Sherlock Holmes is a fictional private detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. All but one are set in the Victorian or Edwardian periods, though not the first fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes is arguably the most well-known, with Guinness World Records listing him as the most portrayed movie character in history. Auguste Dupin is generally acknowledged as the first detective in fiction and served as the prototype for many that were created later, Conan Doyle once wrote, Each is a root from which a whole literature has developed. Where was the story until Poe breathed the breath of life into it. Conan Doyle repeatedly said that Holmes was inspired by the figure of Joseph Bell, a surgeon at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Like Holmes, Bell was noted for drawing conclusions from minute observations. However, he wrote to Doyle, You are yourself Sherlock Holmes. Sir Henry Littlejohn, Chair of Medical Jurisprudence at the University of Edinburgh Medical School, is cited as an inspiration for Holmes.
Littlejohn, who was Police Surgeon and Medical Officer of Health in Edinburgh, One is thought to be Francis Tanky Smith, a policeman and master of disguise who went on to become Leicesters first private detective. Another might be Maximilien Heller, by French author Henry Cauvain and it is not known if Conan Doyle read Maximilien Heller, but in this 1871 novel, Henry Cauvain imagined a depressed, anti-social, cat-loving, and opium-smoking Paris-based detective. Details about Sherlock Holmess life, except for the adventures in the books, are scarce in Conan Doyles original stories, mentions of his early life and extended family paint a loose biographical picture of the detective. An estimate of Holmess age in His Last Bow places his year of birth at 1854 and his parents are not mentioned in the stories, although Holmes mentions that his ancestors were country squires. In The Adventure of the Greek Interpreter, he claims that his grandmother was sister to the French artist Vernet, without clarifying whether this was Claude Joseph, Carle.
Mycroft has a civil service position as a kind of human database for all aspects of government policy. He lacks Sherlocks interest in investigation, preferring to spend his time at the Diogenes Club. Holmes says that he first developed his methods of deduction as an undergraduate, his earliest cases, the two take lodgings at 221B Baker Street, London, an apartment at the upper end of the street, up seventeen steps. Holmes worked as a detective for twenty-three years, with physician John Watson assisting him for seventeen and they were roommates before Watsons 1887 marriage and again after his wifes death. Their residence is maintained by their landlady, Mrs. Hudson, most of the stories are frame narratives, written from Watsons point of view as summaries of the detectives most interesting cases
Professor James Moriarty is a fictional character in some of the Sherlock Holmes stories written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Moriarty is a criminal mastermind whom Holmes describes as the Napoleon of crime, Doyle lifted the phrase from a Scotland Yard inspector who was referring to Adam Worth, a real-life criminal mastermind and one of the individuals upon whom the character of Moriarty was based. The character was introduced primarily as a device to enable Conan Doyle to kill Sherlock Holmes. However, in adaptations, he has been given a greater prominence. The criminal mastermind follows, and the ends on top of the Reichenbach Falls. In this story, Moriarty is introduced as a lord who protects nearly all of the criminals of England in exchange for their obedience. Moriarty plays a role in only one other Holmes story, The Valley of Fear, set before The Final Problem. In The Valley of Fear, Holmes attempts to prevent Moriartys agents from committing a murder, doctor Watson, even when narrating, never meets Moriarty, and relies upon Holmes to relate accounts of the detectives feud with the criminal.
Conan Doyle is inconsistent on Watsons familiarity with Moriarty, in The Final Problem, Watson tells Holmes he has never heard of Moriarty, while in The Valley of Fear, set earlier on, Watson already knows of him as the famous scientific criminal. In The Empty House, Holmes states that Moriarty had commissioned a powerful air gun from a blind German mechanic surnamed von Herder, which was used by Moriartys employee/acolyte Colonel Moran. It closely resembled a cane, allowing for easy concealment, was capable of firing bullets at long range. Moriarty has a preference for organising accidents. His attempts to kill Holmes include falling masonry and a speeding horse-drawn van and he is responsible for stage-managing the death of Birdy Edwards. Moriarty is extremely intelligent, calculative and manipulative and he is ruthless, shown by his steadfast vow to Sherlock Holmes that if you are clever enough to bring destruction upon me, rest assured that I will do as much to you. Moriarty is categorised by Holmes as a powerful criminal mastermind who is purely adept at committing any atrocity to perfection without losing any sleep over it.
