A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm. Originating in the decorative sculptures worn by knights in tournaments and, to a lesser extent, crests became pictorial after the 16th century. A normal heraldic achievement consists of the shield, above, set the helm, on which sits the crest, its base encircled by a circlet of twisted cloth known as a torse; the use of the crest and torse independently from the rest of the achievement, a practice which became common in the era of paper heraldry, has led the term "crest" to be but erroneously used to refer to the arms displayed on the shield, or to the achievement as a whole. The word "crest" derives from the Latin crista, meaning "tuft" or "plume" related to crinis, "hair". Crests had existed in various forms since ancient times: Roman officers wore fans of feathers or horsehair, which were placed longitudinally or transversely depending on the wearer's rank, Viking helmets were adorned with wings and animal heads.
They first appeared in a heraldic context in the form of the metal fans worn by knights in the 12th and 13th centuries. These were decorative, but may have served a practical purpose by lessening or deflecting the blows of opponents' weapons; these fans were of one colour evolving to repeat all or part of the arms displayed on the shield. The fan crest was developed by cutting out the figure displayed on it, to form a metal outline; these were made of cloth, leather or paper over a wooden or wire framework, were in the form of an animal. These were worn only in tournaments, not battle: not only did they add to the considerable weight of the helm, they could have been used by opponents as a handle to pull the wearer's head down. Laces, straps, or rivets were used to affix the crest to the helm, with the join being covered by a circlet of twisted cloth known as a torse or wreath, or by a coronet in the case of high-ranking nobles. Torses did not come into regular use in Britain until the 15th century, are still uncommon on the Continent, where crests are depicted as continuing into the mantling.
Crests were sometimes mounted on a furred cap known as a chapeau, as in the royal crest of England. By the 16th century the age of tournaments had ended, physical crests disappeared, their illustrated equivalents began to be treated as two-dimensional pictures. Many crests from this period are physically impossible to bear on a helm, e.g. the crest granted to Sir Francis Drake in 1581, which consisted of a disembodied hand issuing from clouds and leading a ship around the globe. In the same period, different helms began to be used for different ranks: sovereigns' and knights' helms faced forwards, whereas those of peers and gentlemen faced to the right. In the medieval period crests would always have faced the same way as the helm, but as a result of these rules, the directions of the crest and the helm might be at variance: a knight whose crest was a lion statant, would have the lion depicted as looking over the side of the helm, rather than towards the viewer. Torses suffered artistically, being treated not as silken circlets, but as horizontal bars.
Heraldry in general underwent something of a renaissance in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many of the illogicalities of previous centuries were discarded. Crests are now not granted unless they could be used on a physical helm, the rules about directions of helms are no longer rigidly observed; the use of crests was once restricted to those of'tournament rank', i.e. knights and above, but in modern times nearly all personal arms include crests. They are not used by women and clergymen, as they did not participate in war or tournaments and thus would not have helms on which to wear them; some heraldists are of the opinion that crests, as personal devices, are not suited for use by corporate bodies, but this is not observed. In continental Europe Germany, crests have a far greater significance than in Britain, it is common for one person to display multiple crests with his arms; this practice did not exist in Britain until the modern era, arms with more than one crest are still rare.
In contrast to Continental practice, where a crest is never detached from its helm, a Briton with more than one crest may choose to display only one crested helm, have the other crests floating in space. Though adopted through marriage to an heiress, examples exist of secondary crests being granted as augmentations: after defeating the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, Robert Ross was granted, in addition to his original crest, the crest of an arm holding the US flag with a broken flagstaff. After the 16th century, it became common for armigers to detach the crest and wreath from the helm, use them in the manner of a badge, displayed on crockery, carriage doors, etc; this led to the erroneous use of the term "crest" to mean "arms", which has become widespread in recent years. Unlike a badge, which can be used by any amount of relatives and retainers, a crest is personal to the armiger, its use by others is considered usurpation. In Scotland, however, a member of a clan or house is entitled to use a "crest-badge", which consists of th
Praskovia Ivanovna Kovalyova-Zhemchugova Kovaleva or Kovalyova, Kovaleva-Zhemchugova, Zhemchugova-Sheremeteva, Sheremeteva or Sheremetyeva was a Russian serf actress and soprano opera singer. Praskovia was one of the best opera singers in eighteenth-century Russia, she was born into the family of a serf smith by the name of Ivan Gorbunov on the estate of Voshchazhnikovo in the province of Yaroslavl. Praskovia and her family belonged to the Sheremetevs, one of the richest noble families in Russia at the time; as a young girl she moved with her family to the estate of Kuskovo outside Moscow. Soon thereafter she was taken from her family to serve as a chambermaid to Princess Martha Dolgorukaya, a relative of her master, Count Pyotr Sheremetev, who lived in the manor house. Blessed with a fine voice, Praskovia was trained to be a singer in the opera company being put together by Count Pyotr and his son, Nikolai Sheremetev, she debuted in 1779 on the stage of the serf theatre at Kuskovo in the role of the servant Gubert in the comic opera L'Amitié à l'épreuve by André Grétry.
Following her success, Praskovia was given the leading role of Belinda in Antonio Sacchini's opera La colonie. In this 1780 performance the actress for the first time appeared under the stage name Zhemchugova, "The Pearl"; the other stars of the company were given new names: Arina "The Sapphire", Fekla "The Turquoise", Tatyana "The Garnet", Nikolai "The Marble", Andrei "The Flint", etc. After the role of Belinda, Praskovia was promoted to the position of the first actress of the theatre. By the age of 17, she could read and write French and Italian fluently, played the harp and clavichord, was acknowledged by her contemporaries for her operatic and dramatic abilities. In a career that spanned two decades, Praskovia performed in over a dozen operas, including Monsigny's Le déserteur and Aline, reine de Golconde, Paisiello's L'infante de Zamora, Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Le Devin du village, Piccinni's La buona figliuola maritata, her most important role was Eliane in Grétry's opera Les Mariages samnites.
Assuming the part for the first time in 1785, Praskovia sang Eliane for 12 years — a first in the history of serf theatre. In 1787 Praskovia sang the role of Eliane at Kuskovo for her suite. Catherine was so impressed by her performance that she requested to meet Praskovia and gave her a diamond ring. In the mid-1780s, Praskovya became the mistress of Count Nikolai Sheremetev. Nikolai was the impresario of the family serf theater, he had helped train Praskovia over the years falling in love with the young star of the troupe; the circumstances surrounding the early years of their relationship, like so much of Praskovia's life, are unknown. After the death of Nikolai's father in 1788, Nikolai and Praskovia set up a private household in a secluded corner of the Kuskovo estate, their unorthodox relationship soon became the subject of gossip among aristocratic society. In 1795 Praskovia and the theatre troupe moved from Kuskovo to Ostankino, a brilliant new palace constructed north of Moscow with a large theatre intended for large-scale operas and immense balls.
The year 1795 was marked by the premiere of the Capture of Izmail. Praskovia performed here for the last king of Poland. At the height of the theatre's flowering in the late 1790s Praskovia became ill with consumption, was forced to retire. In late 1796, Nikolai was appointed to the court of Paul I and Praskovia moved with him to St. Petersburg. Although they lived as man and wife and Praskovia had to keep the nature of their relationship secret from polite society, it was taboo for an aristocrat like Sheremetev to move about in society with a serf as his social equal. In 1798 Sheremetev emancipated Praskova and the entire Kovalyov family from serfdom. Understanding that her health would not allow her to return to the stage, he closed the theatre. In 1801 Nikolai and Praskovia married in Moscow in the strictest secrecy; as part of the arrangements, Nikolai had created a phony genealogy for Praskovia claiming that she was the long-lost descendant of a Polish nobleman by the name of Kovalevskii. Around the time of the wedding he sent a forger to Poland with a purse full of money to purchase a patent of nobility from a willing noble family.
Within months of their wedding Praskovia became pregnant. On February 3, 1803 she gave birth to a son, but pregnancy and childbirth destroyed her poor health and she died on February 23 at the Sheremetev palace in St. Petersburg. Just before she died Nikolai informed Emperor Alexander I of his marriage and requested official recognition, which he granted. News of the marriage angered Nikolai's family. Nikolai's two nephews, the Razumovsky brothers, had planned to inherit their uncle's vast fortune, upon hearing that they were to lose it all to the son of a serf they contemplated murdering the infant. Praskovia was buried in an elaborate ceremony at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery attended by clergy and servants from the Sheremetev household. Nikolai was too overcome with grief to attend, the nobility stayed away to signal its disapproval of Nikolai's marriage. In memory of Praskovia Nikolai built in Moscow on Sukharevskaya square, a large almshouse that tended to the sick and orphaned up until the revolution of 1917.
Under the Soviets the almshouse was shut down and replaced by a scientific research institute named after N. Sklifosov
Count Aleksandr Dmitriyevich Sheremetev was a Russian composer and entrepreneur. He founded his own private symphony orchestra in 1882, from 1898 organized public concerts in Saint Petersburg involving the orchestra and a choir he had inherited from his father, Dmitri Sheremetev, he founded the Musical Historical Society in 1910, which gave free lecture recitals involving his orchestra and choir. Sheremetev conducted the Russian premiere of Richard Wagner's Parsifal in a series of three concerts in 1906; this was followed by Sheremetev conducting the opera's first Russian staging on 21 December 1913, performed at the Hermitage Theatre before the Imperial Family, the diplomatic corps, representative members of the State Duma and senior government officials. After two further performances there, the production transferred to the Theatre of Musical Drama. On 10 June 1883 Sheremetev married Marie Heyden, daughter of Governor-General of Finland count Frederick Heyden and Elisabeth Zubov. In 1917, Count Aleksandr and his wife escaped the Red Terror.
They lost all their possessions in Russia, but sold their Finnish estates and moved to Belgium and to Paris. After a while the money ran out and they lived in poverty, helped somewhat by a charity, they both were buried in the Russian cemetery in Paris. Their son, fought for the Whites, fled Russia and worked as secretary for Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich of Russia in France in the 1920s. Wagner & Russia, Rosamund Bartlett. Cambridge University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-521-03582-1 former People, Douglas Smith. Pan Books, 2013. Template:ISBN 978-0-330-52029-4
Sheremetyevo International Airport
Sheremetyevo International Airport is an international airport located in Khimki, Moscow Oblast, Russia, 29 km northwest of central Moscow. It is a hub for passenger operations of the Russian international airline Aeroflot, is one of the three major airports that serve Moscow, along with Moscow Domodedovo Airport and Vnukovo International Airport; the airport serves a number of international airlines, including Air France, KLM, Korean Air, Hainan Airlines, Air China, British Airways, Cham Wings Airlines. In 2017, the airport handled 40,093,000 passengers and 308,090 aircraft movements, making the airport the 50th busiest airport in the world, the busiest in the Russian Federation and former USSR. During 2018, the Airport reported a 14,3% increase in passengers for a total of 45.8 million. There was a 15.9% increase in aircraft traffic year over year. In 2018, the Airport reported revenue of € a 6 % increase year over year. Profit increased 7.4% year over year. These increases are attributed in part to increased air traffic due to the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
The airport was built as a military airfield called Sheremetyevsky named after a settlement with the same name. The decree about the construction of the Central Airdrome of the Air Force near the settlement of Chashnikovo on the outskirts of Moscow was issued on September 1, 1953 by the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union; the airport became operational on November 7, 1957 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution. After it was decided to turn the airport into a civilian one, Sheremetyevo was opened on 11 August 1959; the new airport received its name for two nearby venues: the village of Sheremetyevsky and the Savelov station on the railway of the same name. Sheremetyevo-1 was opened on 3 September 1964. On 12 September 1967, the first scheduled passenger flight of the Tupolev Tu-134 departed from Sheremetyevo, followed by the first scheduled flight of the Ilyushin Il-62 on 15 September. Sheremetyevo-2, the larger of the two terminal complexes, opened on 1 January 1980 for the 1980 Summer Olympics.
It was built according to the principles of design of Hannover-Langenhagen Airport and was the arrival and departure point for international flights. Flights to cities in Russia and charter flights arrived and departed from Sheremetyevo-1. In the 2000s, Sheremetyevo saw growing competition from Domodedovo International Airport, more modern and convenient to access. With major airlines leaving Sheremetyevo, the need for reconstruction became evident. In July 2010, a walkway opened between Terminals D, E, F, the Aeroexpress railway terminal on the public access side. In November 2010, a walkway opened between Terminals D, E, F on the security side. Both of have simplified transfer between transit flights. After the northern the recent construction work, the airport now has the capacity to receive more than 40 million passengers annually. Since 2009 all terminals have been identified by letters. In December 2011, a new Area control center was opened, it consolidates the gathering and control of the airport's different control centres across all of the organizations that affect its efficient operation.
The Situational Center forms part of the airport control center. SC is intended for joint work of top-managers, heads of state bodies, partners of Sheremetyevo, it is activated only in the case of an emergency. In 2013, TPS Avia – a company controlled by Alexander Ponomarenko, Arkady Rotenberg and Alexander Skorobogatko – won a competitive tender to develop Sheremetyevo International Airport’s northern area, including a new passenger terminal, a new freight terminal, a refuelling area and a tunnel linking the passenger terminal to three others terminals. In February 2016, TPS Avia combined its assets with Sheremetyevo Airport and committed to invest US$840 million to upgrade and expand the airport's infrastructure – as a result TPS Avia secured 68% stake in Sheremetyevo Airport; this infrastructure project, called the Long-Term Development Plan, aims to increase airport’s capacity to 80 million passengers a year by 2026. Sheremetyevo International Airport was the official airport of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
During the tournament, the airport observed a 16% increase in landing operations and an 11% increase in passenger traffic. In late 2018, SVO enacted a series of changes to its flight traffic. Rossiya Airlines announced the transfer of its flights from Vnukovo Airport to Sheremetyevo International Airport starting October 28, 2018. Rossiya Airlines is owned by Aeroflot. British Airways launched direct flights from London Heathrow to Sheremetyevo International Airport on the same day. Syrian airline Cham Wings Airlines began direct flights from Damascus to SVO in November of 2018 as well. In 2019, the Russian Federal Security Service began testing an automated passport control system at SVO; this system relies on biometric data and foreign passport recognition to allow Russian passengers to move through border control with fewer movement restrictions. If a success, the FSB may implement this system in other Russian airports. In 2018, Sheremetyevo International Airport has been recognized for the best customer service in the busiest airports in Europe category by ACI's global Airport
In heraldry, sometimes referred to as attendants, are figures or objects placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up. Early forms of supporters are found in medieval seals. However, unlike the coronet or helmet and crest, supporters were not part of early medieval heraldry; as part of the heraldic achievement, they first become fashionable towards the end of the 15th century, but in the 17th century were not part of the full heraldic achievement. The figures used as supporters may be based on real or imaginary animals, human figures, in rare cases plants or other inanimate objects, such as the pillars of Hercules of the coat of arms of Spain; as in other elements of heraldry, these can have local significance, such as the fisherman and the tin miner granted to Cornwall County Council, or a historical link. The arms of nutritionist John Boyd-Orr use two'garbs' as supporters. Letters of the alphabet are used as supporters in the arms of Spain. Human supporters can be allegorical figures, or, more specifically named individuals.
There is one supporter on each side of the shield, though there are some examples of single supporters placed behind the shield, such as the imperial eagle of the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire. The arms of the Congo provide an unusual example of two supporters issuing from behind the shield. While such single supporters are eagles with one or two heads, there are other examples, including the cathedra in the case of some Canadian cathedrals. At the other extreme and rarer, the Scottish chief Dundas of that Ilk had three supporters: two conventional red lions and the whole supported by a salamander; the coat of arms of Iceland has four supporters. The context of the application of supporters may vary, although entitlement may be considered conditioned by grant of a type of augmentation of honour by admission in orders of chivalry or by heraldic authorities, such as in the case of traditional British heraldry. Animal supporters are, by default, as close to rampant as possible, if the nature of the supporter allows it, though there are some blazoned exceptions.
An example of whales'non-rampant' is the arms of the Dutch municipality of Zaanstad. Older writers trace origins of supporters to their usages in tournaments, where the shields of the combatants were exposed for inspection, guarded by their servants or pages disguised in fanciful attire. However, medieval Scottish seals afford numerous examples in which the 13th and 14th century shields were placed between two creatures resembling lizards or dragons; the seal of John, Duke of Normandy, eldest son of the King of France, before 1316 bears his arms as. In Canada, Companions of the Order of Canada, Commanders of the Order of Military Merit, Commanders of the Royal Victorian Order: people granted the style the Right Honourable, corporations are granted the use of supporters on their coats of arms. Further, on his retirement from office as Chief Herald, Robert Watt was granted supporters as an honour. In France, writers made a distinctive difference on the subject of supporters, giving the name of Supports to animals, real or imaginary, thus employed.
Trees and other inanimate objects which are sometimes used are called Soutiens. Knights Grand Companion and Principal Companions of the New Zealand Order of Merit are granted the use of heraldic supporters. In England, supporters were regarded as little more than mere decorative and artistic appendages. In the United Kingdom, supporters are an example of special royal favour, granted at the behest of the sovereign. Hereditary supporters are limited to hereditary peers, certain members of the Royal Family, to some chiefs of Scottish clans. Non-hereditary supporters are granted to life peers and Ladies of the Order of the Garter and Order of the Thistle and Dames Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Order of St Michael and St George, Royal Victorian Order and Order of the British Empire, Bailiffs and Dames Grand Cross of the Order of St John. Knights banneret were granted non-hereditary supporters, but no such knight has been created since the time of Charles I. Supporters may be granted to corporations which have a royal charter.
