Carl Barks was an American cartoonist and painter. He is best known as the creator of Scrooge McDuck, he worked anonymously until late in his career. In 1987, Barks was one of the three inaugural inductees of the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame. Barks worked for the Disney Studio and Western Publishing where he created Duckburg and many of its inhabitants, such as Scrooge McDuck, Gladstone Gander, the Beagle Boys, The Junior Woodchucks, Gyro Gearloose, Cornelius Coot, Flintheart Glomgold, John D. Rockerduck and Magica De Spell. Will Eisner called him "the Hans Christian Andersen of comic books." Barks was born in Oregon, to William Barks and his wife Arminta Johnson. He had an older brother named Clyde, his paternal grandparents were his wife Ruth Shrum. His maternal grandparents were Carl Johnson and his wife Suzanna Massey, but little else is known about his ancestors. Barks was the descendant of Jacob Barks who came to Missouri from North Carolina around 1800, they lived in Marble Hill in Bollinger County.
Jacob Barks' son Isaac was the father of the David Barks noted above. According to Barks' description of his childhood, he was a rather lonely child, his parents owned one square mile of land. The nearest neighbor lived half a mile away, but he was more an acquaintance to Barks' parents than a friend; the closest school was about two miles away and Barks had to walk that distance every day. The rural area had few children and Barks remembered that his school had only about eight or ten students including him, he had high praise for the quality of the education he received in that small school. "Schools were good in those days," he used to say. The lessons lasted from nine o'clock in the morning to four o'clock in the afternoon and he had to return to the farm. There he remembered not having anybody to talk to, as his parents were busy and he had little in common with his brother. In 1908, William Barks moved with his family to Midland, some miles north of Merrill, to be closer to the new railway lines.
He sold his produce to the local slaughterhouses. Nine-year-old Clyde and seven-year-old Carl worked long hours there, but Carl remembered that the crowd which gathered at Midland's market place made a strong impression on him. This was expected. According to Barks, his attention was drawn to the cowboys that frequented the market with their revolvers, strange nicknames for each other and sense of humor. By 1911, they had been successful enough to move to California. There they set up some orchards; the profits were not as high as William expected and they started having financial difficulties. William's anxiety over them was what caused his first nervous breakdown; as soon as William recovered, he made the decision to move back to Merrill. The year was 1913, Barks was 12 years old, he resumed his education at this point and managed to graduate in 1916. 1916 served as a turning point in Barks' life for various reasons. First, his mother, died in this year. Second, his hearing problems, which had appeared earlier, had at the time become severe enough for him to have difficulties listening to his teachers talking.
His hearing would continue to get worse but at that point he had not yet acquired a hearing aid. In life, he couldn't do without one. Third, the closest high school to their farm was five miles away and if he did enroll in it, his bad hearing was to contribute to his learning problems, he had to decide to stop his school education, much to his disappointment. Barks started taking various jobs but had little success in such occupations as a farmer, turner, mule driver and printer. From his jobs he learned, he averred, how eccentric and unpredictable men and machines can be. At the same time he interacted with colleagues, fellow breadwinners who had satirical disposition towards their worst troubles. Barks declared that he was sure that if not for a little humor in their troubled lives, they would go insane, it was an attitude towards life. He would say it was natural for him to satirize the secret yearnings and desires, the pompous style and the disappointments of his characters. According to Barks, this period of his life would influence his best known fictional characters: Walt Disney's Donald Duck and his own Scrooge McDuck.
Donald's drifting from job to job was inspired by Barks' own experiences. So was his usual lack of success, and in those that he was successful this would be temporary, just until a mistake or chance event caused another failure, another disappointment for the frustrated duck. Barks reported that this was another thing he was familiar with. Scrooge's main difference to Donald, according to Barks, was that he too had faced the same difficulties in his past but through intelligence and hard work, he was able to overcome them. Or, as Scrooge himself would say to Huey and Louie: by being "tougher than the toughies and smarter than the smarties." In Barks's stories Scrooge would work to solve his many problems though the stories would point out that his constant efforts seemed futile at the end. In addition, Scrooge was quite similar to his cr
Hopalong Cassidy or Hop-along Cassidy is a fictional cowboy hero created in 1904 by the author Clarence E. Mulford, who wrote a series of popular short stories and many novels based on the character. In his early writings, Mulford portrayed the character as rude and rough-talking, he had a wooden leg. From 1935, the character—as played by movie actor William Boyd in films adapted from Mulford's books—was transformed into a clean-cut, sarsaparilla-drinking hero. Sixty-six popular films appeared; as portrayed on the screen, white-haired Bill "Hopalong" Cassidy was clad strikingly in black. He was well spoken, with a sense of fair play, he was called upon to intercede when dishonest characters took advantage of honest citizens. "Hoppy" and his white horse, Topper traveled through the West with two companions—one young and trouble-prone with a weakness for damsels in distress. The juvenile lead was successively played by James Ellison, Russell Hayden, George Reeves, Rand Brooks, Jimmy Rogers. George Hayes played Cassidy's grizzled sidekick, Windy Halliday.
