Islamic studies refers to the study of Islam. Islamic studies can be seen under at least two perspectives: From a secular perspective, Islamic studies is a field of academic research whose subject is Islam as religion and civilization. From a traditional Islamic perspective, Islamic studies is an umbrella term for religious sciences pursued by the ulama. In a Muslim context, Islamic studies is the umbrella term for the Islamic sciences, it includes all the traditional forms of religious thought, such as kalam and fiqh, but incorporates fields considered secular in the West, such as Islamic science and Islamic economics. In a non-Muslim context, Islamic studies refers to the historical study of Islam: Islamic civilization, Islamic history and historiography, Islamic law, Islamic theology and Islamic philosophy. Academics from diverse disciplines participate and exchange ideas about Islamic societies and present, although Western, academic Islamic studies itself is in many respects a self-conscious and self-contained field.
Specialists in the discipline apply methods adapted from several ancillary fields, ranging from Biblical studies and classical philology to modern history, legal history and sociology. A recent trend since 9/11, has been the study of contemporary Islamist groups and movements by academics from the social sciences or in many cases by journalists, although since such works tend to be written by non-Arabists they belong outside the field of Islamic studies proper. Scholars in the field of academic Islamic studies are referred to as "Islamicists" and the discipline traditionally made up the bulk of what used to be called Oriental studies. In fact, some of the more traditional Western universities still confer degrees in Arabic and Islamic studies under the primary title of "Oriental studies"; this is the case, for example, at the University of Oxford, where Classical Arabic and Islamic studies have been taught since as early as the 16th century as a sub-division of Divinity. This latter context gave early academic Islamic studies its Biblical studies character and was a consequence of the fact that throughout early-Modern Western Europe the discipline was developed by churchmen whose primary aim had been to refute the tenets of Islam.
Despite their now secular, academic approach, many non-Muslim Islamic studies scholars have written works which are read by Muslims, while in recent decades an increasing number of Muslim-born scholars have trained and taught as academic Islamicists in Western universities. Many leading universities in Europe and the US offer academic degrees at both undergraduate and postgraduate level in Islamic studies, in which students can study Arabic and therefore begin to read Islamic texts in the original language; because Arabic and Islamic studies are seen as inseparable in academia, named undergraduate degrees that combine the two are still categorized as single-subject degrees rather than as'joint' or'combined' degrees like, for example, those in Arabic and Politics. This rationale explains why, because of their heavy emphasis on the detailed study of Islamic texts in Classical Arabic, some institutions – such as the School of Oriental and African Studies in London and Georgetown University in Washington DC – only accept graduates who have degree-level Arabic and a strong background in the academic study of Islam onto their Masters programmes in Islamic studies.
Such institutions will direct students new to the field and with little or no Arabic to broader master's degrees in Middle Eastern studies or Middle East politics, in which Arabic can be studied ab initio. A recent HEFCE report emphasises the increasing, strategic importance for Western governments since 9/11 of Islamic studies in higher education and provides an international overview of the state of the field. Islamic studies is argued by Muslims, to begin with, the founding of the Islamic religion by Abraham, continue throughout the history of Judaism with Islamic Prophets such as David and Solomon early Christianity with Jesus in particular, up to modern times with the final revelation of God as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad; the first attempt to understand Islam as a topic of modern scholarship was within the context of 19th-century Christian European Oriental studies. In the years 1821 to 1850, the Royal Asiatic Society in England, the Société Asiatique in France, the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft in Germany, the American Oriental Society in the United States were founded.
In the 2nd half of the 19th century and historical approaches were predominant. Leading in the field were German researchers like Theodore Nöldeke 's study on the history of the Quran, or Ignaz Goldziher 's work on the prophetic tradition. Western orientalists and Muslim scholars alike preferred to interpret the history of Islam in a conservative way, they did not question the traditional account of the early time of Islam, of Muhammad and how the Quran was written. In the 1970s, the Revisionist School of Islamic Studies questioned the uncritical adherence to traditional Islamic sources and started to develop a new picture of the earliest times of Islam by applying the historical-critical method. To understand the history of Islam provides the indispensable basis to understand all aspects of Islam and its culture. Themes of special interest are: Historiography of early Islam History of the Quran Historicity of Muhammad Early Muslim conquests Kalam is one of the "religious sciences" of Islam.
In Arabic, the word means "discussion" and refers to the Islamic tradition of seeking theological principles
William C. Chittick is a philosoper, writer and interpreter of classical Islamic philosophical and mystical texts, he is best known for his work on Rumi and Ibn'Arabi, has written extensively on the school of Ibn'Arabi, Islamic philosophy, Islamic cosmology. Born in Milford, Chittick finished his BA at the College of Wooster in Ohio, went on to complete a PhD in Persian literature at University of Tehran under the supervision of Seyyed Hossein Nasr in 1974, he taught comparative religion at Tehran's Aryamehr Technical University and left Iran before the revolution. Chittick is Distinguished Professor in the Department of Asian and Asian American Studies at Stony Brook University; the Sufi Doctrine of Rumi: An Introduction. A new edition, The Sufi Doctrine of Rumi, released in 2005; the Sufi Path of Love: The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi. It has been translated into Russian, Indonesian and Bosnian; the Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn al-'Arabi's Metaphysics of Imagination. It has been translated into Indonesian and into Persian.
Imaginal Worlds: Ibn al-'Arabi and the Problem of Religious Diversity. It has been translated into Turkish, Indonesian and Persian. With Sachiko Murata, The Vision of Islam, it has been translated into Persian, Indonesian, Albanian and Russian. Varolmanın Boyutları A collection of seventeen essays edited and translated by Turan Koç; the Self-Disclosure of God: Principles of Ibn al-'Arabi's Cosmology. Sufism: A Short Introduction, it has been translated into Indonesian, Persian, Albanian and Russian. The Heart of Islamic Philosophy:The Quest for Self-Knowledge in the Teachings of Afdal al-Din Kashani, it has been translated into Persian. Ibn'Arabi: Heir to the Prophets, it has been translated into German, Turkish and Arabic. The Sufi Doctrine of Rumi: Illustrated Edition, it has been translated into Albanian. Science of the Cosmos, Science of the Soul: The Pertinence of Islamic Cosmology in the Modern World, it has been translated into Persian, Indonesian and Albanian. With Sachiko Murata and Tu Weiming, The Sage Learning of Liu Zhi: Islamic Thought in Confucian Terms.
In Search of the Lost Heart: Explorations in Islamic Thought. An anthology of Chittick's writings edited by Mohammed Rustom, Atif Khalil, Kazuyo Murata, it has been translated into Persian. Divine Love: Islamic Literature and the Path to God, it has been translated into Persian. "Il sufismo operativo in Rumi", Conoscenza religiosa, Vol. 3, pp. 272–288 "A Shadhili Presence in Shi'ite Islam?", Sophia Perennis, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 97–100 "Ibn `Arabi's own Summary of the Fusûs:'The Imprint of the Bezels of Wisdom'", Sophia Perennis, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 88–128 ""Matâli`-i îmân" by Sadr al-Dîn Qûnawî, edition of the Persian text", Sophia Perennis, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 57–80 "The Last Will and Testament of Ibn ‘Arabi’s Foremost Disciple and Some Notes on its Author", Sophia Perennis, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 43–58 "The Perfect Man as the Prototype of the Self in the Sufism of Jāmī", Studia Islamica, No. 49, pp. 135–157 ""Lama'at, Selections Translated"", Vol. 7-8, pp. 23-46 "Commentary on a Hadith by Sadr al-Din Qunawi", Vol. 4, No.
1, pp. 23-30. Translated by Grazia Marchianò, "Un commento esoterico di Sadr Al-Din Qunawi." Conoscenza religiosa, 1983/1, pp. 10–17 "Sultan Burhan al-Din's Sufi Correspondence", Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Vol. 73, pp. 33–45 "Sadr al-Dīn Qūnawī on the Oneness of Being", International Philosophical Quarterly 21:171-184 "Mysticism versus Philosophy in Earlier Islamic History: The Al-Ṭūsī, Al-Qūnawī Correspondence", Religious Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 87–104 "Jami on Divine Love and the image of wine", Studies in Mystical Literature, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 193–209 "The Five Divine Presences: From al-Qunawi to al-Qaysari", Muslim World, 72, pp. 107–28. Turkish translation by Turan Koç, "Bes Ilahî Hazret: el-Konevî'den el-Kayserî'ye," Uluslararasi Davud el-Kayserî Sempozyumu. Ankara: Kayserî Büyüksehir Belediyese Kültür Müdürlügü, 1998, pp. 347–63 "Words of the All-Merciful", Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 18–25 "The chapter headings of the Fusus", Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn'Arabi Society, Vol. 2, 1984, pp. 41–94 "Beatific Vision and Poetic Imagery in Bahâ' Walad", Studies in Mystical Literature, Vol. 5, No.
