Shepherd's Bush is a district of west London, within the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham 4.9 miles west of Charing Cross, identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan. Although residential in character, its focus is the shopping area of Shepherd's Bush Green, with the Westfield London shopping centre a short distance to the north; the main thoroughfares are Uxbridge Road, Goldhawk Road and Askew Road, all with small and independent shops and restaurants. The Loftus Road football stadium in Shepherd's Bush is home to Queens Park Rangers. In 2011, the population of the area was 39,724; the district is bounded by Hammersmith to the south, Holland Park and Notting Hill to the east and Kensal Green to the north and by Acton and Chiswick to the west. White City forms the northern part of Shepherd's Bush. Shepherd's Bush comprises the Shepherd's Bush Green, College Park & Old Oak, Wormholt and White City wards of the borough; the name Shepherd's Bush is thought to have originated from the use of the common land here as a resting point for shepherds on their way to Smithfield Market in the City of London.
An alternative theory is that it could have been named after someone in the area, because in 1635 the area was recorded as "Sheppard's Bush Green". Evidence of human habitation can be traced back to the Iron Age. Shepherd's Bush enters the written record in the year 704 when it was bought by Waldhere, Bishop of London as a part of the "Fulanham" estate. A map of London dated 1841 shows Shepherd's Bush to be undeveloped and chiefly rural in character, with much open farmland compared to fast-developing Hammersmith. Residential development began in earnest in the late 19th century, as London's population expanded relentlessly. In 1904 the Catholic Church of Holy Ghost and St Stephen, built in the Gothic style with a triple-gabled facade of red brick and Portland stone, was completed and opened to the public. Like other parts of London, Shepherd's Bush suffered from bomb damage during World War II from V-1 flying bomb attacks, which struck randomly and with little warning. On 13 April 1963 The Beatles recorded their first-ever BBC Television broadcast at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush.
The group returned in 1964 for a further recording. Lime Grove Studios was demolished in 1994 to make way for residential accommodation. More the White City bus station is housed in the redeveloped Dimco Buildings, Grade II listed red brick buildings which were built in 1898 as a shed for a London Underground power station; the Dimco buildings were used as a filming location for the ‘Acme Factory’ in the 1988 film Who Framed Roger Rabbit?, served as the interior of the British Museum in The Mummy Returns. The area's focal point is Shepherd's Bush Green, a triangular area of about 8 acres of open grass surrounded by trees and roads with shops, with Westfield shopping centre to its north; the Green is a hub on the local road network, with four main roads radiating from the western side of the green and three roads approaching its eastern apex, meeting at the large Holland Park Roundabout. This position makes it an important node of the bus network, with eighteen bus routes arriving there, it is served by five London Underground stations: Shepherd's Bush and White City both on the Central line, Shepherd's Bush Market, Goldhawk Road and Wood Lane all on the Hammersmith & City line.
To the east, Shepherd's Bush is bounded by the physical barrier of the West London railway line and the grade-separated West Cross Route. Most of the areas to the east of the barrier differ in character, being associated with the more affluent Holland Park and Notting Hill. To the south, Shepherd's Bush neighbours Brook Hammersmith. Commercial activity in Shepherd's Bush is now focused on the Westfield shopping centre next to Shepherd's Bush Central line station and on the many small shops which run along the northern side of the Green. Built in the 1970s with a rooftop car park and connecting bridge to the station, the older West 12 Shepherds Bush shopping centre was redeveloped in the 1990s; the bridge was removed, the centre now houses several chain stores, a 12-screen cinema, pub, restaurants, a medical practice and a supermarket. The small shops continue along Uxbridge Road to the west for some distance, another set of shops and restaurants line Goldhawk Road from the Green to the southwest.