Ivan the Terrible
Ivan IV Vasilyevich known as Ivan the Terrible, was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and the first Tsar of Russia from 1547 to 1584. Ivan was the crown prince of Vasili III, the Rurikid ruler of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, was appointed Grand Prince at three years-old after his father's death. Ivan was proclaimed Tsar of All Rus' in 1547 at the age of seventeen, establishing the Tsardom of Russia with Moscow as the predominant state. Ivan's reign was characterized by Russia's transformation from a medieval state into an empire under the Tsar, though at immense cost to its people and its broader, long-term economy. Ivan conquered the Khanates of Kazan and Sibir, with Russia becoming a multiethnic and multicontinental state spanning 4,050,000 km2, developing a bureaucracy to administer the new territories. Ivan triggered the Livonian War, which ravaged Russia and resulted in the loss of Livonia and Ingria, but allowed him to exercise greater autocratic control over the Russia's nobility, which he violently purged in the Oprichnina.
Ivan was an able diplomat, a patron of arts and trade, the founder of Russia's first publishing house, the Moscow Print Yard. Ivan was popular among Russia's commoners except for the people of Novgorod and surrounding areas who were subject to the Massacre of Novgorod. Historic sources present disparate accounts of Ivan's complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, but prone to paranoia and episodic outbreaks of mental instability that increased with age. Ivan is popularly believed to have killed his eldest son and heir Ivan Ivanovich and the latter's unborn son during his outbursts, which left the politically ineffectual Feodor Ivanovich to inherit the throne, whose rule directly led to the end of the Rurikid dynasty and the beginning of the Time of Troubles; the English word terrible is used to translate the Russian word grozny in Ivan's nickname, but this is a somewhat archaic translation. The Russian word grozny reflects the older English usage of terrible as in "inspiring fear or terror.
It does not convey the more modern connotations of English terrible, such as "defective" or "evil". Vladimir Dal defines grozny in archaic usage and as an epithet for tsars: "courageous, magnificent and keeping enemies in fear, but people in obedience". Other translations have been suggested by modern scholars. Ivan was the first son of Vasili III and his second wife, Elena Glinskaya, of half Serbian and half Lipka Tatar descent, the Glinski clan claiming descent from the Mongol ruler Mamai When Ivan was three years old, his father died from an abscess and inflammation on his leg that developed into blood poisoning. Ivan was proclaimed the Grand Prince of Moscow at the request of his father, his mother Elena Glinskaya acted as regent, but she died of what many believe to be assassination by poison, in 1538 when Ivan was only eight years old. The regency alternated between several feuding boyar families fighting for control. According to his own letters, along with his younger brother Yuri felt neglected and offended by the mighty boyars from the Shuisky and Belsky families.
In a letter to Prince Kurbski Ivan remembers, "My brother Iurii, of blessed memory, me they brought up like vagrants and children of the poorest. What have I suffered for want of garments and food!! " It should be noted, that the historian Edward L Keenan has presented compelling reasons to doubt the authenticity of the source in which these quotes are found. On 16 January 1547, at age sixteen, Ivan was crowned with Monomakh's Cap at the Cathedral of the Dormition, he was the first to be crowned as "Tsar of All the Russias", hence claiming the ancestry of Kievan Rus'. Prior to that, rulers of Muscovy were crowned as Grand Princes, although Ivan III the Great, his grandfather, styled himself "tsar" in his correspondence. Two weeks after his coronation, Ivan married his first wife Anastasia Romanovna, a member of the Romanov family, who became the first Russian tsaritsa. By being crowned Tsar, Ivan was sending a message to the world and to Russia: he was now the only supreme ruler of the country, his will was not to be questioned.
"The new title symbolized an assumption of powers equivalent and parallel to those held by former Byzantine Emperor and the Tatar Khan, both known in Russian sources as Tsar. The political effect was to elevate Ivan's position." The new title not only secured the throne, but it granted Ivan a new dimension of power, one intimately tied to religion. He was now a "divine" leader appointed to enact God's will, as "church texts described Old Testament kings as'Tsars' and Christ as the Heavenly Tsar." The newly appointed title was passed on from generation to generation: "succeeding Muscovite rulers... benefited from the divine nature of the power of the Russian monarch... crystallized during Ivan's reign." Despite calamities triggered by the Great Fire of 1547, the early part of Ivan's reign was one of peaceful reforms and modernization. Ivan revised the law code, creating the Sudebnik of 1550, founded a standing army, established the Zemsky Sobor and the council of the nobles, confirmed the position of the Church with the Council of the Hundred Chapters, which unified the rituals and ecclesiastical regulations of the whole c
Vasily Borisovich Sheremetev
Vasily Borisovich Sheremetev was a Russian military commander. Boyar since 1653, voivode of Smolensk of Kiev. One of Russian commanders during the Russo-Polish War. Taken prisoner by the Tatars for more than 20 years, he died in Russia