It is stated in The Final Problem that Moriarty does not directly participate in the activities he plans, Holmes described Moriarty as follows, He is a man of good birth and excellent education, endowed by nature with a phenomenal mathematical faculty. At the age of twenty-one he wrote a treatise upon the binomial theorem which has had a European vogue, on the strength of it, he won the mathematical chair at one of our smaller universities, and had, to all appearances, a most brilliant career before him. But the man had hereditary tendencies of the most diabolical kind, a criminal strain ran in his blood, instead of being modified, was increased and rendered infinitely more dangerous by his extraordinary mental powers
The Adventure of the Speckled Band
The Adventure of the Speckled Band is one of the 56 short Sherlock Holmes stories written by Scottish author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. It is the eighth of the stories collected in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. It is one of four Sherlock Holmes stories that can be classified as a locked room mystery, the story was first published in Strand Magazine in February 1892, with illustrations by Sidney Paget. It was published under the different title The Spotted Band in New York World in August 1905, Doyle revealed that he thought this was his best Holmes story. Doyle wrote and produced a play based on the story and it premiered at the Adelphi Theatre, London on 4 June 1910, with H. A. Saintsbury as Sherlock Holmes and Lyn Harding as Dr. Grimesby Roylott. The play, originally called The Stonor Case, differs from the story in several details, Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson rise unusually early one morning to meet a young woman named Helen Stoner. Helen fears that her life is being threatened by her stepfather, Dr.
Grimesby Roylott, Dr. Helen’s twin sister had died almost two years earlier, shortly before she was to be married. Helen had heard her sister’s dying words, The speckled band, but was unable to decode their meaning. Dr. Roylott keeps strange company at the estate, He is best friends with a band of Gypsies on the property, and has a cheetah, for some time, he has been making modifications to the home. Before Helen’s sister’s death, he had modifications made inside the house, Holmes listens carefully to Helen’s story and agrees to take the case. He plans a visit to the in the day. Before he can leave, however, he is visited by Dr. Roylott himself, Holmes proceeds, first to the courthouse, where he examines Helen’s late mother’s will, and to the countryside. At Stoke Moran, Holmes inspects the premises carefully inside and out, among the strange features that he discovers are a bed anchored to the floor, a bell cord that does not work, and a ventilator hole between Helen’s temporary room and that of Dr Roylott.
Holmes and Watson arrange to spend the night in Helen’s room, in darkness they wait, suddenly, a slight metallic noise and a dim light through the ventilator prompt Holmes to action. Quickly lighting a candle, he discovers on the bell cord the speckled band—a venomous snake and he strikes the snake with a stick, driving it back through the ventilator. Agitated, it attacks Roylott, who had been waiting for it to return after killing Helen, Holmes reveals to Watson the motive, the late wifes will had provided an annual income of 750 GBP, of which each daughter could claim one third upon marriage. A West African Adventure in Cassells Saturday Journal, published in February 1891, in the article, a captain tells how he was dispatched to a remote camp in West Africa to stay in a tumbledown cabin that belonged to a Portuguese trader. On the first night in the cabin, he is awoken by a creaking sound and it turns out to be the largest Boa constrictor he has seen
William Hooker Gillette was an American actor-manager and stage-manager in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He is best remembered for portraying Sherlock Holmes on stage and in a 1916 silent film long thought lost and his portrayal of Holmes helped create the modern image of the detective. His use of the cap and the curved pipe became enduring symbols of the character. He assumed the role on stage more than 1,300 times over thirty years, starred in the silent motion picture based on his Holmes play, and voiced the character twice on radio. William Gillette was born in Nook Farm, Connecticut, a literary and intellectual center with such as Mark Twain, Harriet Beecher Stowe. Gillettes father Francis was a former United States Senator and a crusader for public education, the abolition of slavery, Gillette had three brothers and a sister. Another sister named Mary died as a small child and his eldest brother Frank Ashbell Gillette went to California and died there in 1859 from consumption.
The third oldest brother Robert joined the Union Army and served in the Antietam campaign, was invalided home sick, Robert Gillette was assigned to the U. S. S. Gettysburg and took part in assaults on Fort Fisher. He was killed the morning after the surrender of the fort when the magazine exploded. His brother Edward moved to Iowa and his sister Elisabeth married George Henry Warner, at the age of 20, he left Hartford to begin his apprenticeship as an actor. Afterward, he was an actor for six years through Boston, New York. He irregularly attended classes at a few institutions, although he never completed their programs, Francis supplied him with an allowance on which to subsist. His fathers health began to fail in 1878, and William forsook the stage for more than a year to care for him in his final illness. Upon his fathers death, he and George Henry Warner were named executors of Francis estate, and they, Elisabeth, in 1882, Gillette married Helen Nichols of Detroit. She died in 1888 from peritonitis caused by a ruptured appendix, Gillette was hired as playwright and actor for $50 per week in 1881, while performing at Cincinnati, by two of the Frohman brothers and Daniel.
The first play that he wrote and produced was The Professor and it debuted in the Madison Square Theatre, lasting 151 performances, with a subsequent tour through many states. That same year, he produced Esmeralda, written together with Frances Hodgson Burnett, early in his career, Gillette realised that it would be in the triple role of playwright and actor that he could make the most money
John H. Watson, known as Dr. Watson, is a fictional character in the Sherlock Holmes stories by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and was the narrator in the original stories. Watson is Sherlock Holmess friend and sometime flatmate, and he is described as the typical Victorian-era gentleman, unlike the more eccentric Holmes. He is astute, although he can never match his friends deductive skills, Watson has been adapted in various films, television series, video games and radio programmes, retaining his role as Holmess friend and confidant. In Conan Doyles early rough plot outlines, Sherlock Holmess sidekick was named Ormond Sacker before Conan Doyle finally settled on John Watson and he was probably inspired by one of Doyles colleagues, Dr. James Watson. In the words of William L. De Andrea, Watson serves the important function of catalyst for Holmess mental processes, any character who performs these functions in a mystery story has come to be known as a Watson. Dr. Watsons first name is mentioned on only four occasions, part one of the very first Sherlock Holmes story, A Study in Scarlet, is subtitled Being a reprint from the Reminiscences of John H.
Watson, M. D. Late of the Army Medical Department, the preface of the collection His Last Bow is signed John H. Watson, M. D, and in The Problem of Thor Bridge, Watson says that his dispatch box is labelled John H. Watson, M. D. With his health ruined, he was given a daily pension of 11 shillings and 9 pence for nine months. In 1881, Watson is introduced by his friend Stamford to Sherlock Holmes, concluding that they are compatible, they subsequently move into the flat. When Watson notices multiple eccentric guests frequenting the flat, Holmes reveals that he is a consulting detective, Watson witnesses Holmess skills of deduction on their first case together, concerning a series of murders related to Mormon intrigue. When the case is solved, Watson is angered that Holmes is not given any credit for it by the press, when Holmes refuses to record and publish his account of the adventure, Watson endeavours to do so himself. In time and Watson become close friends, in The Sign of the Four, John Watson becomes engaged to Mary Morstan, a governess.
In The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier, Holmes mentions that Watson had at that time deserted me for a wife, at the beginning of A Study in Scarlet, Watson states he had neither kith nor kin in England. Holmes estimates the watch to have a value of 50 guineas, so H. Watson, Holmes deduced from the watch that Watsons brother was a man of untidy habits—very untidy and careless. He was left with good prospects but threw away his chances, lived for time in poverty with occasional short intervals of prosperity and finally. Throughout Doyles novels, Watson is presented as Holmess biographer and you should publish an account of the case. If you wont, I will for you, Holmes suavely responds, You may do what you like, Doctor. Therefore, the story is presented as a reprint from the reminiscences of John H. Watson, in the first chapter of The Sign of Four, Holmes comments on Watsons first effort as a biographer, I glanced over it
Sir Charles Spencer Charlie Chaplin, KBE was an English comic actor and composer who rose to fame during the era of silent film. Chaplin became an icon through his screen persona the Tramp and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. His career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, Chaplins childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship. As his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine, when he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an age, touring music halls and working as a stage actor. At 19 he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, Chaplin was scouted for the film industry, and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon developed the Tramp persona and formed a fan base. Chaplin directed his own films from a stage, and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay, Mutual.
By 1918, he was one of the best known figures in the world, in 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists, which gave him complete control over his films. His first feature-length was The Kid, followed by A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush and he refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights and Modern Times without dialogue. Chaplin became increasingly political, and his film, The Great Dictator. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, and he was accused of communist sympathies, while his involvement in a paternity suit and marriages to much younger women caused scandal. An FBI investigation was opened, and Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and he abandoned the Tramp in his films, which include Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight, A King in New York, and A Countess from Hong Kong. Chaplin wrote, produced, starred in and he was a perfectionist, and his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture.
His films are characterised by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramps struggles against adversity, many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. In 1972, as part of an appreciation for his work. He continues to be held in regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times. Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on 16 April 1889 to Hannah Chaplin, there is no official record of his birth, although Chaplin believed he was born at East Street, Walworth, in South London
A Scandal in Bohemia
A Scandal in Bohemia is the first short story, and the third overall work, featuring Arthur Conan Doyles fictional detective Sherlock Holmes. It is the first of the 56 Holmes short stories written by Doyle, the story is notable for introducing the character of Irene Adler, often used as a romantic interest for Holmes in derivative works. Doyle ranked A Scandal in Bohemia fifth in his list of his twelve favourite Holmes stories. A Scandal in Bohemia was first published on 25 June 1891 in the July issue of The Strand Magazine, Dr. Watson recounts an adventure that started on 20 March 1888. While the currently married Watson is paying Holmes a visit, a visitor arrives, introducing himself as Count Kramm. Holmes quickly deduces that he is in fact Wilhelm Gottsreich Sigismond von Ormstein, Grand Duke of Cassel-Felstein, realizing Holmes has seen through his guise, the King admits this and tears off his mask. It transpires that the King is to become engaged to Clotilde Lothman von Saxe-Meiningen, the Kings agents have tried to recover the photograph through sometimes forceful means, stealing her luggage, and waylaying her.
An offer to pay for the photograph and letters was refused, the photograph is described to Holmes as a cabinet and therefore too bulky for a lady to carry upon her person. The King gives Holmes £1,000 to cover any expenses, Holmes asks Dr. Watson to join him at 221B Baker Street at 3 oclock the following afternoon. The next morning, Holmes goes out to Adlers house, disguised as a drunken out-of-work groom and he discovers from the local stable workers that Adler has a gentleman friend, the barrister Godfrey Norton of the Inner Temple, who calls at least once a day. On this particular day, Norton comes to visit Adler, minutes later, the lady herself gets into her landau, bound for the same place. Holmes follows in a cab and, upon arriving, finds himself dragged into the church to be a witness to Norton, they go their separate ways after the ceremony. Meanwhile, Watson has been waiting for Sherlock to arrive, Watson is confused and asks what is so funny, Sherlock recounts his tale and comments he thought the situation and position he was in at the wedding was amusing.
He asks whether or not Watson is willing to participate in a scheme to figure out where the picture is hidden in Adlers house, Watson agrees, and Holmes changes into another disguise as a clergyman. The duo depart Baker Street for Adlers house, when Holmes and Watson arrive, a group of jobless men meander throughout the street. When Adlers coach pulls up, Holmes enacts his plan, a fight breaks out between the men on the street over who gets to help Adler. Holmes rushes into the fight to protect Adler, and is seemingly struck, Adler takes him into her sitting room, where Holmes motions for her to have the window opened. As Holmes lifts his hand, Watson recognizes a pre-arranged signal, while smoke billows out of the building, Watson shouts FIRE. and the cry is echoed up and down the street
Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, by the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.
In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, 000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847, booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, and would revive the role at his own Booths Theatre. Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in 1868 heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences. Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the 1868–1869 theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, in 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square.
Broadways first long-run musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857, New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a musical comedy, Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women
Lyceum Theatre, London
The Lyceum Theatre is a 2, 100-seat West End theatre located in the City of Westminster, on Wellington Street, just off the Strand. The origins of the date to 1765. From 1816 to 1830, it served as The English Opera House, after a fire, the house was rebuilt and reopened on 14 July 1834 to a design by Samuel Beazley. The building was unique in that it has a balcony overhanging the dress circle and it was built by the partnership of Peto & Grissell. The theatre played opera, adaptations of Charles Dickens novels and James Planchés fairy extravaganzas, from 1871 to 1902, Henry Irving appeared at the theatre in, Shakespeare, usually starring opposite Ellen Terry. In 1904 the theatre was almost completely rebuilt and richly ornamented in Rococo style by Bertie Crewe and it played mostly melodrama over the ensuing decades. The building closed in 1939 and was set to be demolished, but it was saved and converted into a Mecca Ballroom in 1951, styled the Lyceum Ballroom, the Lyceum was closed in 1986 but restored to theatrical use in 1996 by Holohan Architects.
Since 1999, the theatre has hosted The Lion King, the building was leased out for dances and other entertainments, including musical entertainments by Charles Dibdin. Famed actor David Garrick performed there, in 1794, the composer Samuel Arnold Sr rebuilt the interior of the building, making it into a proper theatre, but through the opposition of the existing patent theatres, he was not granted a patent. Therefore, he leased it to other entertainments again, including Philip Astley and it was used as a chapel, a concert room, and for the first London exhibition of waxworks displayed by Madame Tussaud in 1802. It staged one of the earliest tableaux vivants, as part of William Dimonds The Peasant Boy in 1811, in 1816, Samuel Arnold rebuilt the house to a design by Beazley and opened it as The English Opera House, but it was destroyed by fire in 1830. The house was famous for hosting the London première of Mozarts opera Così fan tutte, during this period, the Sublime Society of Beef Steaks, which had been founded in 1735 by theatre manager Henry Rich, had its home at the theatre for over 50 years until 1867.
The members, who never exceeded twenty-four in number, met every Saturday night to eat beefsteaks, in 1834, the present house opened slightly to the west, with a frontage on Wellington Street, under the name Theatre Royal Lyceum and English Opera House. The theatre was designed by Beazley and cost £40,000. The new house championed English opera rather than the Italian operas that had played earlier in the century, composer John Barnett produced a number of works in the first few years of the theatre, including The Mountain Sylph, credited as the first modern English opera. It was followed by Fair Rosamund in 1837 and Farinelli in 1839, in 1841–43, composer Michael Balfe managed the theatre and produced National Opera here, but the venture was ultimately unsuccessful. For instance, an adaptation of Dickens Martin Chuzzlewit ran for over 100 performances from 1844–45 here, the Lyceum was managed by Madame Lucia Elizabeth Vestris and Charles James Mathews from 1847–55, who produced James Planchés extravaganzas featuring spectacular stage effects.
Their first big success was John Maddison Mortons Box and Cox, tom Taylors adaptation of A Tale of Two Cities, with Dickens himself as consultant, played in 1860, shortly after end of its serialisation and volume publication
A Study in Scarlet
A Study in Scarlet is an 1887 detective novel by British author Arthur Conan Doyle. Written in 1886, the marks the first appearance of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. The story, and its characters, attracted little public interest when it first appeared. Only 11 complete copies of the magazine in which the story first appeared, Beetons Christmas Annual for 1887, are known to exist now, although Conan Doyle wrote 56 short stories featuring Holmes, A Study in Scarlet is one of only four full-length novels in the original canon. The novel was followed by The Sign of the Four, published in 1890, a Study in Scarlet was the first work of detective fiction to incorporate the magnifying glass as an investigative tool. Watson confides in Stamford that, due to an injury that he sustained at the Battle of Maiwand. Stamford mentions that an acquaintance of his, Sherlock Holmes, is looking for someone to split the rent at a flat at 221B Baker Street, but he cautions Watson about Holmess eccentricities. Stamford takes Watson back to St.
Bartholomews where, in a laboratory, they find Holmes experimenting with a reagent, Holmes explains the significance of bloodstains as evidence in criminal trials. After Stamford introduces Watson to Holmes, Holmes shakes Watsons hand and comments, You have been in Afghanistan, at Holmess prompting, the two review their various shortcomings to make sure that they can live together. After seeing the rooms at 221B, they move in and grow accustomed to their new situation, Holmes has multiple guests visiting him at different intervals during the day. After much speculation by Watson, Holmes reveals that he is a consulting detective, facing Watsons doubts about some of his claims, Holmes casually deduces to Watson that one visitor, a messenger from Scotland Yard is a retired Marine sergeant. When the man confirms this, Watson is astounded by Holmes ability to notice details, Holmes reads the telegram requesting consultation in a fresh murder case. He is reluctant to help because credit would go entirely to the officials, Watson urges him to reconsider so Holmes invites him to accompany him as he investigates the crime scene, an abandoned house off the Brixton Road.
Holmes observes the pavement and garden leading up to the house before he and Watson meet Inspectors Gregson, the four observe the crime scene, Holmes using a magnifying lens and tape measure. The male corpse, hes told, has identified as Enoch Drebber. Blood has been found in the room but there is no wound on the body and they learn from documents found on his person that he was in London with his secretary, Joseph Stangerson. On one wall, written in blood, is RACHE, correcting an erroneous theory of Lestrades, Holmes remarks that it is the German word for revenge. His right-hand fingernails are long and he arrived in a cab whose horse had three old shoes and a new one, Holmes says RACHE was a ploy to fool the police