Many of these establishments cater for the local ethnic minority communities. Running parallel to, under, an elevated section of the Hammersmith & City line there is a large permanent market, the Shepherd's Bush Market, selling all types of foodstuffs, cooked food, household goods and bric-à-brac; the Westfield Group opened a shopping centre in October 2008. As well as the offices within the BBC TV Centre on Wood Lane, opposite this is Network House, 1 Ariel Way, a 20,000 sq ft building, let by Frost Meadowcroft on behalf of Westfield to Zodiak Entertainment in September 2009 and in Rockley Road is the 160,000 sq ft Shepherds Building where Endemol another TV company are based and where Jellycat, a soft toy company, relocated their head office to in February 2010; the same building houses Escape Stu
Masayuki Tokioka was a Japanese businessman and philanthropist in Hawaii. He founded City Bank, he helped to build the San Francisco Peace Pagoda, served on the boards of many non-profit organizations. Tokioka was born in Okayama, Japan on May 22, 1897, his mother raised him in Japan. Tokioka attended Kaahumanu Elementary School, where he learned English. Though his parents lived nearby in Waikiki, he boarded at Takie Okumura's "Okumura Home", attached to the Makiki Christian Church, he returned home on weekends to help with his father's business. As he grew older he attended McKinley High School, graduated in 1921, he attended the University of Hawaii. In 1925 he earned an MBA from Harvard University, making him the first person of Japanese ancestry to earn one from that institution, he returned to Hawaii, where he married Harue Fujiyoshi. They had three children. In 1929 Tokioka helped to found the National Finance Company, he helped many immigrants who were turned away by other institutions because of their race or because they were considered "high risk".
Tokioka and Wade Warren Thayer opened Island Insurance in 1940. He became involved in many other businesses such as the Newfair Dairy, International Savings & Loan Association, National Securities and Investments Inc. Tokioka was a member of the Honolulu Japanese Chamber of Commerce for many years and served as the president in 1953, he was the president of the Honolulu Lions Club. He served on the board of the Crown Prince Akihito Scholarship Foundation and the Kuakini Medical Center, he helped to build the San Francisco Peace Pagoda in 1968, the Japanese Cultural Center of Hawaii in 1987. During the 1970s he worked to raise funds to build a center for immigration history at the Bishop Museum. Throughout his life he was given several awards including an Award of Merit in 1961 by the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce, an honorary doctorate from the University of Hawaii in 1982. Tokioka died on August 2, 1998; the Island Insurance Company created the Masayuki Tokioka Excellence in School Leadership scholarship in his honor.
It is awarded to a public school principal every year. Engelbretson, George. A century of trust: the story of Masayuki Tokioka. Honolulu: Island Insurance Inc. ISBN 978-0963981004
No. 85 Squadron was a squadron of the Royal Air Force. It last served in 2011. No. 85 Squadron was formed at Upavon on 1 August 1917. Shortly afterwards, the squadron moved to Mousehold Heath near Norwich under the command of Major R A Archer. During November 1917 the squadron transferred to Hounslow Heath Aerodrome, in March 1918 Major William Avery Bishop VC, DSO, MC, took command and carried out his orders to prepare and train for front line duties in France. On 1 April 1918 No. 85 Squadron was transferred into the newly formed Royal Air Force. Following this period of training the squadron deployed to France during May 1918. Equipped with the Sopwith Dolphin and the Royal Aircraft Factory S. E.5A, it flew fighter patrols and ground attack sorties over the Western Front until the Armistice was signed. On 21 June 1918, there was a change of command and training methods following the arrival of the new CO, Major Edward "Mick" Mannock DSO, MC. Rather than fight as individuals, the squadron was taught to act as a unit during combat.
During a patrol on 26 July 1918, accompanying Lt DC Inglis over the front line, Major Mannock failed to return, depriving 85 Squadron of its leader. On 18 July 1919, Major Mannock was awarded a posthumous VC. No. 85 Squadron amassed 99 victories during its short involvement in the conflict. Besides Bishop and Mannock, the squadron had other notable aces, such as Malcolm C. McGregor, Arthur Randall, John Warner, Alec Reid, Spencer B. Horn, Walter H. Longton and Lawrence Callahan. 85 Squadron returned to the UK in February 1919. The squadron disbanded on 3 July 1919. On 1 June 1938, the squadron was reformed from the renumbered elements of "A" Flight of No. 87 Squadron RAF and placed under the command of Flight Lieutenant D. E. Turner; the squadron commenced training on the Gloster Gladiator. On 4 September the first Hawker Hurricanes began arriving in numbers. With war looking in Europe, No. 85 Squadron received the signal ordering its immediate mobilisation on 23 August 1939, the aircraft making up both "A" and "B" Flights were kept at a state of constant readiness and by 1 September the squadron had completed its preparation for the impending move to France.
On the outbreak of the Second World War, the squadron moved its 16 Hurricanes to Boos as part of the Air Component of the British Expeditionary Force 60 Fighter Wing. Their primary role was to give support to the Fairey Battle and Bristol Blenheim units deployed around Rheims and to provide vital air defence cover for their airfields. Initial sorties involved patrols over the English Channel and a move to Merville was instigated in late September. By 1 November 1939, another move saw the squadron posted to Lille Seclin and to maintain its patrols over the Channel, sections were detached to Le Touquet and Saint-Inglevert. During one such patrol over the Boulogne area, the squadron scored its first victory of the war, when Flight Lieutenant R. H. A. Lee attacked a Heinkel He 111 which crashed into the Channel, exploding on impact. December 1939 saw a Royal visit from his Majesty the King accompanied by the Duke of Gloucester and Viscount Lord Gort; the onset of winter proved to be an additional challenge as bitterly cold weather prevented flying, caused damage to aircraft and took its toll on the health of the airmen, who were living in primitive conditions.
When the German invasion commenced in May 1940, No 85 Squadron found itself locked in a bitter contest with the Luftwaffe, with attacks on its aerodromes commonplace there was no respite from operations. In an eleven-day period the squadron accounted for a confirmed total of 90 enemy aircraft; the final sorties saw the squadron giving fighter cover to the Allied armies until its airfields were overrun and the three remaining aircraft returned to the UK. During the intense battles over France, the squadron lost seventeen pilots; the squadron re-equipped and resumed full operations early in June 1940. After taking part in the first half of the Battle of Britain over southern England, the squadron moved to Yorkshire in September and in October following a change in role commenced night fighter patrols. For the remainder of the Second World War No. 85 Squadron continued its nocturnal pursuit of intercepting enemy raiders. It had a brief period providing Bomber Support as part of No. 100 Group RAF and took part in the famous anti-diver patrols intercepting V1 flying bombs.
Following the end of war in Europe, 85 Squadron remained active as a night-fighter unit, flying operations continued into the jet age with new aircraft types such as the NF 11 and NF 14 Gloster Meteor, Gloster Javelin and English Electric Canberra. In its final reformation on 19 December 1975, No. 85 Squadron was a Bristol Bloodhound Mark II surface-to-air missile unit. It was operational at several RAF stations in the United Kingdom with headquarters at RAF West Raynham in Norfolk; the squadron continued to play a significant part in Air Defence operations as part of 11 Group RAF Strike Command until the 1990s. The collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the end of the Cold War period heralded wide sweeping changes in the United Kingdom's Air Defence needs. No. 85 Squadron was disbanded on 31 July 1991 and the Standard bearing the squadron's battle honours was interred and is in the safekeeping of Ely Cathedral. At the end the flights of No. 85 were based at the following airfields: No. 85 Squadro
Frederick Eustace Barker, was a Canadian lawyer and politician. Born in Sheffield, New Brunswick, the son of Enoch Barker, Barker was educated at the Sunbury Grammar School and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1856, a Master of Arts degree in 1858, a Bachelor of Civil Law degree in 1866 from King's College Law School. In 1861, he was called to the Bar and was created a Queen's Counsel in 1873, he practiced law in St. John, New Brunswick, was appointed a commissioner for consolidating the Statutes of New Brunswick in 1875, he was president of the St. John Bridge and Railway Extension Company and a director of the St. John Gas Company, he served in the Canadian Militia with the Saint-John Light Infantry and was gazetted an ensign and soon after a lieutenant in 1864. He was promoted to captain in 1865 and major in 1868, he was elected to the House of Commons of Canada for the electoral district of City of St. John in the 1885 by-election called after Sir Leonard Tilley was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick.
A Conservative, he was defeated by John Valentine Ellis in the 1887 election. A member of the Church of England, he married Elizabeth Julia Lloyd in 1865, they had one son and two daughter before she died in 1874. He married Mary Ann Black, the niece and adopted daughter of former Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick Robert Duncan Wilmot, they had two daughters. Barker served as Chief Justice of New Brunswick from 1908 to 1913, he died in St. John on December 15, 1915. Frederick Eustace Barker – Parliament of Canada biography A cyclopaedia of Canadian biography, Volume 2. Internet Archive. Toronto Rose Pub. Co. 1888. Pp. 206–207
Richard Appiah Akoto, is a Ghanaian educationist at Betenase M/A Junior High School who received attention for his innovative approach for teaching students Information and Communications Technology without a computer. A photo he shared of himself on Facebook sketching the features of Microsoft Word on a blackboard to teach students in his class went viral highlighting issues with the Ghanaian educational system. Since the event, Akoto's school have been given financial and technology support from Microsoft, from others around the world. Akoto has spoken at global conferences on the challenges teachers face teaching ICT in the Ghanaian educational system, he is an ICT teacher at Betenase M/A Junior High School in the town of Sekyedomase, about two and half hours drive from Kumasi, Ghana. He has been at post in the school for 6 years, was 33 at the time of the photo, his photo caught the attention of global tech entrepreneur and the CEO of Apps Tech, Rebecca Enonchong who tweeted it to Microsoft after which Microsoft pledged to support his students with computers and enroll him in the Microsoft MCE program.
At the Microsoft education exchange organised in Singapore, he was given a standing ovation by hundreds of participant gathered. Donations of laptops started pouring in from Microsoft and organizations for his school. An IT laboratory was built for the school
Giovanni Papini was an Italian journalist, novelist, short story writer, literary critic, philosopher. Among the founders of the journals Leonardo and Lacerba, he conceived literature as an "action" and gave his writings an oratory and irreverent tone. Though self-educated, he was considered influential iconoclastic editor and writer, leading in Italian futurism, he participated in the early literary movements of youth. A living part of the literary, foreign philosophical and political movements, such as the French intuitionism of Bergson and the Anglo-American pragmatism of Peirce and James, which at the beginning of the twentieth century promoted the aging of Italian culture and life from Florence, in the name of an individualistic and dreamy conception of life and art, a spokesman in Roman catholic religious belief. Papini's literary succes began with his known works include Il Crepuscolo dei Filosofi, published in 1906, his 1913 publication of his auto-biographical novel Un Uomo Finito.
Papini was born into a lower-middle-class family in the capital of Tuscany. Controversial and discussed intellectual, admired for his writing style, he was a scholar of philosophy, literary critic and heated polemicist and poet, popularizer of pragmatism and historical avant-gardes such as futurism and post-decadentism, he went from one position to another on the fronts, always dissatisfied and uneasy, he converted from the anti-clericalism and atheism that turned catholicism on. In the 1930s, after moving from individualism to conservatism, he joined fascism, while maintaining an aversion to nazism. Removed from the great literature after its disappearance due to its ideological choices, it was appreciated and re-evaluated. Born in Florence as the son of a modest furniture retailer from Borgo degli Albizi, Papini's mother baptized Papini secretly to avoid the aggressive anti-clericalism of his father. Papini lived a lonesome childhood. At that time he had felt a strong aversion to all beliefs, to all churches, as well as to any form of servitude.
Trained at the Istituto di Studi Superiori, he taught for a year in the Anglo-Italian school and was librarian at the Museum of Anthropology from 1902 to 1904. The literary life attracted Papini, who in 1903 founded the magazine Il Leonardo, to which he contributed articles under the pseudonym of "Gian Falco." His collaborators included Giuseppe Prezzolini, Vailati and Calderoni. Through Leonardo's Papini and his contributors introduced in Italy important thinkers such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and Poincaré, he would join the staff of Il Regno, a nationalist publication directed by Enrico Corradini, who formed the Associazione Nazionalistica Italiana, to support his country colonial expansionism. Papini met William James and Henri Bergson, who influenced his early works, he started publishing short-stories and essays: in 1906, Il Tragico Quotidiano, in 1907 Il Pilota Cieco and Il Crepuscolo dei Filosofi. The latter constituted a polemic with established and diverse intellectual figures, such as Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche.
Papini proclaimed the death of the demolition of thinking itself. He flirted with Futurism and other violent and liberating forms of Modernism. In 1907 Papini married Giacinta Giovagnoli. After leaving Il Leonardo in 1907, Giovanni Papini founded several other magazines. First he published La Voce in 1908 L'Anima together with Giovanni Amendola and Prezzolini. In 1913 he started Lacerba. From three years Papini was correspondent for the Mercure de France and literary critic for La Nazione. About 1918 he created La Vraie Italie, with Ardengo Soffici. Other books came from his pen, his Parole e Sangue showed his fundamental atheism. Furthermore, Papini sought to create scandal by speculating that Jesus and John the Apostle had a homosexual relationship. In 1912 he published the autobiography Un Uomo Finito. In his 1915 collection of poetic prose Cento Pagine di Poesia, Papini placed himself face-to-face with Giovanni Boccaccio, William Shakespeare, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, but contemporaries such as Benedetto Croce and Giovanni Gentile, less prominent disciples of Gabriele D'Annunzio.
A critic wrote of him: Giovanni Papini is one of the finest minds in the Italy of today. He is an excellent representative of modernity's restless search for truth, his work exhibits a refreshing independence founded, not like so much so-called independence, upon ignorance of the past, but upon a study and understanding of it, he published verse in 1917, grouped under the title Opera Prima. In 1921, Papini announced his newly found Roman Catholicism, publishing his Storia di Cristo, a book, translated into twenty-three languages and has had a worldwide success. A