Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art museums, the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, international modern and contemporary art. It is not a government institution, but its main sponsor is the UK Department for Digital, Culture and Sport; the name "Tate" is used as the operating name for the corporate body, established by the Museums and Galleries Act 1992 as "The Board of Trustees of the Tate Gallery". The gallery was founded as the National Gallery of British Art; when its role was changed to include the national collection of modern art as well as the national collection of British art, in 1932, it was renamed the Tate Gallery after sugar magnate Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle, who had laid the foundations for the collection. The Tate Gallery was housed in the current building occupied by Tate Britain, situated in Millbank, London. In 2000, the Tate Gallery transformed itself into the current-day Tate, which consists of a network of four museums: Tate Britain, which displays the collection of British art from 1500 to the present day.
All four museums share the Tate Collection. One of the Tate's most publicised art events is the awarding of the annual Turner Prize, which takes place at Tate Britain; the original Tate was called the National Gallery of British Art, situated on Millbank, London at the site of the former Millbank Prison. The idea of a National Gallery of British Art was first proposed in the 1820s by Sir John Leicester, Baron de Tabley, it took a step nearer when Robert Vernon gave his collection to the National Gallery in 1847. A decade John Sheepshanks gave his collection to the South Kensington Museum, known for years as the National Gallery of Art. Forty years Sir Henry Tate, a sugar magnate and a major collector of Victorian art, offered to fund the building of the gallery to house British Art on the condition that the State pay for the site and revenue costs. Henry Tate donated his own collection to the gallery, it was a collection of modern British art, concentrating on the works of modern—that is Victorian era—painters.
It was controlled by the National Gallery until 1954. In 1915, Sir Hugh Lane bequeathed his collection of European modern art to Dublin, but controversially this went to the Tate, which expanded its collection to include foreign art and continued to acquire contemporary art. In 1926 and 1937, the art dealer and patron Joseph Duveen paid for two major expansions of the gallery building, his father had earlier paid for an extension to house the major part of the Turner Bequest, which in 1987 was transferred to a wing paid for by Sir Charles Clore. Henry Courtauld endowed Tate with a purchase fund. By the mid 20th century, it was fulfilling a dual function of showing the history of British art as well as international modern art. In 1954, the Tate Gallery was separated from the National Gallery. During the 1950s and 1960s, the visual arts department of the Arts Council of Great Britain funded and organised temporary exhibitions at the Tate Gallery including, in 1966, a retrospective of Marcel Duchamp.
The Tate began organising its own temporary exhibition programme. In 1979 with funding from a Japanese bank a large modern extension was opened that would house larger income generating exhibitions. In 1987, the Clore Wing opened to house the major part of the Turner bequest and provided a 200-seat auditorium. In 1988, an outpost in north west England opened as Tate Liverpool; this shows various works of modern art from the Tate collection as well as mounting its own temporary exhibitions. In 2007, Tate Liverpool hosted the first time this has been held outside London; this was an overture to Liverpool's being the European Capital of Culture 2008. In 1993, another offshoot opened, Tate St Ives, it exhibits work by modern British artists those of the St Ives School. Additionally the Tate manages the Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden, which opened in 1980. Neither of these two new Tates had a significant effect on the functioning of the original London Tate Gallery, whose size was proving a constraint as the collection grew.
It was a logical step to separate the "British" and "Modern" aspects of the collection, they are now housed in separate buildings in London. The original gallery is now called Tate Britain and is the national gallery for British art from 1500 to the present day, as well as some modern British art. Tate Modern, in Bankside Power Station on the south side of the Thames, opened in 2000 and now exhibits the national collection of modern art from 1900 to the present day, including some modern British art. In its first year, the Tate Modern was the most popular museum in the world, with 5,250,000 visitors. In the late 2000s, the Tate announced a new development project to the south of the existing building. According to the museum this new development would "transform Tate Modern. An iconic new building will be added at the south of the existing gallery, it will create more spaces for displaying the collection and installation art and learning, all allowing visitors to engage more with art, as well as creating more social spaces for visitors to unwind and
University of Wisconsin–Madison
The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin. Founded when Wisconsin achieved statehood in 1848, UW–Madison is the official state university of Wisconsin, the flagship campus of the University of Wisconsin System, it was the first public university established in Wisconsin and remains the oldest and largest public university in the state. It became a land-grant institution in 1866; the 933-acre main campus, located on the shores of Lake Mendota, includes four National Historic Landmarks. The University owns and operates a historic 1,200-acre arboretum established in 1932, located 4 miles south of the main campus. UW–Madison is organized into 20 schools and colleges, which enrolled 30,361 undergraduate and 14,052 graduate students in 2018, its comprehensive academic program offers 136 undergraduate majors, along with 148 master's degree programs and 120 doctoral programs. A major contributor to Wisconsin's economy, the University is the largest employer in the state, with over 21,600 faculty and staff.
The UW is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. UW–Madison is categorized as a Doctoral University with the Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2012, it had research expenditures of more than $1.1 billion, the third highest among universities in the country. Wisconsin is a founding member of the Association of American Universities; as of October 2018, 25 Nobel laureates and 2 Fields medalists have been associated with UW–Madison as alumni, faculty, or researchers. Additionally, as of November 2018, the current CEOs of 14 Fortune 500 companies have attended UW–Madison, the most of any university in the United States. Among the scientific advances made at UW–Madison are the single-grain experiment, the discovery of vitamins A and B by Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis, the development of the anticoagulant medication warfarin by Karl Paul Link, the first chemical synthesis of a gene by Har Gobind Khorana, the discovery of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase by Howard Temin, the first synthesis of human embryonic stem cells by James Thomson.
UW–Madison was the home of both the prominent "Wisconsin School" of economics and of diplomatic history, while UW–Madison professor Aldo Leopold played an important role in the development of modern environmental science and conservationism, articulating his philosophy of a "land ethic" in his influential book A Sand County Almanac. The Wisconsin Badgers compete in 25 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference and have won 28 national championships. Wisconsin students and alumni have won 50 Olympic medals; the university had its official beginnings when the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature in its 1838 session passed a law incorporating a "University of the Territory of Wisconsin", a high-ranking Board of Visitors was appointed. However, this body never accomplished anything before Wisconsin was incorporated as a state in 1848; the Wisconsin Constitution provided for "the establishment of a state university, at or near the seat of state government..." and directed by the state legislature to be governed by a board of regents and administered by a Chancellor.
On July 26, 1848, Nelson Dewey, Wisconsin's first governor, signed the act that formally created the University of Wisconsin. John H. Lathrop became the university's first chancellor, in the fall of 1849. With John W. Sterling as the university's first professor, the first class of 17 students met at Madison Female Academy on February 5, 1849. A permanent campus site was soon selected: an area of 50 acres "bounded north by Fourth lake, east by a street to be opened at right angles with King street", "south by Mineral Point Road, west by a carriage-way from said road to the lake." The regents' building plans called for a "main edifice fronting towards the Capitol, three stories high, surmounted by an observatory for astronomical observations." This building, University Hall, now known as Bascom Hall, was completed in 1859. On October 10, 1916, a fire destroyed the building's dome, never replaced. North Hall, constructed in 1851, was the first building on campus. In 1854, Levi Booth and Charles T. Wakeley became the first graduates of the university, in 1892 the university awarded its first PhD to future university president Charles R. Van Hise.
Research and service at the UW is influenced by a tradition known as "the Wisconsin Idea", first articulated by UW–Madison President Charles Van Hise in 1904, when he declared "I shall never be content until the beneficent influence of the University reaches every home in the state." The Wisconsin Idea holds that the boundaries of the university should be the boundaries of the state, that the research conducted at UW–Madison should be applied to solve problems and improve health, quality of life, the environment, agriculture for all citizens of the state. The Wisconsin Idea permeates the university's work and helps forge close working relationships among university faculty and students, the state's industries and government. Based in Wisconsin's populist history, the Wisconsin Idea continues to inspire the work of the faculty and students who aim to solve real-world problems by working together across disciplines and demographics. During World War II, University
James Rufus Agee was an American novelist, poet and film critic. In the 1940s, he was one of the most influential film critics in the U. S, his autobiographical novel, A Death in the Family, won the author a posthumous 1958 Pulitzer Prize. Agee was born in Knoxville, Tennessee, to Hugh James Agee and Laura Whitman Tyler, at Highland Avenue and 15th Street, renamed James Agee Street, in 1909, in what is now the Fort Sanders neighborhood; when Agee was six, his father was killed in an automobile accident. From the age of seven and his younger sister, were educated in several boarding schools; the most prominent of these was located near his mother's summer cottage two miles from Sewanee, Tennessee. Saint Andrews School for Mountain Boys was run by the monastic Order of the Holy Cross affiliated with the Episcopal Church, it was there that Agee's lifelong friendship with Episcopal priest Father James Harold Flye, a history teacher at St. Andrew's, his wife Grace Eleanor Houghton began in 1919; as Agee's close friend and mentor, Flye corresponded with him on literary and other topics through life and became a confidant of Agee's soul-wrestling.
He published the letters after Agee's death. The New York Times Book Review pronounced The Letters of James Agee to Father Flye as "comparable in importance to Fitzgerald's'The Crackup' and Thomas Wolfe's letters as a self-portrait of the artist in the modern American scene." Agee's mother married St. Andrew's bursar Father Erskine Wright in 1924, the two moved to Rockland, Maine. Agee went to Knoxville High School for the 1924–1925 school year traveled with Father Flye to Europe in the summer, when Agee was sixteen. On their return, Agee transferred to a boarding school in New Hampshire, entering the class of 1928 at Phillips Exeter Academy. Soon after, he began a correspondence with Dwight Macdonald. At Phillips Exeter, Agee was president of The Lantern Club and editor of the Monthly where his first short stories, plays and articles were published. Despite passing many of his high school courses, Agee was admitted to Harvard College's class of 1932, where he lived in Thayer Hall and Eliot House.
At Harvard, Agee took classes taught by I. A. Richards. Agee was delivered the class ode at his commencement. After graduation, Agee was hired by the Time Inc. as a reporter, moved to New York City, where he wrote for Fortune magazine in 1932-1937, although he is better known for his film criticism in Time and The Nation. In 1934, he published his only volume of poetry, Permit Me Voyage, with a foreword by Archibald MacLeish. In the summer of 1936, during the Great Depression, Agee spent eight weeks on assignment for Fortune with photographer Walker Evans, living among sharecroppers in Alabama. While Fortune did not publish his article, Agee turned the material into a book titled Let Us Now Praise Famous Men, it sold only 600 copies before being remaindered. Another manuscript from the same assignment discovered in 2003, titled Cotton Tenants, is believed to be the essay submitted to Fortune editors; the 30,000 word text, accompanied by photographs by Walker Evans, was published as a book in June 2013.
John Jeremiah Sullivan writes in the Summer 2013 issue of BookForum that, "This is not an early, partial draft of Famous Men, in other words, not just a different book. Its excellence should enhance his reputation." A significant difference between the works is the use of original names in Cotton Tenants. Agee left Fortune in 1937 while working on a book in 1939, he took a book reviewing job at Time, sometimes reviewing up to six books per week. In 1941, he became Time's film critic. In 1942-1948, he worked as a film critic for The Nation. Agee was an ardent champion of Charlie Chaplin's unpopular film Monsieur Verdoux, since recognized as a film classic, he was a great admirer of Laurence Olivier's Henry V and Hamlet Henry V. Agee on Film collected his writings of this period. In 1948, Agee quit his job to become a freelance writer. One of his assignments was a well-received article for Life Magazine about the silent movie comedians Charles Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Harold Lloyd and Harry Langdon.
The article has been credited for reviving Keaton's career. As a freelancer in the 1950s, Agee continued to write magazine articles while working on movie scripts. In 1947 and 1948, Agee wrote an untitled screenplay for Charlie Chaplin, in which the Tramp survives a nuclear holocaust; the commentary Agee wrote for the 1948 documentary The Quiet One was his first contribution to a film, completed and released. Agee's career as a movie scriptwriter was curtailed by his alcoholism, he is one of the credited screenwriters on two of the most respected films of the 1950s: The African Queen and The Night of the Hunter. His contribution to Hunter is shrouded in controversy; some critics have claimed. Reports that Agee's screenplay for Hunter was incoherent have been proved false by the 2004 discovery of his first draft, which although 293 pages in length, is scene for scene the film which Laughton directed. However, Laughton seemed to have edi
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States. With 6,953,927 visitors to its three locations in 2018, it was the third most visited art museum in the world, its permanent collection contains over two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the eastern edge of Central Park along Museum Mile in Manhattan's Upper East Side is by area one of the world's largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains an extensive collection of art and artifacts from Medieval Europe. On March 18, 2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue on the Upper East Side; the permanent collection consists of works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, an extensive collection of American and modern art. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian and Islamic art.
The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons and armor from around the world. Several notable interiors, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries; the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870 for the purposes of opening a museum to bring art and art education to the American people. It opened on February 20, 1872, was located at 681 Fifth Avenue; the Met's permanent collection is curated by seventeen separate departments, each with a specialized staff of curators and scholars, as well as six dedicated conservation departments and a Department of Scientific Research. The permanent collection includes works of art from classical antiquity and ancient Egypt and sculptures from nearly all the European masters, an extensive collection of American and modern art; the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian and Islamic art. The museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, antique weapons and armor from around the world.
A great number of period rooms, ranging from 1st-century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Met's galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts large traveling shows throughout the year; the current chairman of the board, Daniel Brodsky, was elected in 2011 and became chairman three years after director Philippe de Montebello retired at the end of 2008. On March 1, 2017, the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss, the Met's president and COO, would temporarily act as CEO for the museum. Following the departure of Thomas P. Campbell as the Met's director and CEO on June 30, 2017, the search for a new director of the museum was assigned to the human resources firm Phillips Oppenheim to present a new candidate for the position "by the end of the fiscal year in June" of 2018; the next director will report to Weiss as the current president of the museum. In April 2018, Max Hollein was named director. Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started acquiring ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few cuneiform tablets and seals, the Met's collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. Representing a history of the region beginning in the Neolithic Period and encompassing the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the end of Late Antiquity, the collection includes works from the Sumerian, Sasanian, Assyrian and Elamite cultures, as well as an extensive collection of unique Bronze Age objects; the highlights of the collection include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures, from the Northwest Palace of the Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II. Though the Met first acquired a group of Peruvian antiquities in 1882, the museum did not begin a concerted effort to collect works from Africa and the Americas until 1969, when American businessman and philanthropist Nelson A. Rockefeller donated his more than 3,000-piece collection to the museum. Today, the Met's collection contains more than 11,000 pieces from sub-Saharan Africa, the Pacific Islands, the Americas and is housed in the 40,000-square-foot Rockefeller Wing on the south end of the museum.
The collection ranges from 40,000-year-old indigenous Australian rock paintings, to a group of 15-foot-tall memorial poles carved by the Asmat people of New Guinea, to a priceless collection of ceremonial and personal objects from the Nigerian Court of Benin donated by Klaus Perls. The range of materials represented in the Africa and Americas collection is undoubtedly the widest of any department at the Met, including everything from precious metals to porcupine quills; the Met's Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, arguably the most comprehensive in the US. The collection dates back to the founding of the museum: many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections. Today, an entire wing of the museum is dedicated to the Asian collection, spans 4,000 years of Asian art; every Asian civilization is represented in the Met's Asian department, the pieces on display include every type of decorative art, from painting and printmaking to sculpture and metalworking.
The department is well known for its comprehensive collection of Chinese calligraphy and painting, as well as for its Indian sculptures and Tibetan works, the arts of Burma and Thailand. All three ancient religions of India – Hinduism and Jainism – are well represented in these s
Edward Henry Weston was a 20th-century American photographer. He has been called "one of the most innovative and influential American photographers…" and "one of the masters of 20th century photography." Over the course of his 40-year career Weston photographed an expansive set of subjects, including landscapes, still lives, portraits, genre scenes and whimsical parodies. It is said that he developed a "quintessentially American, specially Californian, approach to modern photography" because of his focus on the people and places of the American West. In 1937 Weston was the first photographer to receive a Guggenheim Fellowship, over the next two years he produced nearly 1,400 negatives using his 8 × 10 view camera; some of his most famous photographs were taken of the trees and rocks at Point Lobos, near where he lived for many years. Weston was born in Chicago and moved to California when he was 21, he knew he wanted to be a photographer from an early age, his work was typical of the soft focus pictorialism, popular at the time.
Within a few years, however, he abandoned that style and went on to be one of the foremost champions of detailed photographic images. In 1947 he was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease and he stopped photographing soon thereafter, he spent the remaining ten years of his life overseeing the printing of more than 1,000 of his most famous images. Weston was born in Highland Park, the second child and only son of Edward Burbank Weston, an obstetrician, Alice Jeanette Brett, a Shakespearean actress, his mother died when he was five years old and he was raised by his sister Mary, whom he called "May" or "Mazie". She was nine years older than he, they developed a close bond, one of the few steady relationships in Weston's life, his father remarried when he was nine, but neither Weston nor his sister got along with their new stepmother and stepbrother. After May was married and left their home in 1897, Weston's father devoted most of his time to his new wife and her son. Weston was left on his own much of the time.
As a present for his 16th birthday Weston's father gave him his first camera, a Kodak Bull's-Eye #2, a simple box camera. He took it on vacation in the Midwest, by the time he returned home his interest in photography was enough to lead him to purchase a used 5 × 7 inch view camera, he began photographing in Chicago parks and a farm owned by his aunt, developed his own film and prints. He would remember that at that early age his work showed strong artistic merit, he said, "I feel that my earliest work of 1903 ‒ though immature ‒ is related more both with technique and composition, to my latest work than are several of my photographs dating from 1913–1920, a period in which I was trying to be artistic."In 1904 May and her family moved to California, leaving Weston further isolated in Chicago. He earned a living by taking a job at a local department store, but he continued to spend most of his free time taking photos, Within two years he felt confident enough of his photography that he submitted his work to the magazine Camera and Darkroom, in the April 1906 issue they published a full-page reproduction of his picture Spring, Chicago.
This is the first known publication of any of his photographs. At the urging of his sister, Weston left Chicago in the spring of 1906 and moved near May's home in Tropico, California, he decided to stay there and pursue a career in photography, but he soon realized he needed more professional training. A year he moved to Effingham, Illinois, in order to enroll in the Illinois College of Photography, they taught a nine-month course. The school refused to give him a diploma, he worked at the photography studio of George Steckel in Los Angeles, as a negative retoucher. Within a few months he moved to the more established studio of Louis Mojonier. For the next several years he learned the techniques and business of operating a photography studio under Mojonier's direction. Within days of his visit to Tropico, Weston was introduced to his sister's best friend, Flora May Chandler, she was a graduate of the Normal School to become UCLA. She assumed the position of a grade-school teacher in Tropico, she was seven years older than Weston and a distant relative of Harry Chandler, who at that time was described as the head of "the single most powerful family in Southern California.
This fact did not go unnoticed by his biographers. On January 30, 1909, Weston and Chandler married in a simple ceremony; the first of their four sons, Edward Chandler Weston, known as Chandler, was born on April 26, 1910. Named Edward Chandler, after Weston and his wife, he became an excellent photographer on his own, he learned much by being an assistant to his father in the bungalow studio. In 1923 he bid farewell to his mother and sibling brothers and sailed off to Mexico with his father and Tina Modotti, he gave up any aspirations in pursuing photography as a career after his adventures in Mexico. The lifestyle of fame and its fortune affected him greatly, his photographs, as a hobbyist, albeit rare reflect an innate talent for the form. In 1910 Weston opened his own business, called "The Little Studio", in Tropico, his sister asked him why he opened his studio in Tropico rather than in the nearby metropolis of Los Angeles, he replied "Sis, I'm going to make my name so famous that it won’t matter where I l
Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp was a French-American painter, chess player, writer whose work is associated with Cubism and conceptual art. He was not directly associated with Dada groups. Duchamp is regarded, along with Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the 20th century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Duchamp has had an immense impact on twentieth-century and twenty first-century art, he had a seminal influence on the development of conceptual art. By World War I, he had rejected the work of many of his fellow artists as "retinal" art, intended only to please the eye. Instead, Duchamp wanted to use art to serve the mind. Marcel Duchamp was born at Blainville-Crevon in Normandy and grew up in a family that enjoyed cultural activities; the art of painter and engraver Émile Frédéric Nicolle, his maternal grandfather, filled the house, the family liked to play chess, read books and make music together.
Of Eugene and Lucie Duchamp's seven children, one died as an infant and four became successful artists. Marcel Duchamp was the brother of: Jacques Villon, printmaker Raymond Duchamp-Villon, sculptor Suzanne Duchamp-Crotti, painter; as a child, with his two elder brothers away from home at school in Rouen, Duchamp was closer to his sister Suzanne, a willing accomplice in games and activities conjured by his fertile imagination. At eight years old, Duchamp followed in his brothers' footsteps when he left home and began schooling at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille, in Rouen. Two other students in his class became well-known artists and lasting friends: Robert Antoine Pinchon and Pierre Dumont. For the next eight years, he was locked into an educational regime which focused on intellectual development. Though he was not an outstanding student, his best subject was mathematics and he won two mathematics prizes at the school, he won a prize for drawing in 1903, at his commencement in 1904 he won a coveted first prize, validating his recent decision to become an artist.
He learned academic drawing from a teacher who unsuccessfully attempted to "protect" his students from Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, other avant-garde influences. However, Duchamp's true artistic mentor at the time was his brother Jacques Villon, whose fluid and incisive style he sought to imitate. At 14, his first serious art attempts were drawings and watercolors depicting his sister Suzanne in various poses and activities; that summer he painted landscapes in an Impressionist style using oils. Duchamp's early art works align with Post-Impressionist styles, he experimented with classical subjects. When he was asked about what had influenced him at the time, Duchamp cited the work of Symbolist painter Odilon Redon, whose approach to art was not outwardly anti-academic, but individual, he studied art at the Académie Julian from 1904 to 1905, but preferred playing billiards to attending classes. During this time Duchamp sold cartoons which reflected his ribald humor. Many of the drawings use visual puns, or both.
Such play with words and symbols engaged his imagination for the rest of his life. In 1905, he began his compulsory military service with the 39th Infantry Regiment, working for a printer in Rouen. There he learned typography and printing processes—skills he would use in his work. Owing to his eldest brother Jacques' membership in the prestigious Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture Duchamp's work was exhibited in the 1908 Salon d'Automne, the following year in the Salon des Indépendants. Fauves and Paul Cézanne's proto-Cubism influenced his paintings, although the critic Guillaume Apollinaire—who was to become a friend—criticized what he called "Duchamp's ugly nudes". Duchamp became lifelong friends with exuberant artist Francis Picabia after meeting him at the 1911 Salon d'Automne, Picabia proceeded to introduce him to a lifestyle of fast cars and "high" living. In 1911, at Jacques' home in Puteaux, the brothers hosted a regular discussion group with Cubist artists including Picabia, Robert Delaunay, Fernand Léger, Roger de La Fresnaye, Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Juan Gris, Alexander Archipenko.
Poets and writers participated. The group came to be known as the Section d'Or. Uninterested in the Cubists' seriousness, or in their focus on visual matters, Duchamp did not join in discussions of Cubist theory and gained a reputation of being shy. However, that same year he painted in a Cubist style and added an impression of motion by using repetitive imagery. During this period Duchamp's fascination with transition, change and distance became manifest, as many artists of the time, he was intrigued with the concept of depicting the fourth dimension in art, his painting Sad Young Man on a Train embodies this concern: First, there's the idea of the movement of the train, that of the sad young man, in a corridor and, moving about. There is the distortion of the young man—I had called this elementary parallelism, it was a formal decomposition. The object is stretched out, as if elastic; the lines follow each other in parallels, while changing subtly to form the movement, or the form of the young man in question
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti