Carnegie Free Library of Braddock
The Braddock Carnegie Library in Braddock, Pennsylvania, is the first Carnegie Library in the United States. As such, the library was named a National Historic Landmark in 2012, following its listing on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, is on the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation's List of Historic Landmarks. Designed by William Halsey Wood in eclectic medieval style, the library sits on property acquired by Andrew Carnegie with his wife in November, 1885, while existing evidence indicates that the design was approved in March, 1886; the building was dedicated by Carnegie in person at ceremonies on March 30, 1889. Circulation of books began that month. An addition in more Richardson Romanesque style by Longfellow, Alden & Harlow followed in 1893; the Carnegie foundation provided a grant of $357,782 for its construction.. Like some of the other early Carnegie libraries, the building housed various recreational facilities for its users, including billiard tables on the first floor.
A bathhouse in the basement accessed by a tunnel under the front entrance, provided Carnegie's millworkers with a place to shower before using the facilities. Now re-purposed as a pottery studio, the tiled walls and floor remain, suggesting its original purpose; the 1893 addition doubled the size of the building, brought many further amenities not associated with a library, including a 964-seat Music Hall, a gymnasium, a swimming pool, a two-lane duckpin alley. At least in the early years, the athletic/recreational facilities were available to members of the "Carnegie Club" who paid a modest quarterly fee. Employees of any Carnegie-owned company received a 50% discount, which in 1903 amounted to $1/quarter. Three sets of decorative cast-iron panels with elements that include a shield and oak leaves are located below the first-floor bay-front windows of the Halsey Wood façade. While design does not appear to contain any parts of the Braddock or Carnegie family crests, the Braddock family name derives from the Old English'broad oak' which has leaves similar to those in the panels.
Two specimens of Q robur now flank the entryway steps. The Library remained in continuous use from 1889 to 1974, when neglect of the structure and lack of funds for repair of the roof, forced its closure, it was slated for demolition in the late 1970s when a group of residents for whom the Library had represented a positive influence in their youth, organized to save the structure. Calling themselves the Braddock's Field Historical Society and led by David Solomon, the last librarian, they purchased the building for $1 and took steps to secure the building and attend to the roof.. Re-opening a single room as a children's library in 1983, with kerosene heat, the Society but re-occupied the building; the wood-paneled gym was restored in the early 1990s, the roof was restored to its original terracotta appearance in 1998, along with the interior walls of the Music Hall, which had suffered substantial water damage from the leaking roof. Library services for adults have moved to the first floor, while a new Children's Library with dedicated staffing opened in March 2012 on the second floor.
In the basement space occupied by a bathhouse, the Bathhouse Ceramics Studio offers pottery lessons to the community. Work on the Music Hall continues, with restoration of the original 1893 Thos. Kane Co. seats the current focus. In October 2013, the Library inaugurated its Art Lending Collection, which enables patrons to borrow original artwork including life-sized puppets, as part of the 2013 Carnegie International Opening Weekend; the building has been used in several cinematic productions. The earliest known, Tony Buba's music video from ~1982 of Frenchy Burrito's cover of the Robert Johnson classic, Terraplane Blues, was filmed in the gymnasium. Subsequently, it has served as a Brooklyn police station in the TV movie, The Bride in Black, with Susan Lucci and David Soul. In early Dec 2014, the Library was the location for filming sequences of Dr. Bennet Omalu's office in Concussion, with Will Smith and Albert Brooks. List of Carnegie libraries in Pennsylvania List of National Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania National Register of Historic Places listings in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Floyd, Margaret Henderson, Architecture After Richardson: Regionalism Before Modernism, Longfellow and Harlow in Boston and Pittsburgh.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226254100 Jones, Carnegie Libraries Across America: A Public Legacy, New York: John Wiley, Preservation Press, ISBN 0471144223 Trustees, Braddock Carnegie Library, Braddock Carnegie Library, New York & Pittsburg: Chasmar & Winchell Fleming, George Thornton, History of Pittsburgh and environs: from prehistoric days to the beginning of the American revolution, Vol
Thriller is a broad genre of literature and television, having numerous overlapping subgenres. Thrillers are characterized and defined by the moods they elicit, giving viewers heightened feelings of suspense, surprise and anxiety. Successful examples of thrillers are the films of Alfred Hitchcock. Thrillers keep the audience on the "edge of their seats" as the plot builds towards a climax; the cover-up of important information is a common element. Literary devices such as red herrings, plot twists, cliffhangers are used extensively. A thriller is a villain-driven plot, whereby he or she presents obstacles that the protagonist must overcome. Homer's Odyssey is one of the oldest stories in the Western world and is regarded as an early prototype of the genre. Writer Vladimir Nabokov, in his lectures at Cornell University, said: "In an Anglo-Saxon thriller, the villain is punished, the strong silent man wins the weak babbling girl, but there is no governmental law in Western countries to ban a story that does not comply with a fond tradition, so that we always hope that the wicked but romantic fellow will escape scot-free and the good but dull chap will be snubbed by the moody heroine."Thrillers may be defined by the primary mood that they elicit: suspenseful excitement.
