Space medicine is the practice of medicine on astronauts in outer space whereas astronautical hygiene is the application of science and technology to the prevention or control of exposure to the hazards that may cause astronaut ill health. Both these sciences work together to ensure; the main objective is to discover how well and for how long people can survive the extreme conditions in space, how fast they can adapt to the Earth's environment after returning from their voyage. Medical consequences such as possible blindness and bone loss have been associated with human spaceflight. In October 2015, the NASA Office of Inspector General issued a health hazards report related to space exploration, including a human mission to Mars. Hubertus Strughold, a former Nazi physician and physiologist, was brought to the United States after World War II as part of Operation Paperclip, he first coined the term "space medicine" in 1948 and was the first and only Professor of Space Medicine at the School of Aviation Medicine at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas.
In 1949 Strughold was made director of the Department of Space Medicine at the SAM (which is now the US Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. He played an important role in developing the pressure suit worn by early American astronauts, he was a co-founder of the Space Medicine Branch of the Aerospace Medical Association in 1950. The aeromedical library at Brooks AFB was named after him in 1977, but renamed because documents from the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal linked Strughold to medical experiments in which inmates of the Dachau concentration camp were tortured and killed. Space medicine was a critical factor in the United States manned space program, starting with Project Mercury. In October 2018, NASA-funded researchers found that lengthy journeys into outer space, including travel to the planet Mars, may damage the gastrointestinal tissues of astronauts; the studies support earlier work that found such journeys could damage the brains of astronauts, age them prematurely.
Heart rhythm disturbances have been seen among astronauts. Most of these have been related to cardiovascular disease, but it is not clear whether this was due to pre-existing conditions or effects of space flight, it is hoped that advanced screening for coronary disease has mitigated this risk. Other heart rhythm problems, such as atrial fibrillation, can develop over time, necessitating periodic screening of crewmembers’ heart rhythms. Beyond these terrestrial heart risks, some concern exists that prolonged exposure to microgravity may lead to heart rhythm disturbances. Although this has not been observed to date, further surveillance is warranted. In space, astronauts use a space suit a self-contained individual spacecraft, to do spacewalks, or extra-vehicular activities. Spacesuits are inflated with 100% oxygen at a total pressure, less than a third of normal atmospheric pressure. Eliminating inert atmospheric components such as nitrogen allows the astronaut to breathe comfortably, but have the mobility to use their hands and legs to complete required work, which would be more difficult in a higher pressure suit.
After the astronaut dons the spacesuit, air is replaced by 100% oxygen in a process called a "nitrogen purge". In order to reduce the risk of decompression sickness, the astronaut must spend several hours "pre-breathing" at an intermediate nitrogen partial pressure, in order to let their body tissues outgas nitrogen enough that bubbles are not formed; when the astronaut returns to the "shirt sleeve" environment of the spacecraft after an EVA, pressure is restored to whatever the operating pressure of that spacecraft may be normal atmospheric pressure. Decompression illness in spaceflight consists of decompression sickness and other injuries due to uncompensated changes in pressure, or barotrauma. Decompression sickness is the injury to the tissues of the body resulting from the presence of nitrogen bubbles in the tissues and blood; this occurs due to a rapid reduction in ambient pressure causing the dissolved nitrogen to come out of solution as gas bubbles within the body. In space the risk of DCS is reduced by using a technique to wash out the nitrogen in the body's tissues.
This is achieved by breathing 100% oxygen for a specified period of time before donning the spacesuit, is continued after a nitrogen purge. DCS may result from inadequate or interrupted pre-oxygenation time, or other factors including the astronaut's level of hydration, physical conditioning, prior injuries and age. Other risks of DCS include inadequate nitrogen purge in the EMU, a strenuous or excessively prolonged EVA, or a loss of suit pressure. Non-EVA crewmembers may be at risk for DCS if there is a loss of spacecraft cabin pressure. Symptoms of DCS in space may include chest pain, shortness of breath, cough or pain with a deep breath, unusual fatigue, dizziness, unexplained musculoskeletal pain, tingling or numbness, extremities weakness, or visual abnormalities. Primary treatment principles consist of in-suit repressurization to re-dissolve nitrogen bubbles, 100% oxygen to re-oxygenate tissues, hydration to improve the circulation to injured tissues. Barotrauma is the injury to the tissues of air filled spaces in the body as a result of differences in pressure between the body spaces and the ambient atmospheric pressure.