After Hayes left the series because of a salary dispute with producer Harry Sherman, he was replaced by the comedian Britt Wood as Speedy McGinnis and by the veteran movie comedian Andy Clyde as California Carlson. Clyde, the most durable of the sidekicks, remained with the series. A few actors of future prominence appeared in Cassidy films, notably Robert Mitchum, who appeared in seven films at the beginning of his career; the 66 Hopalong Cassidy pictures were filmed by independent producers who released the films through the studios. The first "Hoppies", as the films were known, were distributed by Paramount Pictures to favorable returns, United Artists was the distributor after Paramount, they were noted for outdoor photography. Harry Sherman wanted to make more ambitious movies and tried to cancel the Cassidy series, but popular demand forced Sherman back into production, this time for United Artists. Sherman gave up the series in 1944. To do this, he gambled his future on Hopalong Cassidy, mortgaging most of what he owned to buy the character rights from Mulford and the backlog of movies from Sherman.
In the first film, Hopalong Cassidy got his name after being shot in the leg. Hopalong's "drink of choice" was the nonalcoholic sarsaparilla. Boyd resumed production in 1946, on lower budgets, continued through 1948, when "B" westerns were being phased out. Boyd thought Hopalong Cassidy might have a future in television, spent $350,000 to obtain the rights to his old films, approached the fledgling NBC network; the initial broadcasts were so successful that NBC could not wait for a television series to be produced and edited the feature films to broadcast length. On June 24, 1949, Hopalong Cassidy became the first network Western television series; the success of the television series made Boyd a star. The Mutual Broadcasting System began broadcasting a radio version, with Andy Clyde as the sidekick. In January 1950; the series and character were so popular that Hopalong Cassidy was featured on the cover of national magazines such as Look and Time. Boyd earned millions as Hopalong from merchandise licensing and endorsement deals.
In 1950, Hopalong Cassidy was featured on the first lunchbox to bear an image, causing sales of Aladdin Industries lunch boxes to jump from 50,000 units to 600,000 units per year. In stores, more than 100 companies in 1950 manufactured $70 million of Hopalong Cassidy products, including children's dinnerware, roller skates, soap and jackknives. There was a new demand for Hopalong Cassidy features in movie theaters, Boyd licensed reissue distributor Film Classics to make new film prints and advertising accessories. Another 1950 enterprise saw the home-movie company Castle Films manufacturing condensed versions of the Paramount films for 16 mm and 8 mm film projectors. In January 1950 Dan Spiegel began to draw a syndicated comic strip with scripts by Royal King Cole. Thanks to the earlier series which showed edited versions of his films, Boyd began work on a separate series of half-hour westerns made for television; the theme music for the television show was written by L. Wolfe Gilbert; the show ranked number 7 in the 1949 Nielsen ratings, number 9 in the 1950-1951 season and number 28 in 1951-1952.
The success of the show and tie-ins inspired juvenile television westerns such as The Range Rider, Tales of the Texas Rangers, Annie Oakley, The Gene Autry Show, The Roy Rogers Show. After Boyd's death, his company devoted to Hopalong Cassidy, U. S. Television Office, retained control of Cassidy films but, by the mid-1960s, had withdrawn them from television and sales in home movie markets; this remained the situation until the mid-1990s, after many Cassidy fans had died, when the company made available to The Western Channe
Huey, Dewey, and Louie
Huey and Louie Duck are triplet cartoon characters created in 1937 by writer Ted Osborne and cartoonist Al Taliaferro, are owned by The Walt Disney Company. Huey and Louie are the nephews of Donald Duck and the grandnephews of Scrooge McDuck. Like their uncles, the boys are anthropomorphic white ducks with yellow-orange feet, they wear shirts and colorful baseball caps, which are sometimes used to differentiate each character. Huey and Louie have made several animated appearances in both films and television, but comics remain their primary medium; the trio are collectively the 11th most published comic book characters in the world, outside of the superhero genre, second only to Donald. While the boys were created as mischief-makers to provoke Donald's famous temper appearances showed them to be valuable assets to him and Scrooge on their adventures. All three of the boys are members of the fictional scouting organization the Junior Woodchucks. Huey and Louie were the idea of Al Taliaferro, the artist for the Silly Symphonies comic strip, which featured Donald Duck.
The Walt Disney Productions Story Dept. on February 5, 1937, sent Taliaferro a memo recognizing him as the source of the idea for the planned short, Donald's Nephews. The nephews debuted in Taliaferro's comic strip, which by this time had been renamed Donald Duck, on Sunday, October 17, 1937, beating the theatrical release of Donald's Nephews by six months. According to Don Rosa, Carl Barks has claimed that in fact they were his creation while working as a writer on Donald Duck animated cartoons in 1937; the names were devised by Disney gag man Dana Coty, who took them from Huey Long, Thomas Dewey, Louis Schmitt, an animator at the Disney Studio in the 1930s and 1940s. Taliaferro's introduction of the nephews emulated the three nephews in the Happy Hooligan comic strip and was influenced by Mickey Mouse's nephews and Ferdie Fieldmouse. In translations of Disney works the nephews have different local-sounding names that follow the repetition of the English names. Examples include Hugo and Luis.
Further information: Duck family § Della Duck and § Huey and Louie's fatherHuey and Louie are the sons of Donald's sister Della Duck. In the original theatrical shorts, they were sent to visit Donald for only one day. In both the comics and animated shorts, the boys' parents were never heard from or mentioned again after these instances, with the boys ending up permanently living with Donald. All four of them live in the fictional state of Calisota; the three ducklings are noted for their identical personalities. A running joke involves the three sometimes finishing each other's sentences. In the theatrical shorts, Huey and Louie behave in a rambunctious and mischievous manner, they sometimes commit retaliation or revenge on their uncle Donald Duck. In the comics, however, as developed by Al Taliaferro and Carl Barks, the young ducks are more portrayed as well-behaved, preferring to assist their uncle Donald Duck and great-uncle Scrooge McDuck in the adventure at hand. In the early Barks comics, the ducklings were still wild and unruly, but their character improved due to their membership in the Junior Woodchucks and the good influence of their wise old great-grandmother Elvira Coot "Grandma" Duck.
According to Don Rosa, Huey and Louie became members of the Junior Woodchucks when they were around 11 years old. In early comic books and shorts, the caps of Huey and Louie were colored randomly, depending on the whim of the colorist. On few occasions until 1945 and most every cartoon short afterward, all three nephews wore identical outfits, it wasn't until the 1980s when it became established that Huey is dressed in red, Dewey in blue, Louie in green. Disney's archivist Dave Smith, in "Disney A to Z," said, "Note that the brightest hue of the three is red, the color of water, dew, is blue, that leaves Louie, leaves are green." A few random combinations appear such as orange and yellow. Another combination that shows up from time to time is Huey in blue, Dewey in green, Louie in red. In-story, this inconsistency is explained away as a result of the ducklings borrowing each other's clothes. In Donald Duck and Uncle Scrooge comics the trio have been known to dress in their usual outfits, but rather than have their usual colors they all wear black, rendering them visually identical, leaving their hat color available if they care to be distinguished.
One story in Donald Duck comics was based around Donald spending so much time trying to tell his three nephews apart that he developed a heightened sense of sight. Clarence Nash, Donald's voice actor, gave the voices to the boys in the cartoon shorts, making them just as unintelligible as Donald's. Huey and Louie were all voiced by Russi Taylor in DuckTales. In Quack Pack, they were voiced by Jeannie Elias, Pamela Segall, Elizabeth Daily, respectively. Tony Anselmo voiced the characters in Down and Out with Donald Duck, Mickey Mouse Works and Disney's House of Mouse, but Russi Taylor still voices the trio in other projects, such as the video games Donald Duck: Goin' Quackers and Mickey's Speedway USA, t
Donald Duck is a cartoon character created in 1934 at Walt Disney Productions. Donald is an anthropomorphic white duck with a yellow-orange bill and feet, he wears a sailor shirt and cap with a bow tie. Donald is most famous for his semi-intelligible speech and his mischievous and temperamental personality. Along with his friend Mickey Mouse, Donald is one of the most popular Disney characters and was included in TV Guide's list of the 50 greatest cartoon characters of all time in 2002, he has appeared in more films than any other Disney character, is the most published comic book character in the world outside of the superhero genre. Donald Duck rose to fame with his comedic roles in animated cartoons. Donald's first appearance was in 1934 in The Wise Little Hen, but it was his second appearance in Orphan's Benefit which introduced him as a temperamental comic foil to Mickey Mouse. Throughout the next two decades, Donald appeared in over 150 theatrical films, several of which were recognized at the Academy Awards.
In the 1930s, he appeared as part of a comic trio with Mickey and Goofy and was given his own film series in 1937 starting with Don Donald. These films introduced Donald's love interest Daisy Duck and included his three nephews Huey and Louie. After the 1956 film Chips Ahoy, Donald appeared in educational films before returning to theatrical animation in Mickey's Christmas Carol, his most recent appearance in a theatrical film was 1999's Fantasia 2000. Donald has appeared in direct-to-video features such as Mickey, Goofy: The Three Musketeers, television series such as Mickey Mouse Clubhouse, video games such as QuackShot. Beyond animation, Donald is known for his appearances in comics. Donald was most famously drawn by Al Taliaferro, Carl Barks, Don Rosa. Barks, in particular, is credited for expanding the "Donald Duck universe", the world in which Donald lives, creating many additional characters such as Donald's rich uncle Scrooge McDuck. Donald has been a popular character in Europe in Nordic countries where his weekly magazine Donald Duck & Co was the most popular comics publication from the 1950s to 2009.
Donald is very popular in Italy, where he is major character in many comics in which his juvenile version Paperino Paperotto and his superhero alter-ego Paperinik were created. The origins of Donald Duck's name may have been inspired by Australian cricket legend Donald Bradman. In 1932 Bradman and the Australian team were touring North America and he made the news after being dismissed for a duck against New York West Indians. Walt Disney was in the process of creating a friend for Mickey Mouse when he read about Bradman's dismissal in the papers and decided to name the new character "Donald Duck". Voice performer Clarence Nash auditioned for Walt Disney Studios when he learned that Disney was looking for people to create animal sounds for his cartoons. Disney was impressed with Nash's duck imitation and chose him to voice the new character. Besides, during that period Mickey Mouse had lost some of his edge since becoming a role model towards children, so Disney wanted to create a character to portray some of the more negative character traits that could no longer be bestowed on Mickey.
Disney came up with Donald's iconic attributes including his sailor suit. While Dick Huemer and Art Babbit were first to animate Donald, Dick Lundy is credited for developing him as a character; the character is noted for his distinctive, only intelligible voice, developed by Donald's original performer, Clarence Nash. The voice actor produces sounds by forcing air through the mouth using the muscles of the cheek, rather than from the lungs as in typical speech. Nash reputedly developed the voice as that of a "nervous baby goat" before Walt Disney interpreted it as sounding like a duck. Donald's two dominant personality traits are his fiery-temper and his upbeat attitude to life. Many Donald shorts start with Donald in a happy mood, without a care in the world until something comes along and spoils his day, his rage is a great cause of suffering in his life. On multiple occasions, it has caused him to lose competitions. There are times when he fights to keep his temper in check, he sometimes succeeds in doing so temporarily, but he always returns to his normal angry self in the end.
Donald's vicious nature has its advantages, however. While at times it is a hindrance, a handicap, it has helped him in times of need; when faced with a threat of some kind, for example, Pete's attempts to intimidate him, he is scared, but his fear is replaced by anger. As a result, instead of running away, he fights—with ghosts, mountain goats, giant kites, the forces of nature. More than not, when he fights, he comes out on top. Donald is something of a prankster, as a result, he can sometimes come across as a bit of a bully in the way he sometimes treats Chip n' Dale and Huey and Louie, his nephews; as the animator Fred Spencer has put it: The Duck gets a big kick out of imposing on other people or annoying them, but he loses his temper when the tables are turned. In other words, he can dish it out. However, with a few exceptions, there is any harm in Donald's pranks, he never intends to hurt anyone, whenever his pranks go too far, he is always apologetic. In Truant Officer Donald, for example, when he is tricked into believing he has accidentally killed Huey and Louie, he shows great regret, blaming himself.