In short, if it "thrills", it is a thriller. As the introduction to a major anthology argues:... Thrillers provide such a rich literary feast. There are all kinds; the legal thriller, spy thriller, action-adventure thriller, medical thriller, police thriller, romantic thriller, historical thriller, political thriller, religious thriller, high-tech thriller, military thriller. The list goes on and on, with new variations being invented. In fact, this openness to expansion is one of the genre's most enduring characteristics, but what gives the variety of thrillers a common ground is the intensity of emotions they create those of apprehension and exhilaration, of excitement and breathlessness, all designed to generate that all-important thrill. By definition, if a thriller doesn't thrill, it's not doing its job. Suspense is a crucial characteristic of the thriller genre, it gives the viewer a feeling of pleasurable fascination and excitement mixed with apprehension and tension. These develop from unpredictable and rousing events during the narrative, which makes the viewer or reader think about the outcome of certain actions.
Suspense builds. The suspense in a story keeps the person hooked to reading or watching more until the climax is reached. In terms of narrative expectations, it may be contrasted with surprise; the objective is to deliver a story with sustained tension, a constant sense of impending doom. As described by film director Alfred Hitchcock, an audience experiences suspense when they expect something bad to happen and have a superior perspective on events in the drama's hierarchy of knowledge, yet they are powerless to intervene to prevent it from happening. Suspense in thrillers is intertwined with hope and anxiety, which are treated as two emotions aroused in anticipation of the conclusion - the hope that things will turn out all right for the appropriate characters in the story, the fear that they may not; the second type of suspense is the "...anticipation wherein we either know or else are certain about what is going to happen but are still aroused in anticipation of its actual occurrence."According to Greek philosopher Aristotle in his book Poetics, suspense is an important building block of literature, this is an important convention in the thriller genre.
Thriller music has been shown to create a distrust and ominous uncertainty between the viewer of a film and the character on screen at the time when the music is playing. Common methods and themes in crime and action thrillers are ransoms, heists, kidnappings. Common in mystery thrillers are the whodunit technique. Common elements in dramatic and psychological thrillers include plot twists, psychology and mind games. Common elements of science-fiction thrillers are killing robots, machines or aliens, mad scientists and experiments. Common in horror thrillers are serial killers, stalking and horror-of-personality. Elements such as fringe theories, false accusations and paranoia are common in paranoid thrillers. Threats to entire countries, espionage, conspiracies and electronic surveillance are common in spy thrillers. Characters may include criminals, assassins, innocent victims, menaced women, psychotic individuals, spree killers, agents, terrorists and escaped cons, private eyes, people involved in twisted relationships, world-weary men and women, psycho-fiends, more.
The themes include terrorism, political conspiracy, pursuit, or romantic triangles leading to murder. Plots of thrillers involve characters which come into conflict with each other or with outside forces; the protagonist of these films is set against a problem. No matter what subgenre a thriller film falls into, it will emphasize the danger that the protagonist faces; the protagonists are ordinary citizens unaccustomed to danger, although in crime and action thrillers, they may be "hard men" accustomed to danger such as police officers and detectives. While protagonists of thrillers have traditionally been men, women lead characters are common. In psychological thrillers, the protagonists are reliant on their mental resources, whether it be by battling wits with the antagonist or by battling for equilibrium in the cha
Måns Magnus Mårlind is a Swedish director and screenwriter. Mårlind attended film program in Stockholm University and American Film Institute along with Björn Stein, with whom he would start a long-standing directorial partnership; the duo's debut was the 2005 film Storm, followed by the thriller Shelter, starring Julianne Moore and Jonathan Rhys Meyers and based on a screenplay by UK screenwriter Michael Cooney. Mårlind and Stein co-directed for Screen Gems 2012's Underworld: Awakening, which grossed over $160 million worldwide, their latest movie is called Shed No Tears and is based on the songs of Swedish singer/songwriter Håkan Hellström. The film was nominated for 7 Guldbagge Awards including Best Film; the duo are directing all 8 episodes of Midnight Sun, a limited series for Canal+ and Swedish TV, all of which were written by Mårlind. Storm Snapphanar Shelter Underworld: Awakening Shed No Tears Måns Mårlind on IMDb Måns Mårlind at the Swedish Film Database
Frances Hardman Conroy is an American actress. She is best known for playing Ruth Fisher on the television series Six Feet Under, her work on the show won her acclaim and several awards, including a Golden Globe and three Screen Actors Guild Awards. She is known for playing the older version of Moira O'Hara in season one of the television anthology series American Horror Story, which garnered Conroy her first Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress on Television nomination, as well an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie. Conroy subsequently portrayed The Angel of Death, Myrtle Snow, Gloria Mott, Mama Polk and Bebe Babbitt on six further seasons of the show - Asylum, Freak Show, Roanoke and Apocalypse, respectively. Conroy and co-star Lily Rabe have appeared in the most seasons of the show after Evan Peters and Sarah Paulson. For her performance in Coven, she was nominated again for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie.
She starred in the first season as Dawn in the Hulu original series Casual, nominated for a Golden Globe Award for its first season. In 2017, she starred as Nathalie Raven in The Mist. Conroy was born in Monroe, the daughter of Ossie Hardman and Vincent Paul Conroy, her father, of Irish descent, was a business executive, her mother worked in business. During the 1971–72 school year, she was a student at Dickinson College in Carlisle, where she was a member of the Mermaid Players and appeared in college theatrical productions, she moved to New York City to study drama at the Juilliard School. She was a member of Juilliard's Drama Division Group 6 which included Kevin Conroy, Kelsey Grammer, Harriet Sansom Harris, Robin Williams. During the 1970s, she performed with regional and touring theatrical companies, appeared as Desdemona at the Delacorte Theatre in a production of Othello with Richard Dreyfuss and Raul Julia. One of her first film appearances was as a Shakespearean actress in Woody Allen's 1979 classic, Manhattan.
In 1980, she made a well received Broadway debut in Edward Albee's The Lady From Dubuque. She focused on her stage career for the next two decades, appearing in such productions as Our Town, The Little Foxes, The Ride Down Mt. Morgan, receiving one Tony and four Drama Desk Award nominations. Conroy had a small role in the 1984 movie Falling in Love, as a waitress in a swanky restaurant. In 1988, she appeared as the elder daughter of Burt Lancaster's dying patriarch in Rocket Gibraltar; that same year, she appeared in supporting roles in Another Woman. In 1992, she played the political science teacher Christine Downes in the film Scent of a Woman, she is best known for her critically acclaimed work on HBO's original drama series Six Feet Under, which she starred in from 2001 and the series' end in 2005, playing the emotional family matriarch Ruth Fisher. During the series' run, Conroy won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama in 2004, she was nominated for four Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series awards, without winning.