Air filled spaces include the middle ears, paranasal sinuses and gastrointestinal tract. One would be predisposed by a pre-existing upper respiratory infection, nasal allergies, recurrent changing pressures, dehydration, or a poor equalizing technique. Positive pressure in
Shenzhou 9 was the fourth manned spacecraft flight of China's Shenzhou program, launched at 18:37:24 CST, 16 June 2012. Shenzhou 9 was the second spacecraft and first manned spacecraft to dock with the Tiangong 1 space station, which took place on 18 June; the Shenzhou 9 spacecraft landed at 10:01:16 CST on 29 June in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The mission's crew included Liu Yang; the next mission was Shenzhou 10, which launched on 11 June 2013. On 12 March 2012, it was announced that the initial crew selection roster for the mission included female astronauts; the crew were unveiled to the press on 15 June. China's first female astronaut would be Liu Yang. Liu was selected ahead of her fellow female astronaut prospect Wang Yaping; this mission featured the first repeat astronaut, Jing Haipeng, the commander of the mission. Shenzhou 9 was the 9th flight in the fourth manned spaceflight; the mission's launch was 49 years to the day after that of the first woman in space, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova.
The Shenzhou 9 spacecraft arrived at Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in the northwestern Gobi Desert on 9 April 2012 and its carrier rocket, the Long March 2F, arrived on 9 May. On 9 June 2012, its carrier rocket were rolled out to launch pad. On 12 June 2012 underwent system-wide joint exercises, final health checks were completed the following day. On June 16, 2012, the Expedition Ceremony was held at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. National People's Congress Standing Committee Chairman Wu Bangguo attended the ceremony; the astronauts, Liu Wang, Liu Yang, Jing Haipeng, rode to the launch tower and turned in the entrance with the assistance of support staff. The Long March 2F rocket was launched on 16 June 2012 at 10:37 UTC. Shenzhou 9 docked with China's first space lab Tiangong-1 at 06:07 UTC on 18 June, marking China's first manned spacecraft rendezvous and docking; this docking was remotely controlled from a ground station. After about 3 hours, when the pressures inside the vessels were equalized, Jing Haipeng entered into Tiangong-1.
Six days Shenzhou 9 detached from the station and redocked manually under the control of crew member Liu Wang, making it the first manual docking for the Chinese program. Shenzhou 9 landed by parachute in Siziwang Banner, Inner Mongolia on 29 June 2012; the backup crew for the flight was: The backup crew became the prime crew for Shenzhou 10. 9 April 2012Shenzhou 9 space capsule arrives at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre 9 May 2012Long March 2F space launcher arrives at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre 9 June 2012Launch stack rolled out to the launch pad 15 June 2012Crew unveiled 16 June 2012Launch, first woman in space for the Chinese program, first repeat traveller for the Chinese program, first manned mission to a space station for the Chinese program 18 June 2012First manned rendezvous for the Chinese space program. Automated docking with Tiangong-1, first manned docking by the Chinese program 24 June 2012Shenzhou 9 undocks with Tiangong-1 Shenzhou 9 redocks with Tiangong-1, first manual docking by the Chinese space program, second manned docking by the program29 June 2012Shenzhou 9 landed in Siziwang Banner, Inner Mongolia.
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Shenzhou 6 was the second human spaceflight of the Chinese space program, launched on October 12, 2005 on a Long March 2F rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. The Shenzhou spacecraft carried a crew of Fèi Jùnlóng and Niè Hǎishèng for five days in low Earth orbit, it launched three days before the second anniversary of China's first human spaceflight, Shenzhou 5. The crew were able to change out of their new lighter space suits, conduct scientific experiments, enter the orbital module for the first time, giving them access to toilet facilities; the exact activities of the crew were kept secret but were thought by some to include military reconnaissance, however this is untrue given that similar experiments in the US and USSR determined that humans are not suited for military reconnaissance. It landed in the Siziwang Banner of Inner Mongolia on October 16, 2005, the same site as the previous manned and unmanned Shenzhou flights; this is the first spaceflight for both crew members. The crew was introduced to the Chinese public and international media about five hours before the launch.
Niè Hǎishèng celebrated his 41st birthday in space. Huang Chunping, the chief designer of the Long March 2F rocket, was quoted in the Beijing Times as saying the crew members who would fly the mission were selected from a pool of three pairs. Five pairs of astronauts trained for the flight and about one month before launch the two pairs with the lowest performance were dropped; the Ta Kung Pao newspaper had reported that Zhai Zhigang and Nie Haisheng were the leading pair, after having been in the final group of three for Shenzhou 5. The crew arrived at the spacecraft about 2 hours and 45 minutes before the launch and the hatch closed 30 minutes after their arrival. At 01:00:05.583 UTC on October 12 Shenzhou 6 lifted off from the launch pad at Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. The launch phase was reported to be normal with the escape rocket separating 120 seconds after launch when the rocket was travelling 1,300 m/s. Sixteen seconds the four booster rockets separated at an altitude of 52 km; the payload fairing and first stage detached 200 seconds after launch.
The second stage burned for a further 383 seconds and the spacecraft separated from the rocket 200 km above the Yellow Sea. The spacecraft used its own propulsion system to place it into a 211 km by 345 km orbit, with an inclination of 42.4 degrees, about 21 minutes after launch. At 01:39 UTC Chen Bingde, the Chief Commander of the Chinese space program, announced the launch was successful; the crew ate their first meal in space at 03:11 UTC. Before the flight, the launch time had been the object of speculation by the Chinese media. For several months before the planned launch its time was only given as mid-October, or late-September. On September 23 it was reported by the Hong Kong-based news agency China News Service that the launch was tentatively scheduled for 03:00 UTC on October 13; this launch time was confirmed two weeks by Jiang Jingshan, a member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. But on October 10 an official from the technical department of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center said the launch was scheduled for 01:00 UTC on October 12.
This new launch time could have been designed to dodge the cold weather, forecast to hit the area. Assembly of the rocket was reported complete on September 26. On October 4, the Shenzhou 6 spacecraft was attached to the CZ-2F rocket known as Shenjian. Unlike the unmanned Shenzhou flights, Shenzhou 5 and 6 were launched during daylight hours to provide greater safety in case of abort; the launch was televised live with China Central Television selling advertising for RMB¥2.56 million for five seconds, to RMB¥8.56 million for 30 seconds. A video camera had been added to the rocket and images of it were broadcast during the ascent and the separation of the Shenzhou spacecraft. Shortly after launch, recovery crews began searching a region from the Badain Jaran Desert in Inner Mongolia to Shaanxi for the launch escape tower, booster rockets, first stage and payload fairing. Of particular interest was the "black box" of the rocket, which contained telemetry that may not have been downlinked during the launch phase.
It was found 45 minutes after launch somewhere near Otog Banner. It was first sighted by Lian Hua, about 1.5 km from her home. Other wreckage from the launch was found and destroyed at its impact location or brought back to Jiuquan. General Secretary and President Hu Jintao was present at the Beijing Aerospace Control Center to watch the launch. Premier Wen Jiabao was present at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center; the first of several orbit changing maneuvers happened as planned at 07:54:45, with a 63-second burn to circularize the orbit. Based on United States Space Command orbital elements, it was in a 332 by 336 km orbit. After about an hour and a half, the hatch between the re-entry and orbital modules was opened and, for the first time, crew were able to enter the second living compartment of the Shenzhou spacecraft. Fèi Jùnlóng was the first to enter, they would swap positions about three hours later. At 13:32 UTC, Niè and Fèi had a seven-minute conversation with their wives and children who were in Mission Control.
Niè's daughter sang "Happy Birthday to You", as his birthday is October 13. The activities of the crew were not revealed by the Chinese. Only vague references to experiments were made. One experiment involved the crew testing the reaction of the spacecraft to movement within the orbital and reentry modules, they moved between the modules and clos
People's Liberation Army Air Force
The People's Liberation Army Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the People's Liberation Army, the armed forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLAAF was established on 11 November 1949; as of 2014, the PLAAF has a strength of around 398,000 personnel and is the largest air force in Asia. The PLA's first organized air unit, was formed in July 1949 at Beijing Nanyuan Airport, it consisted of six P-51s, two Mosquitoes, two PT-19s. On 25 October 1949, Liu Yalou was appointed as the chief of air force in the People's Liberation Army. By 11 November, the air force command was formed from the headquarters of Liu Yalou's 14th bingtuan. Much Soviet assistance was received to help the process along; the PLAAF fought the Korean War in Soviet-built Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15s, known as the J-2 in Chinese service, with training from Soviet instructors. The war brought Soviet assistance for the indigenous aircraft industry; the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation built the two-seat MiG-15UTI trainer as the JJ-2, during the war manufactured various components to maintain the Soviet-built fighters.
By 1956 the People's Republic was assembling copies of MiG-15s and eight years was producing both the Shenyang J-5 and the Shenyang J-6 under license. The 1960s were a difficult time for the PLAAF; the withdrawal of Soviet aid due to the Sino-Soviet split, the prioritization of the missile and nuclear weapon programs, crippled the industry, which markedly declined through 1963. A recovery began around 1965 as J-2s, J-5s, some J-6s were provided to North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Development of the Shenyang J-8, China's first indigenous fighter, was initiated during the 1960s; the PLA Air Force underwent reorganization and streamlining as part of the reduction in force begun in 1985. Before the 1985 reorganization, the Air Force had four branches: air defense, ground attack and independent air regiments. In peacetime the Air Force Directorate, under the supervision of the PLA General Staff Department, controlled the Air Force through headquarters located with, or in communication with, each of the seven military region headquarters.
In war, control of the Air Force reverted to the regional commanders. In 1987 it was not clear how the reorganization and the incorporation of air support elements into the group armies affected air force organization; the largest Air Force organizational unit was the division, which consisted of 17,000 personnel in three regiments. A typical air defense regiment had three squadrons of three flights; the Air Force had 220,000 air defense personnel who controlled about 100 surface-to-air missile sites and over 16,000 AA guns. In addition, it had a large number of early-warning, ground-control-intercept, air-base radars manned by specialized troops organized into at least twenty-two independent regiments. In the 1980s the Air Force made serious efforts to raise the educational level and improve the training of its pilots. Superannuated pilots were assigned to other duties. All new pilots were at least middle-school graduates; the time it took to train a qualified pilot capable of performing combat missions was reduced from four or five years to two years.
Training emphasized raising technical and tactical skills in individual pilots and participation in combined-arms operations. Flight safety increased. In 1987 the Air Force had serious technological deficiencies — when compared with its principal threat, the Soviet Armed Forces — and had many needs that it could not satisfy, it needed more advanced aircraft, better avionics, electronic countermeasures equipment, more powerful aircraft weaponry, a low-altitude surface-to-air missile, better controlled antiaircraft artillery guns. Some progress was made in aircraft design with the incorporation of Western avionics into the Chengdu J-7 and Shenyang J-8, the development of refueling capabilities for the B-6D bomber and the A-5 attack fighter, increased aircraft all-weather capabilities, the production of the HQ-2J high-altitude surface-to-air missile and the C-601 air-to-ship missile. Although the PLAAF received significant support from Western nations in the 1980s when China was seen as a counterweight to Soviet power, this support ended in 1989 as a result of the Chinese crackdown on the Tiananmen protests of 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
After the fall of the USSR, the Russian Federation became China's principal arms supplier, to the extent that Chinese economic growth allowed Russia to sustain its aerospace industry. In the late 1980s, the primary mission of the PLAAF was the defense of the mainland, most aircraft were assigned to this role. A smaller number of ground attack and bomber units were assigned to Air interdiction and close air support, some bomber units could be used for nuclear delivery; the force had only limited military airlift and aerial reconnaissance capabilities. In the early 1990s, the PLAAF began a program of modernization, motivated by the collapse of the Soviet Union, as well as the possibility of military conflict with the Republic of China and also involving the United States; this process began with the acquisition of Su-27s in the early 1990s and the development of various fourth-generation aircraft, including the domestic J-10, the FC-1. The PLAAF strove to improve its pilot training and continued to retire obsolete aircraft.
This resulted in a reduction of the overall number of aircraft in the PLAAF with a concurrent increase in quality of its air fleet. The 21st century has seen the continuation of the modernization program with China's huge economic growth, it acquired 76 Su-30MKK's fro