Massachusetts's 5th congressional district
Massachusetts's 5th congressional district is a congressional district in eastern Massachusetts. The district is represented by Katherine Clark. Massachusetts congressional redistricting after the 2010 census has changed the borders of the district starting with the elections of 2012, with the new 3rd district taking the place of the old 5th; the 5th district covers many of the communities represented in the old 7th district. As of 2010, the population of the 5th congressional district was 727,515. On July 15, 2013, Ed Markey resigned from the seat to become the junior Senator from Massachusetts. On December 10, 2013, Democrat Katherine Clark won a special election to fill the seat for the remainder of the 113th Congress, she was sworn into office on December 12, 2013. The district has been in Democratic hands without interruption since 1975. Before Paul Tsongas' victory that year, it had only elected three Democrats in its entire existence and had been in Republican hands since 1895, it was one of the more moderate districts in Democratic Massachusetts before redistricting in 2013.
In state races, it supported Republican candidates for Governor William Weld, Paul Celluci, Mitt Romney. In the 2007 special election to replace Marty Meehan, Republican candidate Jim Ogonowski ran an unexpectedly strong race losing 51-45%. In Middlesex County: Arlington, Belmont, Cambridge: Ward 3 Precinct 2A, Ward 4 Precincts 2 and 3, Wards 6, 7, 8, 9, Ward 10 Precincts 1 and 2, Holliston, Lincoln, Medford, Natick, Stoneham, Sudbury: Precincts 1A, 2, 3, 4, 5, Watertown, Weston and Woburn. In Suffolk County: Revere, Winthrop. In Worcester County: Southborough. "The towns of Ashburnham, Barre, Charlton, Douglas, Gardner, Hardwick, Hubbardston, Mendon, Millbury, New Braintree, North Brookfield, Oakham, Paxton, Phillipston, Rutland, Spencer, Sutton, Upton, Warren, West Boylston, Westminster and Worcester, in the County of Worcester." "The wards numbered one, three, four and six, in the city of Boston, the towns of Chelsea and North Chelsea, Winthrop, in the county of Suffolk. "Arlington, Wards, 3, 4, 5, Burlington, Lexington, Malden, Melrose, Saugus, Stoneham, Wakefield, Waltham and Woburn."
"Essex County: Towns of Andover and Methuen. Middlesex County: Cities of Lowell and Woburn. Worcester County: Towns of Berlin, Bolton and Northboro." "Essex County: City of Lawrence. Towns of Andover and Methuen. Middlesex County: City of Lowell. Towns of Acton, Bedford, Boxborough, Chelmsford, Dracut, Groton, Littleton, North Reading, Tewksbury, Tyngsborough and Wilmington." In Essex County: Andover, Lawrence, Methuen. In Middlesex County: Acton, Billerica, Carlisle, Concord, Dunstable, Hudson, Lowell, Shirley, Sudbury, Tyngsborough, Westford. In Worcester County: Berlin, Harvard, Lancaster. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Map of Massachusetts's 5th Congressional District, via Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth CNN.com 2004 election results CNN.com 2006 election results Associated Press 2007 election results Massachusetts Elections Division 2008 Return of Votes
Daniel Webster was an American statesman who represented New Hampshire and Massachusetts in the United States Congress and served as the United States Secretary of State under Presidents William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore. He was a prominent attorney during the period of the Marshall Court. Throughout his career, he was a member of the Federalist Party, the National Republican Party, the Whig Party. Born in New Hampshire in 1782, Webster established a successful legal practice in Portsmouth, New Hampshire after undergoing a legal apprenticeship, he emerged as a prominent opponent of the War of 1812 and won election to the United States House of Representatives, where he served as a leader of the Federalist Party. Webster relocated to Boston, Massachusetts, he became a leading attorney before the Supreme Court of the United States, winning cases such as Dartmouth College v. Woodward, McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden. Webster became a key supporter of President John Quincy Adams.
He won election to the United States Senate in 1827 and worked with Henry Clay to build the National Republican Party in support of Adams. After Andrew Jackson defeated Adams in the 1828 presidential election, Webster became a leading opponent of Jackson's domestic policies, he objected to the theory of Nullification espoused by John C. Calhoun, his Second Reply to Hayne speech is regarded as one of the greatest speeches delivered in Congress. Webster supported Jackson's defiant response to the Nullification Crisis, but broke with the president due to disagreements over the Second Bank of the United States. Webster joined with other Jackson opponents in forming the Whig Party, unsuccessfully ran in the 1836 presidential election, he supported Harrison in the 1840 presidential election and was appointed secretary of state after Harrison took office. Unlike the other members of Harrison's Cabinet, he continued to serve under President Tyler after Tyler broke with congressional Whigs; as secretary of state, Webster negotiated the Webster–Ashburton Treaty, which settled border disputes with Britain.
Webster resumed his status as a leading congressional Whig. During the Mexican–American War, he emerged as a leader of the "Cotton Whigs," a faction of Northern Whigs that emphasized good relations with the South over anti-slavery policies. In 1850, President Fillmore appointed Webster as secretary of state, Webster contributed to the passage of the Compromise of 1850, which settled several territorial issues and enacted a new fugitive slave law; the Compromise proved unpopular in much of the North and undermined Webster's standing in his home state. Webster sought the Whig nomination in the 1852 presidential election, but a split between supporters of Fillmore and Webster led to the nomination of General Winfield Scott. Webster is regarded as an important and talented attorney and politician, but historians and observers have offered mixed opinions on his moral qualities and ability as a national leader. Daniel Webster was born on January 18, 1782, in Salisbury, New Hampshire, at a location within the present-day city of Franklin.
He was the son of Abigail and Ebenezer Webster, a farmer and local official who served in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. Ebenezer's ancestor, the Scottish-born Thomas Webster, had migrated to the United States around 1636. Ebenezer had three children from a previous marriage who survived to maturity, as well as five children from his marriage to Abigail. Webster was close to his older brother, born in 1780; as a youth, Webster helped work the family farm, but was in poor health. With the encouragement of his parents and tutors, Webster read works by authors such as Alexander Pope and Isaac Watts. In 1796, Webster attended a preparatory school in Exeter, New Hampshire. After studying the classics and other subjects for several months under a clergyman, Webster was admitted to Dartmouth College in 1797. During his time at Dartmouth, Webster managed the school newspaper and emerged as a strong public speaker, he was chosen Fourth of July orator in Hanover, the college town, in 1800, in his speech appears the substance of the political principles for the development of which he became famous.
Like his father, like many other New England farmers, Webster was devoted to the Federalist Party and favored a strong central government. Webster was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa honor society. After he graduated from Dartmouth, Webster apprenticed under Salisbury lawyer Thomas W. Thompson. Though unenthusiastic about studying the law, Webster believed that becoming a lawyer would allow him to "live comfortably" and avoid the bouts of poverty that had afflicted his father. In order to help support his brother Ezekiel's study at Dartmouth, Webster temporarily resigned from the law office to work as a schoolteacher at Fryeburg Academy in Maine. In 1804, he obtained a position in Boston under the prominent attorney Christopher Gore. Clerking for Gore –, involved in international and state politics – Webster learned about many legal and political subjects and met numerous New England politicians, he grew to love Boston. After winning admission to the bar, Webster set up a legal practice in Boscawen, New Hampshire.
He became involved in politics and began to speak locally in support of Federalist causes and candidates. After his father's death in 1806, Webster handed over his pr
Massachusetts's 1st congressional district
Massachusetts's 1st congressional district is located in western and central Massachusetts. The largest Massachusetts district in area, it covers about one-third of the state and is more rural than the rest, it has Mount Greylock. The district includes the cities of Springfield, West Springfield, Pittsfield and Westfield; the shape of the district underwent some changes effective from the elections of 2012, after Massachusetts congressional redistricting to reflect the 2010 census. The entire Springfield area is included in the new 1st district, the Worcester County areas of the old 1st district were split between the new 2nd and 3rd districts. Richard Neal, a Democrat from Springfield, represents the district. All of Berkshire County, all of Hampden County, the following towns and cities: In Franklin County: Ashfield, Buckland, Colrain, Hawley, Leyden, Monroe and Shelburne. In Hampshire County: Chesterfield, Easthampton, Granby, Middlefield, South Hadley, Westhampton and Worthington. In Worcester County: Brookfield, Dudley, East Brookfield, Southbridge and Warren.
Massachusetts's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. "CNN.com Election 2004". Retrieved March 15, 2019 – via CNN.com. "CNN.com - Elections 2006". CNN.com. Retrieved March 15, 2019. "Massachusetts Congressional Districts". Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth. January 1, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2019. "Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present". Retrieved March 15, 2019
Samuel Holten was an American physician and statesman from Danvers, Massachusetts. He represented Massachusetts as a delegate to the Continental Congress and a member of the United States House of Representatives. Holten was born in Danvers, Massachusetts on June 9, 1738, he was studied medicine and established a practice in Gloucester. He soon returned to Danvers. During the American Revolution Holten supported the Patriot cause. Holten served in the militia as a major in the First Essex County Regiment, he was a member of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress from 1774 to 1775 and the Massachusetts Committee of Safety in 1775. He served in the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1780 and the United States in Congress Assembled, 1783 to 1785, again in 1787, he was elected Chairman of the United States in Congress Assembled on August 17, 1785. ″His Excellency the president, being, by indisposition, prevented from attending the House, Congress proceeded to the election of a Chairman, the ballots being taken, the honble.
Samuel Holten was elected.″ Holten was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1779. From 1780 to 1782 Holten served in the Massachusetts Senate, he served again in 1784, 1786, 1789, 1790. In 1787 he was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. From 1780 to 1782 Holten was a member of the Massachusetts Governor's Council, he served again in 1784, 1786, 1789 to 1792, 1795, 1796. In 1792 Holten was elected as an Anti-Administration candidate to the Third Congress. Holten served as judge of the Essex County Court, he was appointed judge of the Essex County Probate Court in 1796, he served until his resignation in 1815. He died in Danvers on January 2, 1816, was buried at Holten Cemetery in Danvers. United States Congress. "Samuel Holten". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Samuel Dexter was an early American statesman who served both in Congress and in the Presidential Cabinets of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, to the Rev. Samuel Dexter, the 4th minister of Dedham, he graduated from Harvard University in 1781 and studied law at Worcester under Levi Lincoln Sr. the future Attorney General of the United States. After he passed the bar in 1784, he began practicing in Massachusetts, he was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives and served from 1788 to 1790. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives as a Federalist and served in the 3rd Congress, he served in the United States Senate from March 4, 1799, to May 30, 1800. During a House discussion on a Naturalization Bill in 1795, Virginia Representative William Branch Giles controversially suggested that all immigrants be forced to take an oath renouncing any titles of nobility they held. Dexter responded by questioning why Catholics were not required to denounce allegiance to the Pope, because priestcraft had initiated more problems throughout history than aristocracy.
Dexter's points caused an infuriated James Madison to defend American Catholics, many of whom, such as Charles Carroll of Carrollton, had been good citizens during the American Revolution, to point out that hereditary titles were barred under the Constitution in any event. In December 1799, he delivered the Senate eulogy for George Washington. Dexter served in the Senate for less than a year, resigned in order to accept his appointment as United States Secretary of War in the administration of President John Adams. During his time at the War Department he urged congressional action to permit appointment and compensation of field officers for general staff duty; when Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott Jr. resigned in December 1800, Adams appointed Dexter as interim Secretary, Dexter served from January to May 1801. With incoming President Thomas Jefferson wanting to delay his choice for Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin, for a recess appointment in May, Dexter agreed to retain his duties as Secretary of the Treasury for the first two months of Jefferson's term.
In a letter to his wife on March 5, 1801, Gallatin said that Dexter had behaved "with great civility." He resumed the practice of law. He left the Federalists and became a Democratic-Republican because he supported the War of 1812, he was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 1814, 1815 and 1816. Dexter was an ardent supporter of the temperance movement and presided over its first formal organization in Massachusetts, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1800. He died on May 4, 1816, shortly before his 55th birthday and is buried at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Simon Newton Dexter and Andrew Dexter Jr. were his nephews. Samuel W. Dexter, founder of Dexter, was his son. Samuel Dexter is the namesake of Maine; the USRC Dexter was named in his honor. United States Congress. "Samuel Dexter". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-5-20 "Samuel Dexter". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-05-20
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district
Massachusetts's 3rd congressional district is located in northeastern and central Massachusetts. Massachusetts congressional redistricting after the 2010 census has changed the borders of this congressional district dividing it between the new 2nd and 4th districts, with the new 3rd district covering only a few towns from the old district. Effective with the elections of 2012, Worcester is in the new 2nd district and the new 3rd district is similar to the old 5th district covering the Merrimack valley including Lowell and Haverhill; the district is represented by Democrat Lori Trahan. In Essex County: Precincts 2 through 7 and Precinct 9 in Andover, Haverhill and Methuen. In Middlesex County: Acton, Ayer, Carlisle, Concord, Dunstable, Hudson, Lowell, Maynard, Shirley, Townsend, Tyngsborough and Precinct 1 in Sudbury. In Worcester County: Ashburnham, Bolton, Fitchburg, Harvard, Lunenburg and Precincts 1A, 2 and 3 in Winchendon. In Bristol County: Attleboro, Fall River, North Attleborough, Seekonk, Swansea.
In Middlesex County: Ashland, Hopkinton, Marlborough. In Norfolk County: Franklin, Plainville, Wrentham. In Worcester County: Auburn, Clinton, Northborough, Princeton, Shrewsbury, West Boylston, Worcester. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present National atlas congressional maps 2004 election results, via CNN.com 2006 election results, via CNN.com Benson, Brent. "An overview of Massachusetts 3rd Congressional district and primary candidates". Retrieved September 4, 2018 – via Mass. Numbers
Elbridge Gerry was an American statesman and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth vice president of the United States under President James Madison from March 1813 until his death in November 1814, he is known best for being the eponym of gerrymandering. Born into a wealthy merchant family, Gerry vocally opposed British colonial policy in the 1760s, was active in the early stages of organizing the resistance in the American Revolutionary War. Elected to the Second Continental Congress, Gerry signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation, he was one of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to sign the United States Constitution because it did not include a Bill of Rights. After its ratification he was elected to the inaugural United States Congress, where he was involved in drafting and passage of the Bill of Rights as an advocate of individual and state liberties. Gerry was at first opposed to the idea of political parties, cultivated enduring friendships on both sides of the political divide between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans.
He was a member of a diplomatic delegation to France, treated poorly in the XYZ Affair, in which Federalists held him responsible for a breakdown in negotiations. Gerry thereafter became a Democratic-Republican, running unsuccessfully for Governor of Massachusetts several times before winning the office in 1810. During his second term, the legislature approved new state senate districts that led to the coining of the word "gerrymander". Chosen by Madison as his vice presidential candidate in 1812, Gerry was elected, but died a year and a half into his term, he is the only signer of the Declaration of Independence, buried in Washington, D. C. Elbridge Gerry was born on July 1744, in Marblehead, Massachusetts, his father, Thomas Gerry, was a merchant operating ships out of Marblehead, his mother, Elizabeth Gerry, was the daughter of a successful Boston merchant. Gerry's first name came from one of his mother's ancestors. Gerry's parents had eleven children in all. Of these, Elbridge was the third.
He was first educated by private tutors, entered Harvard College shortly before turning fourteen. After receiving a B. A. in 1762 and an M. A. in 1765, he entered his father's merchant business. By the 1770s the Gerrys numbered among the wealthiest Massachusetts merchants, with trading connections in Spain, the West Indies, along the North American coast. Gerry's father, who had emigrated from England in 1730, was active in local politics and had a leading role in the local militia. Gerry was from an early time a vocal opponent of Parliamentary efforts to tax the colonies after the French and Indian War ended in 1763. In 1770 he sat on a Marblehead committee that sought to enforce importation bans on taxed British goods, he communicated with other Massachusetts opponents of British policy, including Samuel Adams, John Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, others. In May 1772 he won election to the General Court of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. There he worked with Samuel Adams to advance colonial opposition to Parliamentary colonial policies.
He was responsible for establishing Marblehead's committee of correspondence, one of the first to be set up after that of Boston. However, an incident of mob action prompted him to resign from the committee the next year. Gerry and other prominent Marbleheaders had established a hospital for performing smallpox inoculations on Cat Island. Gerry reentered politics after the Boston Port Act closed that city's port in 1774, Marblehead became a port to which relief supplies from other colonies could be delivered; as one of the town's leading merchants and Patriots, Gerry played a major role in ensuring the storage and delivery of supplies from Marblehead to Boston, interrupting those activities only to care for his dying father. He was elected as a representative to the First Continental Congress in September 1774, but refused, still grieving the loss of his father. Gerry was elected to the provincial assembly, which reconstituted itself as the Massachusetts Provincial Congress after Governor Thomas Gage dissolved the body in October 1774.
He was assigned to its committee of safety, responsible for assuring that the province's limited supplies of weapons and gunpowder remained out of British Army hands. His actions were responsible for the storage of weapons and ammunition in Concord. During the Siege of Boston that followed, Gerry continued to take a leading role in supplying the nascent Continental Army, something he would continue to do as the war progressed, he leveraged business contacts in France and Spain to acquire not just munitions, but supplies of all types, was involved in the transfer of financial subsidies from Spain to Congress. He sent ships to ports all along the American coast, dabbled in financing privateering operations. Unlike some merchants, there is no evidence that Gerry profiteered from this activity (he spoke out against it, in favor