Villanova Wildcats men's basketball
Villanova University's men's basketball team represents Villanova University and competes in the Big East Conference of NCAA Division I College basketball. Their first season was the 1920–21 season. Named the "Wildcats", Villanova is a member of the Philadelphia Big Five, five Philadelphia college basketball teams who share a passionate rivalry; the Wildcats have won the National Championship three times: 1985, 2016, 2018. Their 1985 NCAA championship as an 8 seed still stands as the lowest seed to win the title; the game is referred to as "The Perfect Game". Their 2016 NCAA Championship, is referred to as "The Perfect Ending" and is the only NCAA Men's Championship game to be won on a buzzer beater, as Kris Jenkins drained a shot as time expired, they made the Final Four in 1939, 1971, 1985, 2009, 2016, 2018. As of 2019, they have an NCAA Tournament record of 65–37. Villanova has defeated six No. 1 seeds in the NCAA tournament, sixth most all-time. The Villanova Wildcats have appeared in the NCAA Tournament 39 times, the eighth highest total in NCAA history.
They have won the Big East regular season championship eight times, most winning four straight from 2014 to 2017. They won the Big East Tournament in 1995, 2015, 2017, 2018, 2019. Villanova entered the 2016–2017 season with an all-time winning percentage of, placing the Wildcats tied for 13th among all NCAA Division I basketball programs. Through 2018, Villanova has 1,779 wins, 23rd among Division I men's basketball teams. Villanova has won the Philadelphia Big Five 26 times, the second most of any team, including five straight from 2014 to 2018; the Wildcats have appeared in the National Invitation Tournament 17 times, winning in 1994. NCAA National Championships – 3 NCAA Championship Game appearances - 4 NCAA Final Four – 6 NCAA Elite Eight – 14 NCAA Sweet Sixteen – 18 NCAA Tournament Appearances – 39 National Coach of the Year – 2 Conference Regular Season Championships – 12 All-Americans – 20 Weeks Ranked as AP #1 Team – 19 30-Win Seasons – 5 Philadelphia Big 5 Championships – 25 Philadelphia Big 5 Player of the Year – 20 Winning Seasons – 78 Villanova began its varsity basketball program in 1920.
Michael Saxe coached from 1920 to 1926, compiling a 64 -- 30 record. John Cashman coached three seasons, from 1926 to 1929. George "Doc" Jacobs coached seven seasons, from 1929 to 1936, had a 62–56 record; the team played its first game in 1920 in Alumni Hall on Villanova's campus, beating Catholic University 43–40. In the early years, Villanova's home courts were West Catholic High School. In 1932, The Wildcats moved into the Villanova Field House—now known as the Jake Nevin Field House, named after Villanova's long-time trainer. Villanova played many home games at the Palestra on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania beginning in 1929; the Wildcats played home games in both the Villanova Field House and the Palestra until 1986. Al Severance coached Villanova for 25 seasons, from 1936 to 1961, it was under Severance's leadership. Severance compiled a 413–201 record; the 1938–39 team won the first-ever NCAA Tournament game, which put them in the inaugural Final Four. Severance led the Wildcats to the NCAA Tournament again in 1949, 1951, 1955.
Villanova earned NIT bids in 1959 and 1960. The most storied player in Villanova history, Paul Arizin, played during this era. Severance discovered Arizin a Villanova student, playing basketball in the Villanova Fieldhouse. Arizin holds the Villanova record for most points in a game, is credited with inventing the jump shot and was the 1949 College Player of the Year. Other notable players from the Severance era include Joe Lord, Larry Hennessy, Bob Schafer and George Raveling. Coincidentally, Severance died on April 1, 1985, the same day that Villanova upset Georgetown University and Patrick Ewing to take the NCAA basketball championship; the inaugural NCAA Tournament featured eight teams from throughout the country. Villanova, representing the Middle Atlantic States, beat Brown, representative of the New England States, 43–40 before a crowd of 3,500 at the Palestra; the following night, the Wildcats lost to Ohio State 53–36 in the Eastern Division Championship. Jack Kraft coached Villanova for 12 years, from 1961 through 1973.
He compiled a 238–95 record. Kraft led Villanova to the NCAA Tournament six times, five times to the NIT. Only once did. Notable players during the Jack Kraft era include: Chris Ford, Tom Ingelsby, Wali Jones, Bill Melchionni, Howard Porter, Jim Washington, Hubie White. On March 27, 1971, Villanova made its first appearance in an NCAA basketball tournament championship game; the unheralded Wildcats took on his mighty UCLA Bruins. The 28–1 UCLA squad featured Sidney Wicks, Curtis Rowe, Henry Bibby, Steve Patterson. Going into the title game, the Bruins had won six of the previous seven NCAA championships, including the previous four. Jack Kraft's Villanova squad, nicknamed the "Iron Men", was made up of just nine players. Led by Howard Porter, Clarence Smith, Hank Siemiontkowski, Chris Ford, Tom Ingelsby, Bob Gohl, Mike Daley, John Fox and Joe McDowell. Villanova amassed a 27–6 record, including a shocking 90–47 victory over a undefeated powerhouse Penn squad. Villanova fought from behind for most of the game
In basketball, a block or blocked shot occurs when a defensive player deflects a field goal attempt from an offensive player to prevent a score. The defender is not allowed to make contact with the offensive player's hand or a foul is called. In order to be legal, the block must occur. A deflected field goal, made does not count as a blocked shot and counts as a successful field goal attempt for shooter plus the points awarded to the shooting team. For the shooter, a blocked shot is counted as a missed field goal attempt. On a shooting foul, a blocked shot cannot be awarded or counted if the player who deflected the field goal attempt is different from the player who committed the foul. If the ball is heading downward when the defender hits it, it is ruled as goaltending and counts as a made basket. Goaltending is called if the block is made after the ball bounces on the backboard. Nicknames for blocked shots include "rejections," "stuffs," "bushed", "fudged", or notably "double-fudged", "facials," "swats," "denials," and "packs."
Blocked shots were first recorded in the NBA during the 1973–74 season. Due to their height and position near the basket and power forwards tend to record the most blocks, but shorter players with good jumping ability can be blockers, an example being Dwyane Wade, the shortest player, at 6'4", to record 100 blocked shots in a single season. A player with the ability to block shots can be a positive asset to a team's defense, as they can make it difficult for opposing players to shoot near the basket and by keeping the basketball in play, as opposed to swatting it out of bounds, a blocked shot can lead to a fast break, a skill Bill Russell was notable for. To be a good shot-blocker, a player needs great court sense and timing, good height or jumping ability. One tactic is that a shot-blocker can intimidate opponents to alter their shots, resulting in a miss. A chase-down block occurs when a player pursues an opposing player who had run ahead of the defense, blocks their shot attempt; the block involves hitting the ball into the backboard as the opponent tries to complete a lay-up.
One of the most recognized chase-down blocks was then-Detroit Pistons' Tayshaun Prince's game-saving block on Reggie Miller in Game 2 of the 2004 NBA Eastern Conference Finals against the Indiana Pacers. Pistons announcer Fred McLeod, who first witnessed this style of blocks from Prince, created the chase-down term with the Cleveland Cavaliers. During the 2008–09 NBA season, the Cavaliers began tracking chase-down blocks, crediting LeBron James with 23 that season and 20 the following season. Another landmark chase-down block occurred in the 2016 NBA Finals when Lebron James, in the closing minutes of the 4th quarter delivered what became known as "The Block" on a lay-up attempt by Andre Iguodala with the score tied at 89 and 01:50 remaining in the game. Most blocks in a single game: Elmore Smith Most blocks in a single half: Elmore Smith, George T. Johnson, Manute Bol Most blocks per game in a season: Mark Eaton Most career blocks: Hakeem Olajuwon Most blocks per game in a career: Mark Eaton Most blocks in NBA Finals game: Dwight Howard Most blocks in a non-NBA Finals playoff game: Andrew Bynum, Hakeem Olajuwon, Mark Eaton Most career blocks: Jarvis Varnado – Mississippi State Most blocks single season, player: David Robinson – Navy Most blocks per game single season, player: Shawn James – Northeastern Most blocks single season, team: Kentucky Most career blocks: Brittney Griner – Baylor Most blocks single season, player: Brittney Griner – Baylor Most blocks per game single season, player: Brittney Griner – Baylor Most blocks single season, team: Baylor List of National Basketball Association career blocks leaders List of National Basketball Association season blocks leaders List of National Basketball Association players with most blocks in a game List of NCAA Division I men's basketball career blocks leaders List of NCAA Division I men's basketball season blocks leaders List of NCAA Division I men's basketball players with 13 or more blocks in a game ^a Brittney Griner's 736 career blocks is recognized as the all-time NCAA record, men's or women's.
Hall of Famer Anne Donovan, who played for Old Dominion from 1979 to 1983, recorded 801 blocks while playing in the AIAW, therefore her total is not recognized as an NCAA achievement. Career block leaders on Basketball-Reference.com Bill Russell Block Art on YouTube
Englewood, New Jersey
Englewood is a city located in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 27,147, reflecting an increase of 944 from the 26,203 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,353 from the 24,850 counted in the 1990 Census. Englewood was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 17, 1899, from portions of Ridgefield Township and the remaining portions of Englewood Township. With the creation of the City of Englewood, Englewood Township was dissolved. An earlier referendum on March 10, 1896, was declared unconstitutional. Englewood Township, the city's predecessor, is believed to have been named in 1859 for the Engle family; the community had been called the "English Neighborhood", as the first English-speaking settlement on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River after New Netherland was annexed by England in 1664, though other sources mention the Engle family and the forested areas of the community as the derivation of the name.
Other sources indicate that the name is derived from "wood ingle", meaning "woody nook", or that the name was coined anew. Numerous other settlements in the United States were named for Englewood as settlement in North America expanded westward. J. Wyman Jones is credited with convincing residents to choose Englewood for the city's name when it was incorporated over such alternatives as "Brayton" and "Paliscena". Englewood, like the rest of New Jersey, was populated by Lenape Native Americans prior to European colonization; the Lenape who lived in the Englewood region were of the "turtle clan" which used a stylized turtle as its symbol, but little else is known of those inhabitants. When Henry Hudson sailed up what would become known as the Hudson River in 1607, he claimed the entirety of the watershed of the river, including Englewood, for the Netherlands, making the future region of Englewood a part of New Netherland. However, the region remained unsettled under Dutch rule as the Dutch did little to encourage settlement north of modern Hudson County, as the imposing New Jersey Palisades blocked expansion on the west bank of the Hudson.
In 1664, after the Dutch surrendered all of New Netherland to England, the rate of settlement picked up. The English were generous with land grants, many families, not only English but Dutch and Huguenot, settled the area, which during the colonial era was known as the English Neighborhood. Street names in Englewood still recall the relative diversity of its earliest settlers. From 1906 until March 16, 1907, when it burned down, Englewood was the site of Upton Sinclair's socialist-inflected intentional community, the Helicon Home Colony. Associated with the project were Sinclair Lewis. Direct distance dialing, which allowed callers to reach other users outside their local calling area without operator assistance, was introduced to the public in Englewood. On November 10, 1951, Englewood Mayor M. Leslie Denning made the first customer-dialed long distance call, to Mayor Frank Osborne of Alameda, California; as of that date, customers of the Englewood 3, Englewood 4 and Teaneck 7 exchanges, who could dial some exchanges in the New York City area, were able to dial 11 cities across the United States by dialing the three-digit area code preceding the local number.
Two years after his graduation from Fordham University, Vince Lombardi began his football coaching career at Englewood's St. Cecilia High School, which closed in 1986. Sites in the city listed on the National Register of Historic Places include: John G. Benson House Thomas Demarest House Garret Lydecker House St. Paul's Episcopal Church Peter Westervelt House and Barn According to the United States Census Bureau, Englewood had a total area of 4.937 square miles, including 4.914 square miles of land and 0.023 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the city include Highwood; the city borders the Bergen County municipalities of Bergenfield, Englewood Cliffs, Fort Lee, Leonia and Tenafly. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 27,147 people, 10,057 households, 6,788.475 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,524.6 per square mile. There were 10,695 housing units at an average density of 2,176.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 45.28% White, 32.58% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 8.10% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 9.73% from other races, 3.72% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.48% of the population. There were 10,057 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 17.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.24. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 27.0% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.9 years. For every 100 females there were 90.0 males
Sporting News Men's College Basketball Player of the Year
The Sporting News Men's College Basketball Player of the Year is an annual basketball award given to the best men's basketball player in NCAA Division I competition. The award was first given following the 1942–43 season and is presented by Sporting News, an American–based sports magazine, established in 1886. No award winners were selected from 1947–49 and from 1952–57. Repeat winners of the Sporting News Player of the Year award are rare. Of those six repeat winners, only Oscar Robertson of Cincinnati and Bill Walton of UCLA have been named the player of the year three times. UCLA and Duke have the most all-time with seven. North Carolina has the second most with five winners. A Lew Alcindor changed his name to Kareem Abdul-Jabbar in 1971 after converting to Islam. List of U. S. men's college basketball national player of the year awards "Sporting News Player of the Year Winners". College Basketball. Sports–Reference.com. Retrieved 3 May 2010. Specific
NC State Wolfpack men's basketball
The NC State Wolfpack men's basketball team represents North Carolina State University in NCAA Division I men's basketball competition. The Wolfpack competes in the Atlantic Coast Conference, of which it was a founding member. Prior to joining the ACC in 1954, the Wolfpack was a member of the Southern Conference, where they won seven conference championships; as a member of the ACC, the Wolfpack has won ten conference championships, as well as two national championships in 1974 and 1983. State's unexpected 1983 title was one of the most memorable in NCAA history. Since 1999, the Pack has played most of its home games at PNC Arena, where the NCAA championship trophies are kept. Prior to 1999, they played at Reynolds Coliseum. NC State began varsity intercollegiate competition in men's basketball in 1911. In 105 years of play, the Wolfpack ranks 25th in total victories among NCAA Division I college basketball programs and 26th in winning percentage among programs that have competed at the Division I level for at least 26 years.
The team's all-time record is 1737-1067. The program saw its greatest success during the head coaching tenures of Everett Case, Norm Sloan, Jim Valvano. NC State has produced some of the ACC's best players, including Tom Burleson, Rodney Monroe, Monte Towe, Ron Shavlik. David Thompson, who led the Wolfpack to its first NCAA title in 1974, has been recognized as one of college basketball's greatest players; the Wolfpack has won a total of 17 conference tournament championships and 13 regular season conference titles. State has appeared in the NCAA Tournament 26 times, with three Final Four appearances and two national titles; the Wolfpack appeared in the Final Four of the 1947 National Invitational Tournament, during the NIT's "national championship era." NC State achieved its 1700th overall win against Presbyterian College, 86-68, becoming the 26th NCAA school to reach such an achievement. In 1910 Guy Bryan formed a special committee that proposed to the university administration the organization of the school's first basketball team.
The program played its first official intercollegiate basketball game on February 16, 1911 against a much more experienced squad from Wake Forest. NC State known as the North Carolina A&M Farmers, lost, 33–6; the two teams met again five days in Raleigh, with A&M earning its first-ever victory, 19–18. The following year, the school's athletics council recognized basketball as a sport. Before the 1920–21 season the university changed its name from North Carolina A&M to North Carolina State College. At that time the school's nickname was the "Tech." That season the program joined the fledgling Southern Conference as a charter member. State College changed its nickname yet again in 1923, this time to the "Red Terrors." The name was drawn from a combination of the play of Rochelle "Red" Johnson and the team's new bright red road uniforms. In 1923, State opened its first basketball facility, Frank Thompson Gym; the gym, named in honor of a former athlete from the school who died in action during World War I, served as the team's home until 1948.
During the first years of the program, the team had no practice facility and was forced to practice on an outdoor field in nearby Pullen Park. Gus Tebell took over the basketball team as head coach in 1924. During his tenure he led the program to a number of school firsts, including the first conference championship in 1929 and the first 20-win season, he compiled a all-time program best career coaching record at 79–36. The Wolfpack's first player to garner significant national recognition was Bud Rose, after the 1931–32 season, was named as an honorable mention All-American. In 1941 the university began construction on William Neal Reynolds Coliseum, a multi-purpose arena that would serve as the new home of Wolfpack basketball. Construction was stalled due to the involvement of the United States in World War II, the skeleton structure of the arena was left unfinished for nearly six years until its completion in 1949; the Wolfpack would play its home games at Reynolds for the next 50 years, until the men's team moved to PNC Arena in 1999.
Following the end of World War II, chancellor John W. Harrelson and athletic director H. A. Fisher set upon rebuilding the university's athletic teams. In 1946 David Clark, a former president of the NC State Alumni Association, suggested to the Athletics Council that the best place to search for a new head basketball coach would be in Indiana, a basketball hotbed at the time. Per Clark's suggestion and his father Stejem Mark met with Indiana native Chuck Taylor, in Raleigh to coach his army team in an exhibition game against NC State. Taylor's recommendation for the job was his former high school coach Everett Case; when approached by Harrelson about the job, Case was at first hesitant because of the tight restrictions under which the program had been operating. Harrelson assured Case that he would be given an expanded budget and more than enough scholarships to field a competitive team. Additionally, Case was lured by the still unfinished Reynolds Coliseum, he accepted the job immediately without visiting the campus.
Everett Case was named head coach on July 1, 1946. Case had coached high school basketball in Indiana, where in 23 seasons he compiled a 726–75 record and won four state championships. Before arriving at NC State, he spent two years as an assistant coach at the University of Southern California and spent several years coaching teams at various Naval bases during the war. In February 1947, his first season at NC State, Case defeated North Carolina in Chapel Hill, 48–46 in overtime, beginning a streak of 15 consecutive victories over the Tar He
Manhattan College is a private, Roman Catholic, liberal arts college in the Bronx in New York City. After being established in 1853 by the Brothers of the Christian Schools as an academy for day students, Manhattan College was incorporated as an institution of higher education through a charter granted by the New York State Board of Regents. In 1922, the College moved from Manhattan to the Riverdale section of the Bronx 6.4 miles north of its original location on 131st Street in the Manhattanville section of Manhattan. Manhattan College offers undergraduate programs in the arts, education, health and science. Graduate programs are offered for education and engineering. Manhattan College was founded as the Academy of the Holy Infancy in 1853 by five French De La Salle Christian Brothers in a small building on Canal Street; when the need to expand forced them from Lower Manhattan, the college moved to 131st Street and Broadway, in the Manhattanville section of Harlem. The school's name was changed to Manhattan College when it received its state charter in 1863, moved to its present location in the Riverdale section of the Bronx in 1922 as it outgrew its facilities in Manhattanville.
This is the cause of some confusion as the college is located outside of Manhattan but still within the city limits of New York City. Exclusive to men, Manhattan College established a cooperative program with the College of Mount Saint Vincent after the pair became coeducational in 1973 and 1974, respectively; this partnership lasted until 2008. Since Manhattan College and the College of Mount Saint Vincent have been separate. For 118 years, a boys' secondary school, Manhattan College High School, known to students and rivals as Manhattan Prep was located on campus. Founded in 1854, the school educated its young men in a Catholic college preparatory curriculum geared toward eventual university matriculation, it was, indeed, a "prep" school in the classic sense: coats and ties were mandatory for class attendance. The curriculum included 3 years of Latin. Throughout its existence, Manhattan Prep was a partner of its host institution with a significant percentage of its graduates continuing on to study at Manhattan College.
The High School was located in De La Salle Hall. Students shared the college chapel, cafeteria and athletic facilities, its sports teams bore the nickname, "the Jaspers" just as the Manhattan College teams; the "Prep" supported varsity teams in swimming, crew and kayak, cross country and indoor/outdoor track, of course and baseball as members of the Catholic High School Athletic Association. There were junior varsity and intramural sports; the school newspaper, published monthly, was called The Prepster. After admitting a small class of 1971, Manhattan Prep closed its doors in 1972 due to rising costs and a decline in Lasallian Brothers' vocations; the members of the class of 1972 either accelerated to graduate in 3 years with the class of 1971 or left for other area Catholic high schools. Despite the closure of the high school, the Brothers continue to maintain a presence on the college campus as members of the faculty and support staff. In 2014, as part of the College's Homecoming celebration, a plaque acknowledging the Prep's contribution to the College's growth and spirit was erected on the wall of de la Salle Hall on the Quadrangle.
The plaque was dedicated by Brother C. George Berrian FSC, one of the Prep's last principals, in a ceremony attended by about 50 Prep alumni. Manhattan College occupies a compact campus; the college is divided into a north and south campus, in the residential Riverdale section of the Bronx. The North campus overlooks Van Cortlandt Park, has as its focal point "the Quad", which sits at the center of the campus's four main buildings. Memorial Hall is the main entry onto campus and houses the office of the president as well as most of the other administrative offices on campus. Miguel Hall and De La Salle Hall are the main academic halls. Miguel hosts the arts department and classes, while De La Salle is used by the business school; the fourth side of the Quad is bordered by the chapel building, which houses Smith Auditorium on the first floor and the Chapel of De La Salle and His Brothers on the second floor, which features a painting of De La Salle and Brothers behind the altar, a large performing area where musical events and concerts take place on the altar, a grand piano, a pipe organ in the balcony.
Thomas Hall, one of the college's student life building, houses the offices of the Dean of Students, the student government, the musical ensembles, others. The college's two dining halls, Locke's Loft and Cafe 1853 are located in Thomas Hall; the brand new Kelly Commons, named after notable alumnus Raymond Kelly, is another student life building, completed in 2014. It holds a Starbucks, a Marketplace, a state-of-the-art gym for student and faculty use, the Multicultural Center, halls for lectures and events, the student bookstore and the office for the student-run newspaper, The Quadrangle; the O'Malley Library is a six-story structure, joined with the previous library, the Cardinal Hayes Pavilion. Built on a hill, the new library was built directly next to and above the old one combining the two and creating more floors, while enhancing technology and adding gro
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of