Along with the cast of the show, they were awarded two times in 2003 and 2004 the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Drama Series, as well as Conroy winning the individual 2004 award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Drama Series. The series ended in 2005. In 2008, she landed a guest role in ABC's Desperate Housewives as Virginia Hildebrand, a rich woman who tries to buy the Solis family's love. Along with many guest appearances on television in the mid-2000s, she was cast in a recurring role on How I Met Your Mother, as Barney Stinson's mother Loretta Stinson, and in 2010, Conroy portrayed the character Angie Dinkley in the animated show Scooby-Doo! Mystery Incorporated. In 2010, Conroy played Madylyn, the wife of Robert De Niro's character Jack Mabrey, in the John Curran thriller Stone. In the same year, Conroy played the recurring role of Peggy Haplin in the short-lived ABC drama series Happy Town. In 2011, she was cast in a new drama series for FX entitled American Horror Story.
Conroy was one of two actresses, the other being Alexandra Breckenridge, playing a woman named Moira O'Hara. When the season came to an end in 2011, it was announced that the show was intended to be an anthology series, in which each season would be different with new characters each season. During this time, Conroy was nominated for a fifth Primetime Emmy Award in the Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie category. For the second season, dubbed Asylum, Conroy re-joined the cast playing The Angel of Death in a multi-episode arc, and in 2013, she guest starred on Royal Pains. She co-starred in the television movie Ring of Fire, where she played Maybelle Carter. Conroy was once more cast for American Horror Story's third season during this time, being promoted to series regular, playing Myrtle Snow, a member of the Witches Council in New Orleans, Louisiana, she was subsequently nominated for a sixth Primetime Emmy Award and her second nomination for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie.
In 2014, she returned for the fourth season of the series, entitled Freak Show, as Gloria Mott, a wealthy woman whose son wants to join the freak show returning in the 2016 season, Roanoke, as a cannibalistic hillbilly. As of 2015, Conroy starred as Dawn on the Hulu original series Casual. In July 2017, it was announced vi
Video on demand
Video on demand is a programming system which allows users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content such as movies and TV shows whenever they choose, rather than at a scheduled broadcast time, the method that prevailed with over-the-air programming during the 20th century. IPTV technology is used to bring VOD to televisions and personal computers. Television VOD systems can stream content through either a set-top box, a computer or other device, allowing viewing in real time, or download it to a device such as a computer, digital video recorder or portable media player for viewing at any time; the majority of cable- and telephone company–based television providers offer: VOD streaming, whereby a user selects a video program and it begins to play on the television set, or downloading to a digital video recorder rented or purchased from the provider, or downloading onto a PC or to a portable device, for viewing in the future. Internet television, using the Internet, is an popular form of video on demand.
VOD can be accessed via desktop client applications such as the Samsung iCloud online content store. Some airlines offer VOD as in-flight entertainment to passengers through individually controlled video screens embedded in seatbacks or armrests or offered via portable media players; some video on demand services, such as Netflix, use a subscription model that requires users to pay a monthly fee to access a bundled set of content, movies shows. Other services, such as YouTube, use an advertising - model. Downloading and streaming video on demand systems provide the user with all of the features of Portable media players and DVD players; some VOD systems that store and stream programs from hard disk drives use a memory buffer to allow the user to fast forward and rewind digital videos. It is possible to put video servers on local area networks, in which case they can provide rapid response to users. Cable companies have reeled out their own versions of video on demand services through apps, allowing for TV access anywhere where there is a device, internet compatible.
In addition to cable services launching apps that offer on demand video, they have combined it with offering live streaming services as well. The recent launches of apps from cable companies have the phrases "go" or "watch" are attempts to compete with Subscription Video on Demand services since they lack having live news, etc. Streaming video servers can serve a wider community via a WAN, in which case the responsiveness may be reduced. Download VOD services are practical to homes equipped with DSL connections. Servers for traditional cable and telco VOD services are placed at the cable head-end serving a particular market as well as cable hubs in larger markets. In the telco world, they are placed in either the central office, or a newly created location called a Video Head-End Office; the first video on demand systems used tapes. GTE started as a trial in 1990 with AT&T providing all components. By 1992 VOD servers were supplying encoded digital video from disks and DRAM. In the US, the 1982 anti-trust break-up of AT&T resulted in a number of smaller telephone companies called Baby Bells.
Following this the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 prohibited telephone companies from providing video services within their operating regions. In 1993 the National Communication and Information Infrastructure was proposed and passed by the US House and Senate, thus opening the way for the seven Baby Bells—Ameritech, Bell Atlantic, BellSouth, NYNEX, Pacific Telesis, Southwestern Bell, US West—to implement VOD systems. All of these companies and others began holding trials to set up systems for supplying video on demand over telephone and cable lines. In November 1992, Bell Atlantic announced a VOD trial. IBM was developing video server code-named Tiger Shark. Concurrently Digital Equipment was developing a scalable video server. Bell Atlantic selected IBM and in April 1993 the system became the first VOD over ADSL to be deployed outside the lab, serving 50 video streams. In June 1993, US West filed for a system consisting of the Digital Equipment Corporation Interactive Information Server, with Scientific Atlanta providing the network, 3DO as the set-top box, with video streams and other information to be deployed to 2500 homes.
In 1994–1995 US West went on to file for VOD at several cities: 330,000 subscribers in Denver, 290,000 in Minneapolis, 140,000 in Portland. Many VOD trials were held with various combinations of server and set-top. Of these the primary players in the US were the telephone companies, using DEC, Oracle, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, USA Video, nCube, SGI, other servers; the DEC server system was used in more of these trials than any other. The DEC VOD server architecture used interactive gateways to set up video streams and other information for delivery from any of a large number of VAX servers, enabling it in 1993 to support more than 100,000 streams with full VCR-like functionality. In 1994, it would upgrade to a DEC Alpha–based computer for its VOD servers, allowing it to support more than a million users. By 1994 the Oracle scalable VOD system used massively parallel processors to support from 500 to 30,000 users; the SGI system supported 4000 users. The servers connected to networks of increasing size to support video stream delivery to whole cities.
In the UK, from September 1994, a VOD service formed a major part of the Cambridge Digital Interactive Television Trial in England. This provided video and data to 250 homes and a number of sc
Jeffrey Duncan Jones is an American character actor best known for his roles as Emperor Joseph II in Amadeus, Edward R. Rooney in Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Charles Deetz in Beetlejuice, A. W. Merrick in Deadwood, his career started in Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis and advanced to London and Broadway. In film and television, Jones has had many roles which capitalized on his deadpan portrayal of characters in unusual situations to comic effect, he was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for his performance in Amadeus and a Screen Actors Guild Award as part of the ensemble cast of Deadwood. After graduating from the Putney School in 1964, Jones enrolled at Lawrence University as a premed student, where his performances in university productions brought him to the attention of Tyrone Guthrie, who recruited him for the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota, he went to London in 1969 to study at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, followed by a three-year stint with the Stratford Theatre in Stratford, Ontario.
His stage career included more than 125 productions, starting with the Guthrie Theater internationally in South America and London, in New York's Broadway theatre, appearing with Sigourney Weaver, Christopher Walken, David Bowie and Meryl Streep. Productions included, Cloud 9, A Flea in Her Ear and Juliet and The Elephant Man, his transition from stage to film began in 1970. Jones began acting in small parts in television in the 1970s. In his best-known roles as Emperor Joseph II in Amadeus, Charles Deetz in Beetlejuice, Edward R. Rooney in Ferris Bueller's Day Off, his dead-pan expression and distinctive face bring a comic flavor to his characters through their reactions to the situations in which they find themselves, more so than the wit in their scripted lines; the New York Times' biographic profile says of Jones, "Although he has tried to steer clear of playing only sinister roles, the actor's imposing height, bugged-out eyes, easy sneer, shock of reddish-blond hair give him vaguely devilish features that have prompted villain typecasting.
However, the actor is widely respected and considered a boon wherever he appears." The profile describes his portrayals variously as a "hissable, cartoonish high school principal" in Ferris Bueller's Day Off, a "good-natured father" in Beetlejuice, "an interplanetary freedom fighter" in Mom and Dad Save the World, a "demon stand-in" in Stay Tuned, "evil bespectacled twins" in Out on a Limb, plus other personae in a variety of other roles. Jones' work in the Lucille Lortel Theatre production of Cloud 9 was noticed by the casting team of Easy Money, earning Jones a supporting role opposite Rodney Dangerfield. Cloud 9 further attracted the attention of director Miloš Forman, who cast Jones as Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor in Amadeus, an adaptation of the Peter Shaffer play of the same name. Critic James Berardinelli noted that Jones portrayed the Emperor "as a superficial and self-absorbed ruler who can't tell the difference between a great opera and a mediocre one". Vincent Canby of The New York Times praised the performance, citing the film's most memorable line, when the Emperor complains of Die Entführung aus dem Serail that "there are too many notes".
Jones' work earned him a nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture. Jones' performance as Edward R. Rooney in the film Ferris Bueller's Day Off made him a cultural icon. Rooney, self-important and obsessed with catching the chronically truant Ferris Bueller, became a symbol of pomposity and authoritarian hatefulness; the New York Times' review characterized Jones' performance as having "fine cartoon like ferocity", wherein his character "gets scratched, attacked by ferocious dogs and covered with mud while pursuing his weaker, but craftier prey, emerges each time bruised but undaunted, thinking up some new plan." The review likened Jones' role as akin to that of Wile E. Coyote as a character, fated to be unable to catch The Road Runner. Jones expressed concern about being remembered more for this role than for Amadeus, he further said, regarding the film's premise, "What's amazing about Ferris Bueller, is that we're asked to, do, sympathise with a kid whose only complaint in life is that his sister got a car for her birthday and he got a computer."
In the horror comedy film Beetlejuice and Catherine O'Hara portrayed a married couple who unwittingly become co-owners of a haunted house. To highlight this couple's status as bores, director Tim Burton cast Dick Cavett and Robert Goulet to appear as their guests at a dinner party, at which the ghosts of the previous owners cause everyone to sing "Day-O". Jones collaborated with Burton again on the films Ed Wood, in which he portrays The Amazing Criswell, Sleepy Hollow. Shortly prior to the release of Sleepy Hollow, Jones said of Burton "I've known Tim now for quite some time and enjoy working with him. I like his sensibility, he's great fun." Jones played Dr. Walter Jenning in the George Lucas film Howard the Duck, he portrayed Inspector Lestrade in the Sherlock Holmes spoof film Without a Clue. In The Hunt for Red October, he played ex-submarine commander Skip Tyler, who identifies the Red October's propulsion system to Alec Baldwin's Jack Ryan, he appeared as real life figure Thomas Putnam in The Crucible.
As lumber mogul Joe Potter, Jones was the primary antagonist of the Eddie Murphy comedy Dr. Dolittle 2. One of Jones' earliest television roles was in an episode of the short-lived CBS series Sara, he showcased his villain persona as the sinister M
M. Night Shyamalan
Manoj Nelliyattu "M. Night" Shyamalan is an American filmmaker and actor, he is known for making films with contemporary supernatural plots and twist endings. He was born in Mahé, Puducherry and raised in Penn Valley, Pennsylvania, he made his directorial debut in 1992 with his first movie Praying with Anger. His second movie was the comedy-drama film Wide Awake, his most well-received films include the supernatural thriller The Sixth Sense, the superhero thriller Unbreakable, the science fiction thriller Signs and the period-piece thriller The Village. For The Sixth Sense, Shyamalan received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director and the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. Afterward, Shyamalan released a series of poorly received but sometimes financially successful movies, including the dark fantasy Lady in the Water, the eco-thriller The Happening, The Last Airbender, the science fiction film After Earth. Following the financial failure of After Earth, Shyamalan's career was revived with the release of the found footage horror film The Visit and the psychological thriller Split.
His latest film is the superhero thriller Glass, the third and final chapter of his Unbreakable film series. In addition to his directorial work, Shyamalan was a producer for the horror film Devil, he was instrumental in the creation of the Fox science fiction series Wayward Pines, for which he executive produced and directed the pilot episode. He appeared in an episode of the series Entourage. Shyamalan was called in for an uncredited rewrite for the teen film She's All That and served as a writer for the film Stuart Little. Shyamalan is known for filming and setting his films in and outside of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most of his commercially successful films were co-produced and released by the Walt Disney Studios' Touchstone and Hollywood film imprints. In 2008, Shyamalan was awarded the Padma Shri by the government of India. Shyamalan was born in Mahé, a town in the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry, surrounded by the state of Kerala; the son of Indian parents, his father, Dr. Nelliate C.
Shyamalan, is a Malayali neurologist from Mahé and a JIPMER graduate, his mother, Dr. Jayalakshmi, an ethnic Tamil, is an obstetrician and gynecologist. Shyamalan's parents immigrated to the United States. Shyamalan was raised in his hometown of Pennsylvania. Shyamalan was raised Hindu, he attended the private Roman Catholic grammar school Waldron Mercy Academy, followed by the Episcopal Academy, a private Episcopal high school located at the time in Merion, Pennsylvania. Shyamalan earned the New York University Merit Scholarship in 1988. Shyamalan is an alumnus of New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, in Manhattan, graduating in 1992, it was while studying there. Shyamalan had an early desire to be a filmmaker. Though his father wanted him to follow in the family practice of medicine, his mother encouraged him to follow his passion. By the time he was seventeen, the Steven Spielberg fan had made forty-five home movies. On each DVD release of his films, he has included a scene from one of these childhood movies, which he feels represents his first attempt at the same kind of film.
Shyamalan made his first film, the semi-autobiographical drama Praying with Anger, while still a student at NYU, using money borrowed from family and friends. He directed his second movie, Wide Awake, his parents were the film's associate producers. The drama dealt with a ten-year-old Catholic schoolboy who, after the death of his grandfather, searches for God; the film's supporting cast included Dana Delany and Denis Leary as the boy's parents, as well as Rosie O'Donnell, Julia Stiles, Camryn Manheim. Wide Awake was filmed in a school Shyamalan attended as a child and earned 1999 Young Artist Award nominations for Best Drama, for Cross, Best Performance. Only in limited release, the film grossed $305,704 against a $6 million budget; that same year Shyamalan co-wrote the screenplay for Stuart Little with Greg Brooker. In 2013, he revealed he was the ghostwriter for the 1999 film She's All That, a teen comedy starring Freddie Prinze Jr. and Rachel Leigh Cook. However, this statement has come into question as the credited screenwriter for the film, R. Lee Fleming Jr. denied Shyamalan's involvement in a now deleted tweet.
Shyamalan gained international recognition when he wrote and directed 1999's The Sixth Sense, a commercial success and nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director and Best Original Screenplay. In July 2000, on The Howard Stern Show, Shyamalan said he had met with Steven Spielberg and was in early talks to write the script for the fourth Indiana Jones film; this would have given Shyamalan a chance to work with his longtime idol. After the film fell through, Shyamalan said it was too "tricky" to arrange and "not the right thing" for him to do. Shyamalan followed The Sixth Sense by writing and directing Unbreakable, released in 2000, which received positive reviews and commercial success. Shyamalan's name was linked with the 2001 film Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, but it conflicted with the production of Unbreakable. In July 2006, while doing press tours for Lady in the Water, Shyamalan had said he was still interested in directing one of the last two Harry Potter films: "The themes that run through it...the