A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection. There are both female condoms. With proper use—and use at every act of intercourse—women whose partners use male condoms experience a 2% per-year pregnancy rate. With typical use the rate of pregnancy is 18% per-year, their use decreases the risk of gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS. They to a lesser extent protect against genital herpes, human papillomavirus, syphilis; the male condom is rolled onto an erect penis before intercourse and works by blocking semen from entering the body of a sexual partner. Male condoms are made from latex and less from polyurethane or lamb intestine. Male condoms have the advantages of ease of use, easy to access, few side effects. In those with a latex allergy a polyurethane or other synthetic version should be used. Female condoms are made from polyurethane and may be used multiple times. Condoms as a method of preventing STIs have been used since at least 1564.
Rubber condoms became available followed by latex condoms in the 1920s. They are on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system; the wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.03 to US$0.08 each. In the United States condoms cost less than US$1.00. Globally less than 10% of those using birth control are using the condom. Rates of condom use are higher in the developed world. In the United Kingdom the condom is the second most common method of birth control while in the United States it is the third most common. About six to nine billion are sold a year; the effectiveness of condoms, as of most forms of contraception, can be assessed two ways. Perfect use or method effectiveness rates only include people who use condoms properly and consistently. Actual use, or typical use effectiveness rates are of all condom users, including those who use condoms incorrectly or do not use condoms at every act of intercourse.
Rates are presented for the first year of use. Most the Pearl Index is used to calculate effectiveness rates, but some studies use decrement tables; the typical use pregnancy rate among condom users varies depending on the population being studied, ranging from 10 to 18% per year. The perfect use pregnancy rate of condoms is 2% per year. Condoms may be combined with other forms of contraception for greater protection. Condoms are recommended for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, they have been shown to be effective in reducing infection rates in both women. While not perfect, the condom is effective at reducing the transmission of organisms that cause AIDS, genital herpes, cervical cancer, genital warts, chlamydia and other diseases. Condoms are recommended as an adjunct to more effective birth control methods in situations where STD protection is desired. According to a 2000 report by the National Institutes of Health, consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission by 85% relative to risk when unprotected, putting the seroconversion rate at 0.9 per 100 person-years with condom, down from 6.7 per 100 person-years.
Analysis published in 2007 from the University of Texas Medical Branch and the World Health Organization found similar risk reductions of 80–95%. The 2000 NIH review concluded that condom use reduces the risk of gonorrhea for men. A 2006 study reports that proper condom use decreases the risk of transmission of human papillomavirus to women by 70%. Another study in the same year found consistent condom use was effective at reducing transmission of herpes simplex virus-2 known as genital herpes, in both men and women. Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur with a condom. Infectious areas of the genitals when symptoms are present, may not be covered by a condom, as a result, some diseases like HPV and herpes may be transmitted by direct contact; the primary effectiveness issue with using condoms to prevent STDs, however, is inconsistent use. Condoms may be useful in treating precancerous cervical changes. Exposure to human papillomavirus in individuals infected with the virus, appears to increase the risk of precancerous changes.
The use of condoms helps promote regression of these changes. In addition, researchers in the UK suggest that a hormone in semen can aggravate existing cervical cancer, condom use during sex can prevent exposure to the hormone. Condoms may slip off the penis after ejaculation, break due to improper application or physical damage, or break or slip due to latex degradation; the rate of breakage is between 0.4% and 2.3%, while the rate of slippage is between 0.6% and 1.3%. If no breakage or slippage is observed, 1–3% of women will test positive for semen residue after intercourse with a condom."Double bagging", using two condoms at once, is believed to cause a higher rate of failure due to the friction of rubber on rubber. This claim is not supported by research; the limited studies that have been done found that the simultaneous use of multiple condoms decreases the risk of condom breakage. Different modes of condom failure result in different levels of semen exposure. If a failure occurs during application, the damaged condom may be disposed of and a new condom applied before intercourse begins – such failures pose no risk to
In fashion, a sheath dress is a fitted, straight cut dress nipped at the waistline with no waist seam. When constructing the dress, the bodice and skirt are joined together by combining the skirt darts into one dart; the dress emphasizes the waist. While the sheath dress can come in many patterns and lengths, it is worn with short sleeves and reaches knee length. Originating in the ancient world, the sheath dress is seen in Egyptian art. Presented as slender and youthful, artistic renditions of the women in the garment are common prior to the New Kingdom. Although there were no archeological evidence of a sheath dress among the elite and deities are shown wearing said garment in tomb drawings; the garment was presented with a seam under the breast and with beads. Ancient depictions of elite women showed the dress paired with the tripartite wig and vulture headdress. With archaeologists finding nearly twenty dresses of the ancient Egyptian world, there is no record of the dress existing in reality.
Instead, scholars have hypothesized that the sheath dress as we know it were wrap dresses with straps, skirts, or a V neck dress. The Princess Sheath dress was popular between 1878 and 1880, it was associated with the Princess of Wales known as Queen Alexandra. The Princess sheath is constructed with the skirt cut in one with a gored skirt; the dress was worn with a small pad. To tighten the front of the dress, ribbons were attached in the back's interior. During the early 1900s, Americans were still looking to Paris for the latest trends. American socialites traveled to Europe to receive custom outfits. Paul Poiret is credited as the first designer of the modern sheath dress. In doing so, he created a rubber girdle as an alternative to the boned corset to wear under the dress. In great contrast to the emphasized curves of Victorian era and earlier dress, the sheath dress offered a sleek look that revealed the legs and lower torso with a slit; the style of the sheath dress reached the United States in 1908.
That fall, the production of Bandanna Land, a musical, included the song "Sheath Gown in Darktown", which the chorus goes: By the 1950s, the sheath dress became the modern look for American women. In 1950, Christian Dior introduced the "Vertical Line"; the line catered to her curves in comparison to previous years. From the line, Vogue called the sheath dress the "most important single day fashion". In 1956, a girdle sales manager remarked “The sheath paid for my house in Westport.” Pattern companies sold sheath cuts up to 41 inch bust size. The dress was referred to as “the slim look for five o’clock on”. For a casual look, the sheath dress was matched with a short sleeve print bolero; as a business attire, a box jacket when over the bolero as well as the dress. As the cut of the dress became easier to construct, textures were added to the dress such as beads. One of the most notable sheath dresses of all time is the black Givenchy dress of Audrey Hepburn. In 1961, Hepburn wore a Hubert de Givenchy black sheath dress in the film Breakfast at Tiffany's.
By this time, her dress became known as the little black dress. On May 19, 1962, Marilyn Monroe sang happy birthday to president John F. Kennedy for his 45th birthday. At the event, Monroe wore a Jean Louis sheath dress, described as "skin and beads"; the dress was made nude toned and clad with crystals. Monroe was sewn into the dress for a tight fit. In 2016, the Jean Louis design sold for $4.8 million. In recent years, the sheath dress is worn as a cocktail dress; the pattern can be seen worn on brides as sheath dresses are popular as wedding dresses. At the 2008 Democratic National Convention, Michelle Obama wore a purple crepe sheath dress designed by Maria Pinto; this dress was made notable when Michelle gave Barack Obama a fist bump on stage. Cocktail dress This article presents a Eurocentric view of this fashion. Excluding the dress in Ancient Egyptian art, missing from this article is the sheath dress in Eastern and African cultures
The inner or epidermic coat of the hair follicle is adherent to the root of the hair, consists of two strata named the outer and inner root sheaths. The outer root sheath corresponds with the stratum mucosum of the epidermis, resembles it in the rounded form and soft character of its cells; the inner root sheath consists of a delicate cuticle next the hair, composed of a single layer of imbricated scales with atrophied nuclei. Http://trc.ucdavis.edu/mjguinan/apc100/modules/Integument/hair/hair3/hair3.html http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8054/Labs/Lab15/Lab15.htm
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage". A leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus, palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral. Most leaves have distinct upper surface and lower surface that differ in colour, the number of stomata, the amount and structure of epicuticular wax and other features. Leaves can have many different shapes and textures; the broad, flat leaves with complex venation of flowering plants are known as megaphylls and the species that bear them, the majority, as broad-leaved or megaphyllous plants. In the clubmosses, with different evolutionary origins, the leaves are simple and are known as microphylls.
Some leaves, such as bulb scales, are not above ground. In many aquatic species the leaves are submerged in water. Succulent plants have thick juicy leaves, but some leaves are without major photosynthetic function and may be dead at maturity, as in some cataphylls and spines. Furthermore, several kinds of leaf-like structures found in vascular plants are not homologous with them. Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from leaves both in their structure and origin; some structures of non-vascular plants function much like leaves. Examples include the phyllids of liverworts. Leaves are the most important organs of most vascular plants. Green plants are autotrophic, meaning that they do not obtain food from other living things but instead create their own food by photosynthesis, they capture the energy in sunlight and use it to make simple sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, from carbon dioxide and water. The sugars are stored as starch, further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as proteins or cellulose, the basic structural material in plant cell walls, or metabolised by cellular respiration to provide chemical energy to run cellular processes.
The leaves draw water from the ground in the transpiration stream through a vascular conducting system known as xylem and obtain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by diffusion through openings called stomata in the outer covering layer of the leaf, while leaves are orientated to maximise their exposure to sunlight. Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of active growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a special tissue called the phloem; the phloem and xylem are parallel to each other but the transport of materials is in opposite directions. Within the leaf these vascular systems branch to form veins which supply as much of the leaf as possible, ensuring that cells carrying out photosynthesis are close to the transportation system. Leaves are broad and thin, thereby maximising the surface area directly exposed to light and enabling the light to penetrate the tissues and reach the chloroplasts, thus promoting photosynthesis.
They are arranged on the plant so as to expose their surfaces to light as efficiently as possible without shading each other, but there are many exceptions and complications. For instance plants adapted to windy conditions may have pendent leaves, such as in many willows and eucalyptss; the flat, or laminar, shape maximises thermal contact with the surrounding air, promoting cooling. Functionally, in addition to carrying out photosynthesis, the leaf is the principal site of transpiration, providing the energy required to draw the transpiration stream up from the roots, guttation. Many gymnosperms have thin needle-like or scale-like leaves that can be advantageous in cold climates with frequent snow and frost; these are interpreted as reduced from megaphyllous leaves of their Devonian ancestors. Some leaf forms are adapted to modulate the amount of light they absorb to avoid or mitigate excessive heat, ultraviolet damage, or desiccation, or to sacrifice light-absorption efficiency in favour of protection from herbivory.
For xerophytes the major constraint drought. Some window plants such as Fenestraria species and some Haworthia species such as Haworthia tesselata and Haworthia truncata are examples of xerophytes. and Bulbine mesembryanthemoides. Leaves function to store chemical energy and water and may become specialised organs serving other functions, such as tendrils of peas and other legumes, the protective spines of cacti and the insect traps in carnivorous plants such as Nepenthes and Sarracenia. Leaves are the fundamental structural units from which cones are constructed in gymnosperms and from which flowers are constructed in flowering plants; the internal organisation of most kinds of leaves has evolved to maximise exposure of the photosynthetic organelles, the chloroplasts, to light and to increase the absorption of carbon dioxide while at the same time controlling water loss. Their surfaces are waterproofed by the plant cuticle and gas exchange between the mesophyll cells and the atmosphere is controlled by minute openings called stomata which open or close to regulate the rate exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapour into
A scabbard is a sheath for holding a sword, knife, or other large blade. Scabbards have been made of many materials over the millennia, including leather and metals such as brass or steel. Most scabbards were worn suspended from a sword belt or shoulder belt called a baldric. Wooden scabbards were covered in fabric or leather. Japanese blades have their sharp cutting edge protected by a wooden scabbard called a saya. Many scabbards, such as ones the Greeks and Romans used, were light, they were designed for holding the sword rather than protecting it. All-metal scabbards were popular items for a display of wealth among elites in the European Iron Age, intricately decorated. Little is known about the scabbards of the early Iron Age, due to their wooden construction. However, during the Middle and late Iron Ages, the scabbard became important as a vehicle for decorative elaboration. After 200 BC decorated scabbards became rare. A number of ancient scabbards have been recovered from weapons sacrifices, a few of which had a lining of fur on the inside.
The fur was kept oily, keeping the blade free from rust. The fur would allow a smoother, quicker draw. Metal scabbards became popular in Europe early in the 19th century and superseded most other types. Metal was more durable than leather and could better withstand the rigours of field use among troops mounted on horseback. In addition, metal offered the ability to present a more military appearance, as well as the opportunity to display increased ornamentation. Leather scabbards never lost favour among military users and were used as late as the American Civil War; some military police forces, naval shore patrols, law enforcement and other groups used leather scabbards as a kind of truncheon. Scabbards were albeit worn across the back with the intention of being unsheathed, but only by a handful of Celtic tribes, only with short lengths of sword; this is because it is impossible to draw any true two-handed sword and extraordinarily difficult to draw the majority of one-handed swords from a scabbard on the back.
Common depictions of long swords being drawn from the back are a modern invention, have enjoyed such great popularity in fiction and fantasy, that they are and incorrectly believed to have been common in Medieval times. Some more well-known examples of this include the back scabbard depicted in the film Braveheart and the back scabbard seen in the video game series The Legend of Zelda. There is some limited data from woodcuts and textual fragments that Mongol light horse archers, Chinese soldiers, Japanese Samurai and European Knights wore a slung baldric over the shoulder, allowing longer blades such as greatswords/zweihanders and nodachi/ōdachi to be strapped across the back, though these would have to be removed from the back before the sword could be unsheathed. In "The Ancient Celts" by Barry Cunliffe, page 94, Cunliffe writes, "All these pieces of equipment mentioned in the texts, are reflected in the archaeological record and in the surviving iconography, though it is sometimes possible to detect regional variations.
Among the Parisii of Yorkshire, for example, the sword was sometimes worn across the back and therefore had to be drawn over the shoulder from behind the head." The metal fitting where the blade enters the leather or metal scabbard is called the throat, part of a larger scabbard mount, or locket, that bears a carrying ring or stud to facilitate wearing the sword. The blade's point in leather scabbards is protected by a metal tip, or chape, which, on both leather and metal scabbards, is given further protection from wear by an extension called a drag, or shoe. Holster Media related to Scabbards at Wikimedia Commons
The koteka, horim, or penis gourd is a penis sheath traditionally worn by native male inhabitants of some ethnic groups in New Guinea to cover their genitals. They are made from a dried-out gourd, Lagenaria siceraria, although other species, such as Nepenthes mirabilis, are used, they are held in place by a small loop of fiber attached to the base of the koteka and placed around the scrotum. There is a secondary loop placed around the chest or abdomen and attached to the main body of the koteka. Men choose kotekas similar to ones worn by other men in their cultural group. For example, Yali men favour a long, thin koteka, which helps hold up the multiple rattan hoops worn around their waist. Men from Tiom wear a double gourd, held up with a strip of cloth, use the space between the two gourds for carrying small items such as money and tobacco, it is traditional clothing in certain New Guinea highlands societies including in the Grand Baliem Valley of Western New Guinea and the Ok Tedi and Telefomin regions of Papua New Guinea.
It is worn without other clothing, tied in upward position. Many tribes can be identified by the way; some wear them pointed straight out, at an angle, or in other directions. The diameter of the koteka can be a clue. Contrary to popular belief, there is little correlation between the size or length of the koteka and the social status of the wearer. Kotekas of different sizes serve different purposes: short kotekas are worn when working and longer and more elaborate kotekas are worn on festive occasions; the koteka is made of a specially grown gourd. Stone weights are tied to the bottom of the gourd to stretch it out. Curves can be made in it by the use of string to restrain its growth in whatever direction the grower wishes, they can be quite elaborately shaped in this manner. When harvested, the gourd dried, it is sometimes waxed with native resins. It can be painted, or have shells and other decorations attached to it. Sociolinguistically and politically today, the term koteka is used as a name of tribal groups across the highlands of New Guinea, in both West Papua and Papua New Guinea.
For example, in West Papua today, there is an Assembly of Koteka Tribes. The term koteka was never used to identify a society or ethnic group before, but it is now known for a tribal group within Melanesia across the highlands of New Guinea, it is assumed that there is a sexual display element to wearing the koteka. In 1971–1972 the Indonesian government launched "Operasi Koteka" which consisted of trying to encourage the people to wear shorts and shirts because such clothes were considered more "modern." But the people did not have changes of clothing, did not have soap, were unfamiliar with the care of such clothes so the unwashed clothing caused skin diseases. There were reports of men wearing the shorts as hats and the women using the dresses as carrying bags; the campaign was abandoned. Western clothing is required in government buildings, children are required to wear western clothing in school. Phallocrypts are decorative penis sheaths worn in parts of New Guinea during traditional ceremonies.
They are made out of gourds or woven fibers and decorated with feathers, cowry shells, small metal ornaments. The most elaborate phallocrypts are sold to tourists as souvenirs and are not representative of ones used in ceremonies. A phallocrypt can be a simple ornament hung from male genitalia as part of a cultural expression, for ceremonial use or pure decoration. Among a number of ancient and modern people throughout the Oceanic world and many parts of the Americas it was a common form of ornamentation; some Aboriginal peoples of Australia wore. It is hung from the genitals by a twisted thong made of human hair, they are ornately engraved with geometric patterns and the grooves were colored with reddish ochre. Some South American cultures hung heavy, carved jade and other hardstone ornaments from piercings through the skin of their penis and scrotum; these were of a temporary ritualistic nature. Some native South American tribes have used them in Brazil and the Amazon rainforest area; the use of penis gourds has been documented in tropical Africa.
Penis sheaths were sometimes worn by ancient Romans by singers since it was believed that it helped preserve their voice, but by slaves or regular people to avoid sex. Boxer at rest, a Hellenistic Greek sculpture showing infibulation Codpiece Kynodesme Surgical infibulation Namba "Koteka! Size is Not a Sign of Status" Article on website of West Papua Action Network. "Tribe caught in a time warp," by Kenneth L. Whiting, Chicago Sun-Times, May 14, 1987, page 47. "Stone Age Ways Surviving, Barely," by Calvin Sims, New York Times, March 11, 2001, page 1.8. Phallocrypts from Papua New Guinea and Papua, Indonesia Article on website of Art-Pacific.com. Note illustration of man wearing a "koteka" made from a flashlight rather than a gourd; the Dani in the Baliem Valley Article on website, Tom-Toms of Time: Mysterious Indonesia. Penis Gourds from Papua New Guinea Article on "Pilot Destination Guide" website. Ethnobotany of the Yali of West Papua by William Milliken, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Eipo - Making a Penis Gourd by Franz Simon a