A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles. The most common fuels sold in the 2010s are gasoline and diesel fuel, Fuel dispensers are known as bowsers, petrol pumps or gas pumps. Also, many filling stations incorporate a convenience store, which like most other buildings generally have electricity sockets, the convenience stores found in filling stations typically sell candy, soda/pop, snacks and, in some cases, a small selection of grocery items. Some sell propane or butane and have added shops to their primary business, some chain stores, such as supermarkets, discount superstores, warehouse clubs, or traditional convenience stores, have provided filling stations on the premises. The term gas station is used in the United States and the English-speaking Caribbean. In some regions of Canada, the term gas bar is used, elsewhere in the English-speaking world, mainly in the Commonwealth, the fuel is known as petrol, and the term petrol station or petrol pump is used.
In the United Kingdom and South Africa garage is still commonly used, similarly, in Australia, the term service station describes any petrol station. In Japanese English, it is called a gasoline stand, in Indian English, it is called a petrol pump or a petrol bunk. In some regions of America and Australia, many filling stations have a mechanic on duty, latest figures show there are now 8,455 petrol stations in the UK down from about 18,000 in 1992 and a peak of around 40,000 in the mid-1960s. The USA had 114,474 filling stations in 2012, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, in Canada, the number is on the decline. As of December 2008,12,684 were in operation, significantly down from about 20,000 stations recorded in 1989 In Japan, in Germany, the number dropped down to 14,300 in 2011. In China, according to different reports, the number is about 95,000 to 97,000. India –43,000 Russia - there were about 25,000 gas stations in the Russian Federation In Argentina, as of 2014, the first places that sold gasoline were pharmacies, as a side business.
The first filling station was the city pharmacy in Wiesloch, since 2008 the Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates this event. The increase in automobile ownership after Henry Ford started to sell automobiles that the class could afford resulted in an increased demand for filling stations. The worlds first purpose built gas station was constructed in St. Louis, the second gas station was constructed in 1907 by Standard Oil of California in Seattle, Washington at what is now Pier 32. Reighards Gas Station in Altoona, Pennsylvania claims that it dates from 1909 and is the oldest existing gas station in the United States, early on, they were known to motorists as filling stations. The first drive-in filling station, Gulf Refining Company, opened to the public in Pittsburgh on December 1,1913 at Baum Blvd & St Clairs Street
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II
Exxon Mobil Corporation is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefellers Standard Oil Company, the worlds seventh largest company by revenue, ExxonMobil is the seventh largest publicly traded company by market capitalization. The company was ranked ninth globally in the Forbes Global 2000 list in 2016, ExxonMobil was the second most profitable company in the Fortune 500 in 2014. ExxonMobil is the largest of the worlds Big Oil companies, or supermajors, with production of 3.921 million BOE. In 2008, this was approximately 3 percent of world production, when ranked by oil and gas reserves, it is 14th in the world—with less than 1 percent of the total. ExxonMobils reserves were 25.2 billion BOE at the end of 2013, ExxonMobil has a history of lobbying for climate change denial and against the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels. The company has been the target of accusations of improperly dealing with rights issues, influence on American foreign policy.
ExxonMobil was formed in 1999 by the merger of two oil companies and Mobil. Both Exxon and Mobil were descendants of Standard Oil, established by John D. Rockefeller, in 1882, it together with its affiliated companies was incorporated as the Standard Oil Trust with Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and Standard Oil Company of New York as its largest companies. The Anglo-American Oil Company was established in the United Kingdom in 1888, in 1890, Standard Oil, together with local ship merchants in Bremen established Deutsch-Amerikanische Petroleum Gesellschaft. In 1891, a branch for the Netherlands and Belgium. At the same year, a branch for Italy, Società Italo Americana pel Petrolio, was established in Venice. The Standard Oil Trust was dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1892, however, in 1893, the Chinese and the whole Asian kerosene market was assigned to Standard Oil Company of New York in order to improve trade with the Asian counterparts. In 1898, Standard Oil of New Jersey acquired controlling stake in Imperial Oil of Canada, in 1899, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey became the holding company for the Standard Oil Interests.