2, pp. 21–32. 1, pp. 42–59. 1-2, pp. 3–12. Translated into Persian by Hasan Lâhûtî as "Imâm Husayn dar Nagâh-i M
State University of New York
The State University of New York is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States. It is the largest comprehensive system of universities and community colleges in the United States, with a total enrollment of 424,051 students, plus 2,195,082 adult education students, spanning 64 campuses across the state. Led by Chancellor Kristina M. Johnson, the SUNY system has 91,182 employees, including 32,496 faculty members, some 7,660 degree and certificate programs overall and a $10.7 billion budget. SUNY includes many institutions and four university Centers: Albany, Binghamton and Stony Brook. SUNY's administrative offices are in Albany, the state's capital, with satellite offices in Manhattan and Washington, D. C. SUNY's largest campus is the University at Buffalo, which has the greatest endowment and research funding; the State University of New York was established in 1948 by Governor Thomas E. Dewey, through legislative implementation of recommendations made by the Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University.
The Commission was chaired by Owen D. Young, at the time Chairman of General Electric; the system was expanded during the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state. Apart from units of the City University of New York, SUNY comprises all other institutions of higher education statewide that are state-supported; the first colleges were established with some arising from local seminaries. But New York state had a long history of supported higher education prior to the creation of the SUNY system; the oldest college, part of the SUNY System is SUNY Potsdam, established in 1816 as the St. Lawrence Academy. In 1835, the State Legislature acted to establish stronger programs for public school teacher preparation and designated one academy in each senatorial district to receive money for a special teacher-training department; the St. Lawrence Academy received this distinction and designated the village of Potsdam as the site of a Normal School in 1867.
On May 7, 1844, the State legislature voted to establish New York State Normal School in Albany as the first college for teacher education. In 1865, the endowed Cornell University was designated as New York's land grant college, it began direct financial support of four of Cornell's colleges in 1894. From 1889 to 1903, Cornell operated the New York State College of Forestry, until the Governor vetoed its annual appropriation; the school was moved to Syracuse University in 1911. It is now the State University of New York College of Environmental Forestry. In 1908, the State legislature began the NY State College of Agriculture at Alfred University. In 1946-48 a Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University, chaired by Owen D. Young, Chairman of the General Electric Company, studied New York's existing higher education institutions, it was known New York's private institutions of higher education were discriminatory and failed to provide for many New Yorkers. Noting this need, the commission recommended the creation of a public state university system.
In 1948 legislation was passed establishing SUNY on the foundation of the teacher-training schools established in the 19th century. Most of them had developed curricula similar to those found at four-year liberal arts schools long before the creation of SUNY, as evidenced by the fact they had become known as "Colleges for Teachers" rather than "Teachers' Colleges." On October 8, 1953, SUNY took a historic step of banning national fraternities and sororities that discriminated based on race or religion from its 33 campuses. Various fraternities challenged this rule in court; as a result, national organizations felt pressured to open their membership to students of all races and religions. The SUNY resolution, upheld in court states: Resolved that no social organization shall be permitted in any state-operated unit of the State University which has any direct or indirect affiliation or connection with any national or other organization outside the particular unit. Despite being one of the last states in the nation to establish a state university, the system was expanded during the chancellorship of Samuel B. Gould and the administration of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who took a personal interest in the design and construction of new SUNY facilities across the state.
Rockefeller championed the acquisition of the private University of Buffalo into the SUNY system, making the public State University of New York at Buffalo. SUNY is governed by a State University of New York Board of Trustees, which consists of eighteen members, fifteen of whom are appointed by the Governor, with consent of the New York State Senate; the sixteenth member is the President of the Student Assembly of the State University of New York. The last two members are the Presidents of the University Faculty Senate and Faculty Council of Community Colleges, both of whom are non-voting; the Board of Trustees appoints the Chancellor. The state of New York assists in financing the SUNY system, along with CUNY, provides lower-cost college-level
Shia Islam is one of the two main branches of Islam. It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident at Saqifah; this view contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr, who they claim was appointed Caliph through a Shura, i.e. community consensus in Saqifa, to be the first rightful Caliph after the Prophet. Unlike the first three Rashidun caliphs, Ali was from the same clan as Muhammad, Banu Hashim as well as being the prophet's cousin and being the first male to become Muslim. Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias of Ali, Shias or the Shi'a as a collective or Shi'i or Shi'ite individually. Shia Islam is the second largest branch of Islam: as of the late 2000s, Shia Muslims constituted 10-15% of all Muslims. Twelver Shia is the largest branch of Shia Islam, with 2012 estimates saying that 85% of Shias were Twelvers.
Shia Islam is based on the Quran and the message of Muhammad attested in hadith, on hadith taught by their Imams. Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, as the first Imam; the Shia extend this Imammah doctrine to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt, some individuals among his descendants, known as Imams, who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community and other divinely ordained traits. Although there are many Shia subsects, modern Shia Islam has been divided into three main groupings: Twelvers and Zaidis, with Twelver Shia being the largest and most influential group among Shia; the word Shia means followers and is the short form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī, meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali". Shi'a and Shiism are the forms used in English, while Shi'ite or Shiite, as well as Shia, refer to its adherents; the term for the first time was used at the time of Muhammad. At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and his successors.
Nawbakhti states that the term Shia refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad and after him regarded Ali as the Imam and Caliph. Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia refers to those who believe that Ali is designated as the Heir and caliph by Muhammad and Ali's authority never goes out of his descendants. For the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the history of Islam. Shia scholars emphasize that the notion of authority is linked to the family of the prophets as the verses 3:33,34 shows: "Indeed, God chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of'Imran over the worlds – Descendants, some of them from others, and God is Hearing and Knowing." Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad's successor, the first caliph of Islam; the Shias believe. Ali was Muhammad's first-cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.
Muhammad invited people to Islam in secret for three years. In the fourth year of Islam, when Muhammad was commanded to invite his closer relatives to come to Islam he gathered the Banu Hashim clan in a ceremony. At the banquet, he was about to invite them to Islam when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet; the Prophet ordered Ali to invite the 40 people again. The second time, Muhammad invited them to join, he said to them, I offer thanks to God for His mercies. I praise God, I seek His guidance. I believe in Him and I put my trust in Him. I bear witness. God has commanded me to invite you to His religion by saying:. I, warn you, call upon you to testify that there is no god but God, that I am His messenger. O ye sons of Abdul Muttalib, no one came to you before with anything better than what I have brought to you. By accepting it, your welfare will be assured in the Hereafter. Who among you will support me in carrying out this momentous duty? Who will share the burden of this work with me?
Who will respond to my call? Who will become my vicegerent, my deputy and my wazir? Ali was the only one to answer Muhammad's call. Muhammad told him to sit down, saying, "Wait! Someone older than you might respond to my call." Muhammad asked the members of Banu Hashim a second time. Once again, Ali was the only one to respond, again, Muhammad told him to wait. Muhammad asked the members of Banu Hashim a third time. Ali was still the only volunteer; this time, Ali's offer was accepted by Muhammad. Muhammad "drew close, pressed him to his heart, said to the assembly:'This is my wazir, my successor and my vicegerent. Listen to him and obey his commands.'" In another narration, when Muhammad accepted Ali's eager offer, Muhammad "threw up his arms around the generous youth, pressed him to his bosom" and said, "Behold my brother, my vizir, my vicegerent... Let all listen to his words, obey him." Sir Richard Burton writes about the banquet in his 1898 book, saying, "It won for a proselyte worth a thousand sabers in the pers
Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i
Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i or Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabataba'i was one of the most prominent thinkers of philosophy and contemporary Shia Islam. He is famous for Tafsir al-Mizan, a twenty-seven-volume work of Quranic exegesis, which he worked on from 1954 until 1972, he is known as Allameh Tabataba'i and the Allameh Tabataba'i University in Tehran is named after him. He received his earlier education in his native Tabriz city, mastering the elements of Arabic and the religious sciences, and at about the age of twenty set out for the great Shiite university of Najaf to continue more advanced studies. He studied at Najaf, under masters such as Mirza'Ali Qadhi, Mirza Muhammad Husain Na'ini, Sheykh Muhammad Hossein Qaravi Esfahani, Sayyid Abu'l-Qasim Khwansari, as well as studying the standard texts of Avicenna's Shifa, the Asfar of Sadr al-Din Shirazi, the Tamhid al-qawa'id of Ibn Turkah. Along with Sayyid Husayn Badkuba'i, he was a student of two of the most famous masters of the time, Sayyid Abu'l-Hasan Jilwah and Aqa'Ali Mudarris Zunuzi.
In his years he would hold study sessions with Henry Corbin and Seyyed Hossein Nasr, in which not only the classical texts of divine wisdom and gnosis were discussed, but a whole cycle of what Nasr calls comparative gnosis, in which in each session the sacred texts of one of the major religions, containing mystical and gnostic teachings, such as the Upanishads, Tao Te Ching, the Gospel of John, were discussed and compared with Sufism and Islamic gnostic doctrines in general. Tabataba'i, was a philosopher, a prolific writer, an inspiring teacher to his students who devoted much of his life to Islamic studies. Many of his students were among the ideological founders of the Islamic Republic of Iran, namely Murtaza Motahhari, Muhammad Beheshti, Martyr Mofatteh. Others like Hossein Nasr and Hasanzadeh Amuli remained and continued their studies in the intellectual non-political sphere, it was in Najaf where Tabataba'i developed his major contributions in the fields of Tafsir and history of the Shi'a faith.
In philosophy the most important of his works is Usul-i falsafeh va ravesh-e-realism, published in five volumes with explanatory notes and the commentary of Morteza Motahhari. If Ayatollah Haeri is considered the reviver of Qom's hawza in an organizational sense, Tabataba'i's contributions to the field of tafsir and mysticism represent the intellectual revitalization of the hawza with lasting implications for the curriculum, his other major philosophical work is a voluminous commentary of Asfār al-'arba'eh, the magnum opus of Mulla Sadra, the last of the great Persian Muslim thinkers of the medieval age. Apart from these he wrote extensively on philosophical topics, his humanist approach is underlined by his three books on: the nature of man - before the world, in this world, after this world. His philosophy is focused upon the sociological treatment of human problems, his two other works, Bidāyat al-hikmah and Nihāyat al-hikmah, are considered among works of high order in Islamic philosophy.
Several treatises on the doctrines and history of the Shi'a remain from him as well. One of these comprises his clarifications and expositions about Shi'a faith in reply to the questions posed by the famous French orientalist Henry Corbin. Another of his books on this topic Shi'ah dar Islam was translated into English by Seyyed Hossein Nasr under the title Shi'a Islam, with the help of William Chittick as a project of Colgate University; these books are claimed to serve as an excellent conduit by which popular misconceptions about the Shi'a faith may be removed further paving the way for a better ecumenical understanding amongst the various Muslim schools of thought. His written books number forty-four titles overall. Shi'a Islam The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism in five volumes, with the commentary of Murtada Mutahhari. Glosses al-kifayah. Glosses upon the new edition of the Asfar of Sadr al-Din Shirizi Mulla Sadra appearing under the direction of'Allameh Tabataba'i of which seven volumes have appeared.
Dialogues with Professor Corbin Two volumes based on conversations carried out between'Allameh Tabataba'i and Henry Corbin of which the first volume was printed as the yearbook of Maktab-i tashayyu’, 1339 Risalah dar hukumat-i islami. Hashiyah-i kifayah. Risalah dar quwwah wafi'. Risalah dar ithbat-i dha~t. Risalah dar sifat. Risalah dar ata. Risalah dar wasa'il. Risalah dar insan qabl al-dunya Risalah dar insan fi al-dunya. Risalah dar insan ba'd al-dunya. Risalah dar nubuwwat. Risalah dar wilayat. Risalah dar mushtaqqat. Risalah dar burhan. Risalah dar mughalatah. Risalah dar tahlil. Risalah dar tarkib. Risalah dar i’tibarat. Risalah dar nubuwwat wa manamat Manza’mah dar rasm-i- khatt-i-nasta’liq (Poem on the Metho
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental