The station's name was changed from the planned Volokolamskaya to Spartak. Moscow's 1960's expansion plans called for a construction of a municipal housing district on the old Tushino airfield, the station was to serve it. At the time of the original planning, the station was named Aeropolye, after the airfield. However, the planned estate was never built and the station was left unfinished though it was structurally complete. Metro travellers could spot the station out the window of the train between Shchukinskaya and Tushinskaya when it was illuminated by a train travelling in the opposite direction.
The city restarted construction in 2012 in connection with the construction of Otkrytiye Arena. Spartak is a typical pillar-trispan "Novaya Sorokonozhka" design with staircases at opposite ends; the vestibules were built in 2014, with the northern one being above-ground and the southern one underground. Metro.molot.ru - Description of the station
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Ulitsa 1905 Goda
Ulitsa 1905 Goda is Moscow Metro station in the Presnensky District, Central Administrative Okrug, Russia. It is between Begovaya and Barrikadnaya stations; the station was opened on 30 December 1972. It is named after the nearby street, which in turn is named to commemorate the Revolution of 1905; the station is considered to be the first in Moscow of the modified column tri-span "Sorokonozhka" design which signified that the era where functionality dominated metro architecture had ceased. The number of pillars was lowered from 40 to 26, the interpillar distance increased from 4 to 6.5 metres. The architect, Robert Pogrebnoi, applied a decoration of pink marble to the pillars of varying shades; the walls were decorated with marble instead of ceramic tiles for the first time. The grey marble shade is punctuated with frisian and metallic artworks showing the numbers 1905 and torches. Grey granite covers the floor; the western vestibule is underground with an exit to Year 1905 street, whilst the eastern vestibule is a surface rotunda building and is situated in the middle of Krasnopresnenskaya Zastava square.
It is decorated inside with a frisian mosaic of the events of 1905. The station carries a total of 74410 people daily. Moscow metro official site metro.ru mymetro.ru KartaMetro.info — Station location and exits on Moscow map
Taganskaya (Koltsevaya line)
Taganskaya is a station on the Koltsevaya line of the Moscow Metro. It opened on 1 January 1950 with the first segment of the fourth stage of the system; the station is named after the Taganka Square, a major junction of the Sadovoye Koltso. Designed by architects K. Ryzhkov and A. Medvedev, this pylon station was built with the post-war flamboyance in mind, the overall design is based on the traditional Russian motives in decorations; the central feature of the station are 48 maiolica panels located on each face of the pylon.. These contain apart from floral elements, profile bas-reliefs of various World War II Red Army and Navy servicemen each dedicated to a group such as pilots, tank crews, sailors etc; the color gamma is balanced in such a way that the panels facing the central hall are on a blue majolica background, whilst the platform hall panels are monochromatic. Lighting comes from a set of 12 gilded chandeliers in the central hall with the same blue majolica center; the remaining decoration of the station include a cream-colored ceramic tile on the walls, powder colored marble on the lower pylons and on the walls, a checkerboard floor layout of black and gray granite.
The end of the central hall once had a large sculptural group Stalin and youth, however this was replaced in 1961 by a new artwork of the same authors depicting Vladimir Lenin, Coats of arms of the Soviet Republics and images of Hero-Cities Leningrad, Stalingrad and Odessa. This was taken down in late 1966 to make way for a transfer to the newly opened Taganskaya of the Zhdanovskaya line. Further transfer was opened in 1979 by adding a stairwell into the middle of the central hall for the new station Marksistskaya of the Kalininskaya line; because the Taganka Square is located on the hill, in order to conveniently place the large vestibule, preserve a nearby heritage building, the escalator descent had to be broken, an intermediate hall was added by placing a large cylinder and lowering to the required depth. After a dome was added, the interior work on the new lobby began, the walls of which are faced with Altai marble Oroktoy with Syringa shade, the pilasters from white marble; the dome contains Victory Fireworks by A. Shiryaeva.
On 18 November 2005 the vestibule was closed for restoration, during which old escalators were replaced. All of the decoration features were renovated, the upgrade included new turnstiles, ticket offices and security upgrade; the station was re-opened on 20 December 2006. In 1991 the rock band Lyube recorded the song Taganskaya Station about the station in its debut album titled Atas