The anti-monopoly proceedings against the Standard Oil were launched in 1898, by 1911, with public outcry at a climax, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that Standard Oil must be dissolved and split into 34 companies. Two of these companies were Jersey Standard, which eventually became Exxon, and Socony, over the next few decades, Jersey Standard and Socony grew significantly. John Duston Archbold was the first president of Jersey Standard, Archbold was followed by Walter C. Teagle in 1917, who made it the largest oil company in the world, in 1919, Jersey Standard acquired a 50% share in Humble Oil & Refining Co. a Texas oil producer
Diesel engines have found broad use as a result of higher thermodynamic efficiency and thus fuel efficiency. This is particularly noted where diesel engines are run at part-load, as their air supply is not throttled as in a petrol engine, to distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel. Ultra-low-sulfur diesel is a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents, as of 2016, almost all of the petroleum-based diesel fuel available in UK, Europe and North America is of a ULSD type. In the UK, diesel fuel for use is commonly abbreviated DERV, standing for diesel-engined road vehicle. In Australia diesel fuel is known as distillate, and in Indonesia, it is known as Solar. Diesel fuel originated from experiments conducted by German scientist and inventor Rudolf Diesel for his engine he invented in 1892. Diesel fuel is produced from various sources, the most common being petroleum, other sources include biomass, animal fat, natural gas, and coal liquefaction.
Petroleum diesel, called petrodiesel, or fossil diesel is the most common type of diesel fuel, synthetic diesel can be produced from any carbonaceous material, including biomass, natural gas and many others. The raw material is gasified into synthesis gas, which after purification is converted by the Fischer–Tropsch process to a synthetic diesel, the process is typically referred to as biomass-to-liquid, gas-to-liquid or coal-to-liquid, depending on the raw material used. Paraffinic synthetic diesel generally has a content of sulfur and very low aromatics content, reducing unregulated emissions of toxic hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides. Fatty-acid methyl ester, more known as biodiesel, is obtained from vegetable oil or animal fats which have been transesterified with methanol. It can be produced from many types of oils, the most common being rapeseed oil in Europe, methanol can be replaced with ethanol for the transesterification process, which results in the production of ethyl esters. FAME can be used pure in engines where the manufacturer approves such use, FAME as a fuel is specified in DIN EN14214 and ASTM D6751.
Pure biodiesel has an energy content about 5–10% lower than petroleum diesel, the loss in power when using pure biodiesel is 5–7%. As FAME contains low levels of sulfur, the emissions of oxides and sulfates. Use of biodiesel results in reductions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, CO emissions using biodiesel are substantially reduced, on the order of 50% compared to most petrodiesel fuels. The exhaust emissions of particulate matter from biodiesel have been found to be 30% lower than overall particulate matter emissions from petrodiesel, the exhaust emissions of total hydrocarbons are up to 93% lower for biodiesel than diesel fuel. Biodiesel may reduce risks associated with petroleum diesel
Pennzoil is an American oil company founded in Los Angeles, California in 1913. In 1955, it was acquired by Oil City, Pennsylvania company South Penn Oil, in 1963, South Penn Oil merged with Zapata Petroleum, the merged company took the Pennzoil name. In 1968 United Gas Corporation became part of Pennzoil, during the 1970s, the company moved its offices to Houston, Texas. In 1977 a spin-off company was formed called Pogo, which stood for Pennzoil Offshore Gas Operators, Pennzoil was headquartered in Pennzoil Place in Downtown Houston during the 1970s. In 1999 Pennzoils E&P business was acquired by Oklahoma City-based Devon Energy, though not much emphasis has ever been placed on gasoline, Pennzoil does sell gas. In the early parts of the history, the gas stations were branded as Pennzip. For decades, Pennzoil gas stations were mostly marketed in western Pennsylvania, western New York and eastern Ohio, in the 1990s, Pennzoil gas experienced a bit of a revival when Pittsburgh area convenience store chain Cogos began co-branding themselves with Pennzoil.
The co-branding lasted only a few years, and Cogos switched brands to BP, as of June 2009, only one Pennzoil/7-Eleven combination remains, as another converted to BP in 2006 while retaining 7-Eleven. On June 8,2009, the other Pennzoil/7-Eleven was sold to owners and became an independent. There is a surviving Pennzoil station in Ashtabula, Ohio right off of Ohio State Route 11, USAC National Championship drivers Al Unser and Johnny Rutherford were sponsored by Pennzoil in the Chaparral team. Rutherford won the Indianapolis 500 and the championship in 1980, from 1983 to 1990, Pennzoil sponsored the Team Penske driver Rick Mears during his CART World Series campaign, winning the 1984 and 1988 Indianapolis 500. IndyCar Series driver Sam Hornish Jr. drove for Pennzoil-sponsored Panther Racing from 2001 to 2003, since 2011, Team Penske driver Hélio Castroneves hast been sponsored part-time by Pennzoil, most notably at the Indianapolis 500. Pennzoils yellow car livery has been nicknamed the Yellow Submarine, in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, Dale Earnhardt, Inc.
had a Pennzoil sponsorship for Steve Park in their No.1 car from 1998 to 2003. Richard Childress Racing driver Kevin Harvick had a Pennzoil sponsorship from 2007 to 2010, Penske Racing took over the Pennzoil sponsorship in 2011 with Kurt Busch and in 2012, it was moved over to A. J. Allmendinger and to Joey Logano in 2013. In the American Le Mans Series, Audi Sport North America was used Pennzoil Ultra lubricants brand in 2003 until 2008, Pennzoil has been the title sponsor of the Grand Prix of Houston since 2013. In the Formula One, Pennzoil is the official lubricant partner for Haas F1 Team since 2016, in 1984, Pennzoil made an informal but binding contract with Getty Oil to purchase a large portion of Getty Oil, in order to give Pennzoil rights to Gettys oil deposits. Following the deal, the Texaco oil company, operating under the belief the deal was not yet final, Pennzoil sued Texaco in Texas state court, alleging that Texaco tortiously induced Getty to breach the contract with Pennzoil.
At first it was adjudicated by Judge Anthony J. P. Farris, a jury awarded Pennzoil, represented by Joe Jamail and Baine Kerr, $7.53 billion in compensatory damages and $3 billion in punitive damages
Texaco, Inc. is an American oil subsidiary of Chevron Corporation. Its flagship product is its fuel Texaco with Techron and it owns the Havoline motor oil brand. Texaco was an independent company until its operations merged into Chevron Corporation in 2001. It began as the Texas Fuel Company, founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas, by Joseph S. Cullinan, Thomas J. Donoghue, Walter Benona Sharp, and Arnold Schlaet upon the discovery of oil at Spindletop. For many years, Texaco was the company selling gasoline under the same brand name in all 50 US states, as well as Canada. It was one of the Seven Sisters which dominated the petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s. Its current logo features a star in a red circle. The company was headquartered in Harrison, New York, near White Plains, Texaco gasoline comes with Techron, an additive developed by Chevron, as of 2005, replacing the previous CleanSystem3. The Texaco brand is strong in the U. S and it has a presence in Europe as well, for example, it is a well-known retail brand in the UK, with around 1,100 Texaco-branded service stations.
Texaco was founded in Beaumont, Texas as the Texas Fuel Company in 1901, in 1905, it established an operation in Antwerp, under the name Continental Petroleum Company, which it acquired control of in 1913. The next year, Texaco moved to new offices in Houston on the corner of San Jacinto, in 1928, Texaco became the first U. S. oil company to sell its gasoline nationwide under one single brand name in all 48 states. In 1931, Texaco purchased Indian Oil Company, based in Illinois and this expanded Texacos refining and marketing base in the Midwest and gave Texaco the rights to Indians Havoline motor oil, which became a Texaco product. It was promoted through a program over NBC hosted by Ed Wynn. In 1936, the Texas Corporation purchased the Barco oil concession in Colombia, over the next three years the company engaged in a highly challenging project to drill wells and build a pipeline to the coast across mountains and through uncharted swamps and jungles. During this time, Texaco illegally supplied the fascist Gen.
Franco faction in Spanish Civil War, despite a federal fine, the next year, Texaco commissioned industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague to develop a modern service station design. In 1938, Texaco introduced Sky Chief gasoline, a premium fuel developed from the ground up as a high-octane gasoline rather than just a regular product. ”This espionage easily enabled Hitler to destroy the ships. During the war, Texaco ranked 93rd among United States corporations in the value of military production contracts, in 1947, Caltex expanded to include Texacos European marketing operations. That same year, Texaco merged its British operation with Trinidad Leaseholds under the name Regent, it gained control of Regent in 1956
Politics of Saudi Arabia
The politics of Saudi Arabia takes place in the context of an absolute monarchy with some Islamic lines, where the King is both the head of state and government. Decisions are, to an extent, made on the basis of consultation among the senior princes of the royal family. The Quran is declared to be the constitution of the country, the Allegiance Council responsible to determine the new King and the new Crown Prince. All citizens of age have a right to attend, meet. Government is dominated by the vast royal family, the Al Saud, the members of the family are the principal political actors allowed by the government. Political participation outside of the family is limited. There has been pressure for some time to broaden and increase the participation, in recent years, there has been a rise in Islamist activism, which has resulted in Islamist terrorism. However, in recent years, the Saudi state has been working to control of these areas. Saudi Arabia is a monarchy, according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted by royal decree in 1992, the king must comply with Sharia.
The Quran and the Sunnah are declared to be the countrys constitution, there is no legally binding written constitution and the Quran and the Sunna remain subject to interpretation. This is carried out by the ulema, the Saudi religious establishment, the government of Saudi Arabia is led by the monarch, King Salman, who acceded to the throne on 23 January 2015. Government is dominated by the royal family, the Basic Law specifies that the king must be chosen from among the sons of the first king, Abdul Aziz Al Saud, and their male descendants subject to the subsequent approval of religious leaders. The king combines legislative and judicial functions and royal decrees form the basis of the countrys legislation. There is a 150-member Consultative Assembly, appointed by the King, the government budget itself is not fully disclosed to the public. Although, in theory, the country is a monarchy, in practice major policy decisions are made outside these formal governmental structures. Decisions are made by establishing a consensus within the royal family, in addition, the views of important members of Saudi society, including the ulema, leading tribal sheikhs, and heads of prominent commercial families are considered.
As an absolute monarchy, the personality and capabilities of the reigning monarch influence the politics, King Saud was considered incompetent and extravagant and his reign led to an economic and political crisis that resulted in his forced abdication. King Faisal was a modernist who favored economic and governmental progress but was politically and religiously conservative
The petroleum industry includes the global processes of exploration, refining and marketing of petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline, Petroleum is the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, synthetic fragrances, and plastics. The industry is divided into three major components, upstream and downstream. Midstream operations are included in the downstream category. Petroleum is vital to many industries, and is of importance to the maintenance of industrial civilization in its current configuration, and thus is a critical concern for many nations. Oil accounts for a percentage of the world’s energy consumption, ranging from a low of 32% for Europe and Asia. Other geographic regions consumption patterns are as follows and Central America, the world consumes 30 billion barrels of oil per year, with developed nations being the largest consumers. The United States consumed 25% of the oil produced in 2007, the production, distribution and retailing of petroleum taken as a whole represents the worlds largest industry in terms of dollar value.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations and it consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds. It is generally accepted that oil is formed mostly from the carbon rich remains of ancient plankton after exposure to heat, Petroleum in an unrefined state has been utilized by humans for over 5000 years. Oil in general has been used since early history to keep fires ablaze. Its importance to the world economy evolved slowly, with oil used for lighting in the 19th century and wood. The Industrial Revolution generated an increasing need for energy which was met mainly by coal, Imperial Russia produced 3,500 tons of oil in 1825 and doubled its output by mid-century. Batum is renamed to Batumi in 1936, at the turn of the 20th century, Imperial Russias output of oil, almost entirely from the Apsheron Peninsula, accounted for half of the worlds production and dominated international markets. Nearly 200 small refineries operated in the suburbs of Baku by 1884, as a side effect of these early developments, the Apsheron Peninsula emerged as the worlds oldest legacy of oil pollution and environmental negligence.
In 1846, Baku the first ever well drilled with percussion tools to a depth of 21 meters for oil exploration, in 1878, Ludvig Nobel and his Branobel company revolutionized oil transport by commissioning the first oil tanker and launching it on the Caspian Sea. Samuel Kier established Americas first oil refinery in Pittsburgh on Seventh avenue near Grant Street, one of the first modern oil refineries were built by Ignacy Łukasiewicz near Jasło, Poland in 1854–56. These were initially small as demand for refined fuel was limited, the refined products were used in artificial asphalt, machine oil and lubricants, in addition to Łukasiewiczs kerosene lamp
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. One of the companies of Standard Oil, it is headquartered in San Ramon, California. It was one of the Seven Sisters that dominated the petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s. Chevrons downstream operations manufacture and sell products such as fuels, additives, the companys most significant areas of operations are the west coast of North America, the U. S. Gulf Coast, Southeast Asia, South Korea and South Africa. In 2010, Chevron sold an average 3.1 million barrels per day of refined products like gasoline, Chevrons alternative energy operations include geothermal, wind power, fuel cells, and hydrogen. In 2011–2013, the company planned to spend at least $2 billion on research, Chevron has claimed to be the worlds largest producer of geothermal energy. In October 2011, Chevron launched a 29-MW thermal solar-to-steam facility in the Coalinga Field to produce the steam for enhanced oil recovery, the project is the largest of its kind in the world.
Chevron is one of the first two brands to be Top Tier certified. The other is Tulsa, Oklahoma based QuikTrip, one of Chevrons early predecessors, Star Oil, discovered oil at the Pico Canyon Oilfield in the Santa Susana Mountains north of Los Angeles in 1876. The 25 barrels of oil per day well marked the discovery of the Newhall Field, in September 1879, Charles N. Felton, Lloyd Tevis, George Loomis and others created the Pacific Coast Oil Company, which acquired the assets of Star Oil with $1 million in funding. Pacific Coast Oil became the largest oil interest in California, by time it was acquired by Standard Oil for $761,000 in 1900. Pacific Coast operated independently and retained its name until 1906, when it was merged with a Standard Oil subsidiary, another predecessor, Texas Fuel Company, was founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas as an oil equipment vendor by Buckskin Joe. The founders nickname came from being harsh and aggressive, Texas Fuel worked closely with Chevron. In 1936 it formed a joint venture with California Standard named Caltex, to drill, the Texas Fuel Company was renamed the Texas Company, and renamed Texaco.
In 1911, the government broke Standard Oil into several pieces under the Sherman Antitrust Act. One of those pieces, Standard Oil Co. went on to become Chevron and it became part of the Seven Sisters, which dominated the world oil industry in the early 20th century. In 1926, the changed its name to Standard Oil Co. of California. Today Chevron is the owner of the Standard Oil trademark in 16 states in the western and southeastern U. S, to maintain ownership of the mark, the company owns and operates one Standard-branded Chevron station in each state of the area
Jiffy Lube is an American brand of automotive oil change specialty shops founded in Utah, United States, in 1971. It has been a subsidiary of Dutch Shell Oil since 2002, there are about 2,000 Jiffy Lube franchises in North America and Canada all of them independently owned by 252 operators, with about 24 million customers each year as of 2002. The company was ranked first on National Oil and Lube News 2011 Tops in the Fast Lubes Industry Rankings, Jiffy Lube was ranked number 15 in Entrepreneur Magazine’s 2012 Franchise 500 and number 73 on Franchise Times 2011 Top 200 Franchise Chains by Worldwide Sales. The first Jiffy Lube store was established on 36th Street in Ogden, over the following years, Washburn franchised a number of Jiffy Lube centers within Utah. In 1979, then-football coach at Western Maryland College W. James Hindman bought out Washburns seven franchises and established Jiffy Lube International, relocating to Baltimore and it is this year which Jiffy Lube generally states as its founding date with Hindman as its founder.
Jiffy Lube went public in 1987, and had opened 1,020 franchises, in 1991, Jiffy Lube became a subsidiary of Pennzoil. Following the merger of Pennzoil and Quaker State in 1998, the 581 Q Lube stores were merged into the Jiffy Lube brand, possessing 1,541 stores, pennzoil-Quaker State was ultimately purchased by Shell Oil in 2002. In June 2011, Jiffy Lube introduced a new program called Oil Change Schedule, the OCS program moves away from the old model of changing oil every 3,000 miles and provides a schedule that is unique for each driver. In 2003, Jiffy Lube was the focus of a KNBC investigative report that alleged that Jiffy Lube was charging customers for services not performed, during the investigation, five out of nine Jiffy Lube locations charged undercover reporters for work that was not performed. At the end of the investigation, Jiffy Lube installed cameras in their stores to customers to observe repairs. In 2009, Jiffy Lube was found to be performing repair procedures on vehicles that were recommended against by the due to the potential to cause engine damage.
These procedures included engine flushes and fuel injection cleaning which can cause engine, in May 2013, Los Angeles Jiffy Lube locations were again the subject of an KNBC investigation. Pennzoil Shell Oil Company Official website
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci