Attawapiskat First Nation
The Attawapiskat First Nation is an isolated First Nation located in Kenora District in northern Ontario, Canada, at the mouth of the Attawapiskat River on James Bay. The traditional territory of the Attawapiskat First Nation extends beyond their reserve up the coast to Hudson Bay and hundreds of kilometres inland along river tributaries; the community is connected to other towns along the shore of James Bay by the seasonal ice road/winter road constructed each December, linking it to the towns of Kashechewan First Nation, Fort Albany, Moosonee Attawapiskat, Fort Albany, Kashechewan operate and manage the James Bay Winter Road through a jointly owned corporation named after the Cree word for "our road" kimesskanemenow, the Kimesskanemenow Corporation. Attawapiskat is the most remote northerly link on the 310-kilometre-long road to Moosonee, they control the reserves at Attawapiskat 91 and Attawapiskat 91A. Attawapiskat means "people of the parting of the rocks" from the Swampy Cree language chat-a-wa-pis-shkag.
The Attawapiskat River carved out several clusters of spectacular high limestone islands less than 100 kilometres from its mouth that are unique to the region. These formations are called chat-a-wa-pis-shkag in Swampy Cree. "ncestors of today's Attawapiskat band occupied all the territory from the Kapiskau River in the south, to Hudson Bay in the north, from Akimiski Island in the east to Lake Mississa to the west. This has been contended by the present day chief and council, is supported by documentation in the archives of the HBC, was documented by Honigmann."A land use study was carried out "jointly by the Research Program for Technology Assessment in Subarctic Ontario, the Mushkegowuk Council, its constituent First Nations, the Omushkegowuk Harvesters Association. The overall purpose of the project was to help the regional Council and its associations develop a strategy for natural resource co-management, self-government, sustainable regional development." In 1990 Dr. Fikret Berkes, Distinguished Professor and Canada Research Chair at the University of Manitoba, a team of academics interviewed 925 aboriginal hunters from eight communities of the Mushkegowuk region and James Bay Lowland.
Their results published in 1995, showed "that geographically extensive land use for hunting and fishing persists in the Mushkegowuk region, some 250,000 km2. However, the activity pattern of Omushkego Cree harvesters has changed much over the decades. Although the First Nations control only 900 km2 as Indian reserve land, they continue to use large parts of their traditional territory."In her Masters thesis Jacqueline Hookimaw-Witt, a Muskego-Cree, interviewed elders from Attawapiskat who described in great detail ways in which they continued to harvest and hunt for food, clothing and subsistence to complement store-bought items. Hookimaw-Witt was the first Muskego-Cree to earn a doctorate. Attawapiskat is a coastal community in the western Hudson Bay Lowland, a vast wetland located between the Canadian Shield and James Bay and Hudson Bay; the town or hamlet of Attawapiskat now covers 1.32 km2 of land and is located along the Attawapiskat River, 5 km inland from the James Bay coastline. It is in the James Bay drainage basin.
It is in the Kenora District, in the extreme north of Ontario. Timmins, the nearest urban center, is located 500 km south. Moosonee is 160 km south of Attawapiskat, it is located 52°55′ north and 82°26′ west. The vegetation is subarctic with a coniferous forest in the muskeg. Wildlife includes geese, caribou, beaver, wolves, marten, muskrat and other species. Winter roads constructed each December link Attawapiskat First Nation with Fort Albany First Nation, Kashechewan and Moose Factory to the south; the fertile soil is underlain by silt. It is normal for the river to rise 2 metres; the community has experienced complete flooding. The Attawapiskat kimberlite field is a field of kimberlite pipes in the Canadian Shield located astride the Attawapiskat River on Attawapiskat First Nation land, it is thought to have formed about 180 million years ago in the Jurassic period when the North American Plate moved westward over a centre of upwelling magma called the New England hotspot referred to as the Great Meteor hotspot.
The area is composed of 18 kimberlite pipes of the Attawapiskat kimberlite field, 16 of which are diamondiferous. The Victor Kimberlite is a composition of pyroclastic crater facies and hypabyssal facies, is considered to have a variable diamond grade. Since June 26, 2008, the De Beers open pit Victor Diamond Mine has been in operation mining two pipes in the field at 52°49′14″N 83°53′00″W, about 90 kilometres west of the community of Attawapiskat; the mine expected to produce 600,000 carats of diamonds a year. There are over 2,800 members of Attawapiskat First Natio
Bearskin Lake First Nation
Bearskin Lake First Nation is an Oji-Cree First Nation reserve in Kenora District, Canada, located 425 kilometres north of Sioux Lookout. Bearskin First Nation's total registered population as of March 2014 was 900, of which their on-reserve population was 461. Three settlements make up the Bearskin Lake First Nation. Located on Bearskin Lake 50 kilometres to the southwest, their main community moved to its present site on Michikan Lake in the 1930s and is accessible only by air from Bearskin Lake Airport or winter road; the main village is situated on the west shore of the lake and all three settlements are linked to one another by all weather gravel roads. The First Nation still retains the 12,626.3-hectare Bearskin Lake Indian Reserve in which all three lie. The reserve contains a segment of the Severn River, into which Michikan Lake flows, of Severn Lake. Prior to achieving full Band and reserve status in 1975, Bearskin was a satellite community of the Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug First Nation, 72 kilometres to the east.
Today, