Crowded House are a rock band, formed in Melbourne, Australia, in 1985. Its founding members were Australians Paul Hester and Nick Seymour. Band members included Neil Finn's brother, Tim Finn, Americans Mark Hart and Matt Sherrod. Active from 1985 to 1996, Crowded House had consistent commercial and critical success in Australia and New Zealand and international chart success in two phases, beginning with a self-titled debut album that reached number twelve on the US Album Chart in 1987 and provided the Top Ten hits "Don't Dream It's Over" and "Something So Strong". Further international success came in the UK, Europe and South Africa with their third and fourth albums and the compilation album Recurring Dream, which included the hits "Fall at Your Feet", "Weather with You", "Distant Sun", "Locked Out", "Instinct" and "Not the Girl You Think You Are". Neil and Tim Finn were each awarded an OBE in June 1993 for their contributions to the music of New Zealand. In June 1996, Crowded House announced.
The band played several farewell concerts that year, including the "Farewell to the World" concerts in Melbourne and Sydney. On 26 March 2005, Hester died by suicide, aged 46. In 2006, the group re-formed with drummer Matt Sherrod and released two further albums, each of which reached number one on Australia's album chart; as of July 2010, Crowded House had sold 10 million albums. In November 2016, the band was inducted into the ARIA Hall of Fame. Neil Finn and drummer Paul Hester were former members of New Zealand band Split Enz, which spent part of 1975–6 in Australia and several years in England. Neil Finn is the younger brother of Split Enz founding member Tim Finn, who joined Crowded House in 1990 on vocals and keyboards for the album Woodface. Bassist Nick Seymour is the younger brother of singer-songwriter and guitarist Mark Seymour of the now defunct Australian rock group Hunters & Collectors. Finn and Hester decided to form a new band during the first Split Enz farewell tour, "Enz with a Bang", in late 1984.
Seymour approached Finn during the after party for the Melbourne show and asked if he could audition for the new band. The Mullanes formed in Melbourne in early 1985 with Finn, Hester and guitarist Craig Hooper and first performed on 11 June, they secured a record contract with Capitol Records, but Hooper left the band before the remaining trio moved to Los Angeles to record their debut album. At Capitol's behest, the band's name was changed to Crowded House, which alluded to the lack of space at the small Hollywood Hills house they shared during the recording of the album Crowded House. Former Split Enz keyboardist Eddie Rayner produced the track "Can't Carry On" and was asked to join the band, he was unable to become a full member due to family commitments. Thanks to their Split Enz connection, the newly formed Crowded House had an established Australasian fanbase, they began by playing at festivals in Australia and New Zealand and released their debut album, Crowded House, in June 1986. Capitol Records failed to see the band's potential and gave them only low-key promotion, forcing the band to play at small venues to try and gain attention.
The album's first single, "Mean to Me", reached the Australian Kent Music Report Singles Chart top 30 in June. It failed to chart in the US. A single, "Don't Dream It's Over", was released in December 1986 and proved an international hit, reaching number two on the US Billboard Hot 100 and number one in Canada. New Zealand radio stations gave the song little support until months when it became successful internationally; the song reached number one on the New Zealand singles chart and number eight in Australia. It remains the group's most commercially successful song. In March 1987, the group were awarded "Best New Talent", along with "Song of the Year" and "Best Video" awards for "Don't Dream It's Over" at the inaugural ARIA Music Awards; the video earned the group the MTV Video Music Award for Best New Artist that year. The song has been covered by other artists and gave Paul Young a hit single in 1991, it was used for a New Zealand Tourism Board advertisement in its "100% Pure New Zealand" worldwide promotion from October 2005.
In May 2001, "Don't Dream it's Over" was voted seventh in a poll of the best Australian songs of all time by the Australasian Performing Right Association. In June 1987, a year after its release, Crowded House reached number one on the Kent Music Report Album Charts, it reached number three in New Zealand and number twelve on the US Billboard album chart. The follow-up to "Don't Dream it's Over", "Something So Strong", was another global smash, reaching the Top 10 in New Zealand and Canada. "World Where You Live" and "Now We're Getting Somewhere" were released as singles with chart success. As the band's primary songwriter, Neil Finn was under pressure to create a second album to match their debut and the band joked that one potential title for the new release was Mediocre Follow-Up. Titled Temple of Low Men, their second album was released in July 1988 with strong promotion by Capitol Records; the album did not fare as well as their debut in the US, only reaching number 40, but it achieved Australasian success, reaching number one in Australia and number two in New Zealand.
The first single "Better Be Home Soon" peaked at number two on both Australian and New Zealand singles charts and reached top 50 in the US, though th
Holly Sarah Throsby is an Australian musician and novelist. As a solo artist Throsby has issued six albums, she was nominated for an ARIA Award for Best Female Artist in 2006. In 2011 she was nominated for an ARIA Award for Best Children's Album for See!, her album of alternative children's songs. From August 2010 to the end of 2011 Throsby was a member of Seeker Lover Keeper, with fellow singer-songwriters, Sally Seltmann and Sarah Blasko, they released an album of the same name in June 2011, which peaked at No. 3 and was nominated for an ARIA Award for Best Alternative Album in that year. Throsby's debut novel, was published by Allen & Unwin on 28 September 2016. Goodwood came in at #7 on ABC’s The Book Club’s Top Ten. Goodwood has been since been shortlisted for an Indie Book Award, two Australian Book Industry Awards, two Sisters in Crime Davitt Awards, a Ned Kelly Award, her second novel, Cedar Valley, was published in September 2018. Holly Sarah Throsby is the daughter of Margaret Throsby, a radio presenter on Australian Broadcasting Corporation Classic FM.
Her uncle, David Throsby is a cultural economist, her maternal grandmother was a cellist in the Sydney Symphony Orchestra. Her older half-brother, Timothy Marc, died in a motorcycle accident in Thailand in 1996. Throsby grew up in Sydney and began studying guitar at the age of 8, she studied classical guitar techniques and began composing from the age of 11. She attended Hunters Hill High School for her secondary education. Throsby recalled the death of her brother "I was 17 when died and I had one exam left in my HSC. I went to the exam and did all that stuff because I thought you had to keep on doing that stuff and I didn't stop... Those things affect you. I think, it made. It made, it made me scared when other people travel away from me." After earning a B. A. degree from the University of Sydney, Throsby worked at an art house video store for several years and travelled overseas, including living in Austin, Texas for six months. During 2003 Throsby recorded her debut album, On Night, with experimental producer, Tony Dupé, at his cottage on Saddleback Mountain, near Kiama.
Throsby provided lead vocals and guitar, additional musicians were Dupé on piano and pump organ, Davey Cotsios on guitar and backing vocals, Abel Cross on bass guitar and double bass, Joseph Fuse on drums. In Australia it appeared on Spunk Records. AllMusic's Mark Deming described her album of "uncluttered but resonant songs made a major impact with critics." Chloe Persing of Woroni felt it was "a collection of quaint and delicate acoustic songs that have a lyrical focus on themes such as loneliness and distance, have the ability to resonate quite powerfully."Throsby toured Australia supporting various musical acts: Bonnie "Prince" Billy, Joanna Newsom, Bill Callahan/ Smog, M. Ward, Devendra Banhart, Jose Gonzales and The Eels, she toured in the United States, attending SXSW in 2005 and returning for a support tour with David Pajo. Throsby toured Europe, including the United Kingdom, with Micah P. Hinson. In September 2005 Throsby's cover version of "Not the Girl You Think You Are" was compiled on the various artist's album, She Will Have Her Way – a tribute to singer-songwriters, brothers and Neil Finn.
Fellow female singers on the album include Sally Seltmann. In July 2006, Throsby released her second album, Under the Town, it was produced by Dupé again but included a larger group of session musicians. Dupé assisted with piano, bouzouki and trumpet, it reached the ARIA Albums Chart top 100. It reached No. 2 on the related Hitseekers Albums chart. The ARIA Report cited her "distinctive, fragile voice" with her "country-folk sound and poignant lyrics regarding all things from howling wolves to coffee pots" which have "struck a chord with music lovers." Under the Town was lauded by music critics. At the ARIA Music Awards of 2006 Throsby was nominated for Best Female Artist for the album. Ed Nimmervoll, an Australian music journalist, declared Under the Town to be his Feature Album for the week of 5 September that year, he explained. What hasn't changed is the revealing, daring nature of her songs, Holly musing on life and love in a quiet breathless provocative voice, accentuating every word. She's fragile.
The songs are filled with images and feelings that spill between the songs." Mess+Noise's Craig Mathieson opined that "playfulness comes but it’s the unease that lingers" while her "voice has an airy, splintered tone – certain syllables crack under the pressure – and she uses it to move between plangent pop and formal folk constructs."Throsby promoted the album with a national tour, interrupted by a short tour of New Zealand. She described her writing process to Laura MacIntyre of MediaSearch website, "I've never had any music lessons, I don't understand music theory. I make chord shapes, but I just make things up as I go along... I have ideas for a song, a song can start from one word, one image... Melodies
Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s. The term was used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, drums, one or more saxophones, sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships and aspirations; the term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, it was applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music.
In the 1960s, several British rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R&B bands. Their mix of rock and roll and R&B is now known as "British rhythm and blues". By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "contemporary R&B", it combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop, electronic music. Popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Prince, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Chaka Khan, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey. In the 21st century, R&B has remained a popular genre becoming more pop orientated and alternatively influenced with successful artists including Usher, Bruno Mars, Chris Brown, Justin Timberlake, The Weeknd, Frank Ocean and Khalid. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term "rhythm and blues" as a musical term in the United States in 1948, the term was used in Billboard as early as 1943.
It replaced the term "race music", which came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. The term "rhythm and blues" was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its "Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles" chart was renamed as "Best Selling Soul Singles". Before the "Rhythm and Blues" name was instated, various record companies had begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music, made by and for black Americans", he has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. However, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R&B's stronger gospel influences. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.
Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass and saxophone. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow and hypnotic textures while calling attention to no individual sound. While singers are engaged with the lyrics intensely so, they remain cool, in control; the bands dressed in suits, uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics seemed fatalistic, the music followed predictable patterns of chords and structure; the migration of African Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for jazz and related genres of music.
These genres of music were performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit "Oh Red", as well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, T-Bone Walker. There was increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone. In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. Jordan's band, the Tympany Five, consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano and drums. Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat".
Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, Wynonie Harris, is now referred to as jump blues. Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, others had had hits in the style now referred to as rhythm and blu
Neil Mullane Finn is a New Zealand singer-songwriter and musician. With his brother Tim Finn, he was the co-frontman for Split Enz, a project that he joined after it was founded by Tim and others, became the frontman for Crowded House, he has recorded several successful solo albums and assembled diverse musicians for the 7 Worlds Collide project. Finn rose to prominence in the late 1970s with Split Enz and wrote the successful songs "One Step Ahead", "History Never Repeats", "I Got You" and "Message to My Girl", among others. Finn rose to international fame after Split Enz broke up in 1984. While his brother Tim left for England, Neil was the founder of Crowded House with Split Enz's last drummer Paul Hester in 1985; the group achieved international success in 1987 when they released the single "Don't Dream It's Over", written by Neil. He ended Crowded House in 1996 to embark on what was to become a moderately successful solo career, has released two albums with his brother Tim as the Finn Brothers.
In 2006, after the death of drummer Paul Hester, Finn reformed Crowded House and released their first studio album in over 13 years, Time on Earth, the band began a world tour. In 2010, Finn commenced another world tour with Crowded House in support of their 2010 release, Intriguer. In February 2014, Finn released Dizzy Heights. On 9 April 2018, it was announced that Finn would perform with Fleetwood Mac as part of their forthcoming tour in 2018, replacing Lindsey Buckingham. Finn was born the youngest of four children to Mary Finn in Te Awamutu, New Zealand, his mother, a devout Catholic who moved to New Zealand from Ireland at the age of two, maintained a religious influence over the family. Speaking of Catholicism, Finn stated "It's a great fertile ground for pulling lyrics out. Lots of good stuff going on in there, good rituals and imagery and lots of guilt. It's a potent combination. I think you're blessed to be brought up with some kind of weird dogma like that." His father, the son of a farmer from Waikato, served in the army in Italy and became an accountant during World War II.
His parents instilled an "inspiring admiration of music" in young Finn. In addition to music, Finn enjoyed sports swimming, rugby and biking; as a child, Finn would perform at family gatherings with his older brother Tim. Finn recalled, "We'd sing all night, it was much part of our upbringing.... That was the first inkling of the seduction of live performance." He idolized his brother and wished to imitate his actions, learning to play guitar and piano at the same time Tim did. Tim was more public about his musical aspirations, won ten shillings in his school's annual talent contest shortly after enrolling; when Tim left to study at Sacred Heart College, a boarding school in Auckland, eight-year-old Neil started playing a guitar that his older brother left behind. A natural performer, Finn was nicknamed'The Ant' by his family due to his determined and ambitious nature. Finn attended Sacred Heart boarding Te Awamutu College, he decided to become a musician at the age of 12 and throughout his school years performed in prisons and hospitals, as well as at home gatherings.
Finn finished school in 1975. In 1976, Finn formed the group After Hours, with Mark Hough, Geoff Chunn, Alan Brown. Not long after the band's debut performance, Finn's brother invited him to join Split Enz in London, replacing original singer-songwriter Phil Judd. By 1980, he was sharing lead singer duties and wrote their first international hit, "I Got You". Finn contributed to the band's albums, briefly assumed leadership of the band after Tim Finn left in 1984, prior to the cessation of the band. After the breakup of Split Enz in 1984. Finn formed a new band called The Mullanes with Split Enz drummer Paul Hester, guitarist Craig Hooper of The Reels, bassist Nick Seymour, whom Neil had met on the final Split Enz tour. Hooper left just before they recorded their first album, at which time the band was renamed Crowded House, inspired by the rental home they shared while recording in Los Angeles. Crowded House went on to enormous success worldwide, in particular with two major hits: "Don't Dream It's Over" and "Weather With You".
Both Neil and his brother Tim were invested as Officers of the Order of the British Empire for services to New Zealand music in the 1993 Queen's Birthday Honours List. After releasing four albums, Crowded House, Temple of Low Men and Together Alone, the group broke up in 1996, followed this action by releasing a greatest hits album Recurring Dream. Following the breakup of Crowded House, Finn embarked on a solo career; the album Afterglow was released in 1999, which contained unreleased Crowded House recordings. Finn appeared alongside Roddy Frame and Graham Gouldman as part of the BBC Four's "Songwriters' Circle" series in 1999, explained that "Don't Dream It's Over" and "Better Be Home Soon" were both written with all of the elements of each song—such as lyrics and verses—emerging at the same time. Finn sang the opening lines of The Verve song "The Drugs Don't Work" to the opening chords of the latter song. Finn penned a theme song for the All Blacks' participation in the 1999 Rugby World Cup, "Can You Hear Us?", that made it to the top of the NZ charts in Octo
Capitol Records, Inc. is an American record label owned by Universal Music Group through its Capitol Music Group imprint. It was founded as the first West Coast-based record label in the United States in 1942 by Johnny Mercer, Buddy DeSylva, Glenn E. Wallichs. Capitol was acquired by British music conglomerate EMI as its North American subsidiary in 1955. EMI was acquired by Universal Music Group in 2012 and was merged with the company a year making Capitol and the Capitol Music Group both a part of UMG; the label's circular headquarter building in Hollywood is a recognized landmark of California. Capitol's roster includes Katy Perry, Sir Paul McCartney, Mary J. Blige, the Beach Boys, the Beastie Boys, Neil Diamond, Brian Wilson, Avenged Sevenfold, 5 Seconds of Summer, Don Henley, Sam Smith, Migos, NF, Emeli Sandé, Troye Sivan, Calum Scott, Tori Kelly, Jon Bellion, Niall Horan. Songwriter Johnny Mercer founded Capitol Records in 1942 with financial help from songwriter and film producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, owner of Wallichs Music City.
Mercer raised the idea of starting a record company while golfing with Harold Arlen and Bobby Sherwood and with Wallichs at Wallichs's record store. On February 2, 1942, Mercer and Wallichs met DeSylva at a restaurant in Hollywood to talk about investment by Paramount Pictures. On March 27, 1942, the three men incorporated as Liberty Records. In May 1942, the application was amended to change the company's name to Capitol Records. On April 6, 1942, Mercer supervised Capitol's first recording session where Martha Tilton recorded the song "Moon Dreams". On May 5, Bobby Sherwood and his orchestra recorded two tracks in the studio. On May 21, Freddie Slack and his orchestra recorded three tracks in the studio. On June 4, 1942, Capitol opened its first office in a second-floor room south of Sunset Boulevard. On that same day, Wallichs presented the company's first free record to Los Angeles disc jockey Peter Potter. On June 5, 1942, Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra recorded four songs at the studio. On June 12, the orchestra recorded five more songs in the studio, including "Trav'lin' Light" with Billie Holiday, On June 11, Tex Ritter recorded " Jingle Jangle Jingle" and "Goodbye My Little Cherokee" for his first Capitol recording session, the songs formed Capitol's 110th produced record.
The earliest recording artists included co-owner Mercer, Johnnie Johnston, Morse, Jo Stafford, the Pied Pipers, Tex Ritter, Paul Weston and Margaret Whiting Capitol's first gold single was Morse's "Cow Cow Boogie" in 1942. Capitol's first album was Capitol Presents Songs by Johnny Mercer, a three disc set with recordings by Mercer and the Pied Pipers, all with Weston's Orchestra; the label's other 1940s musicians included Les Baxter, Les Brown, Jimmy Bryant, Billy Butterfield, Nat King Cole, Sammy Davis Jr. Dinning Sisters, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Mary Ford, Benny Goodman, Skitch Henderson, Betty Hutton, Stan Kenton, Peggy Lee, Billy May, Les Paul, Alvino Rey, Andy Russell, Smilin' Jack Smith, Kay Starr, Speedy West, Cootie Williams. Musicians on the Capitol Americana label included Lead Belly, Cliffie Stone, Hank Thompson, Merle Travis, Wesley Tuttle, Jimmy Wakely, Tex Williams. Capitol was the first major west coast label to compete with labels on the east coast such as Columbia, RCA Victor.
In addition to its Los Angeles recording studio, Capitol owned a second studio in New York City and sent mobile recording equipment to New Orleans and other cities. In 1946, writer-producer Alan W. Livingston created Bozo the Clown for the company's children's record library. Examples of notable Capitol albums for children during that era are Sparky's Magic Piano and Rusty in Orchestraville. Capitol developed a noted jazz catalog that included the Capitol Jazz Men and issued the Miles Davis's album Birth of the Cool Capitol released a few classical albums in the 1940s, some of which contained a embossed, leather-like cover; these recordings appeared on 78 rpm format released on the 33 format in 1949. Among the recordings: Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos' Choros No. 10, with contributions from a Los Angeles choral group and the Janssen Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Werner Janssen. In 1949, Capitol opened a branch office in Canada and purchased KHJ Studios on Melrose Avenue adjacent to Paramount in Hollywood.
By the mid-1950s, Capitol had become a huge company. The label's roster included the Andrews Sisters, Ray Anthony, Shirley Bassey, June Christy, Tommy Duncan, Tennessee Ernie Ford, the Four Freshmen, the Four Knights, the Four Preps, Jane Froman, Judy Garland, Jackie Gleason, Andy Griffith, Dick Haymes, Harry James, the Kingston Trio, the Louvin Brothers, Dean Martin, Al Martino, Skeets McDonald, Louis Prima, Nelson Riddle, Dinah Shore, Frank Sinatra, Keely Smith. Capitol began recording roll acts such as the Jodimars and Gene Vincent. There were comedy records by Stan Freberg, Johnny Standley, Mickey Katz. Children listened to Capitol's Bozo the Clown albums. Although various people played Bozo the Clown on television, Capitol used the voice of Pinto Colvig, the voice of Goofy in Walt Disney cartoons. Don Wilson released children's records. In June 1952, Billboard magazine contained a chronicle of the label's first ten years in business. In 1955, the British record company EMI ended its 55-year mutual distribution
Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music and blues and jazz. Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States, where record labels such as Motown and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement. Soul became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music and the music of Africa. According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, soul is "music that arose out of the black experience in America through the transmutation of gospel and rhythm & blues into a form of funky, secular testifying". Catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are a call and response between the lead vocalist and the chorus and an tense vocal sound; the style occasionally uses improvisational additions and auxiliary sounds. Soul music reflected the African-American identity and it stressed the importance of an African-American culture.
The new-found African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black. Soul music dominated the U. S. R&B chart in the 1960s, many recordings crossed over into the pop charts in the U. S. Britain and elsewhere. By 1968, the soul music genre had begun to splinter; some soul artists developed funk music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, in some cases more politically conscious varieties. By the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul; the United States saw the development of neo soul around 1994. There are several other subgenres and offshoots of soul music; the key subgenres of soul include a rhythmic music influenced by gospel. Soul music has its roots in traditional African-American gospel music and rhythm and blues and as the hybridization of their respective religious and secular styles – in both lyrical content and instrumentation – that began in the 1950s.
The term "soul" had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States. According to musicologist Barry Hansen,Though this hybrid produced a clutch of hits in the R&B market in the early 1950s, only the most adventurous white fans felt its impact at the time. According to AllMusic, "oul music was the result of the urbanization and commercialization of rhythm and blues in the'60s." The phrase "soul music" itself, referring to gospel-style music with secular lyrics, was first attested in 1961. The term "soul" in African-American parlance has connotations of African-American culture. Gospel groups in the 1940s and'50s used the term as part of their names; the jazz style that originated from gospel became known as soul jazz. As singers and arrangers began using techniques from both gospel and soul jazz in African-American popular music during the 1960s, soul music functioned as an umbrella term for the African-American popular music at the time.
Important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, Etta James. Ray Charles is cited as popularizing the soul music genre with his series of hits, starting with 1954's "I Got a Woman". Singer Bobby Womack said, "Ray was the genius, he turned the world onto soul music." Charles was open in acknowledging the influence of Pilgrim Travelers vocalist Jesse Whitaker on his singing style. Little Richard, who inspired Otis Redding, James Brown both were influential. Brown was nicknamed the "Godfather of Soul Music", Richard proclaimed himself as the "King of Rockin' and Rollin', Rhythm and Blues Soulin'", because his music embodied elements of all three, since he inspired artists in all three genres. Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are acknowledged as soul forefathers. Cooke became popular as the lead singer of the gospel group The Soul Stirrers, before controversially moving into secular music, his recording of "You Send Me" in 1957 launched a successful pop music career.
Furthermore, his 1962 recording of "Bring It On Home To Me" has been described as "perhaps the first record to define the soul experience". Jackie Wilson, a contemporary of both Cooke and James Brown achieved crossover success with his 1957 hit "Reet Petite", he was influential for his dramatic delivery and performances. Writer Peter Guralnick is among those to identify Solomon Burke as a key figure in the emergence of soul music, Atlantic Records as the key record label. Burke's early 1960s songs, including "Cry to Me", "Just Out of Reach" and "Down in the Valley" are considered classics of the genre. Guralnick wrote: "Soul started, in a sense, with the 1961 success of Solomon Burke's "Just Out Of Reach". Ray Charles, of course, had enjoyed enormous success, as had James Brown and Sam Cooke — in a pop vein. E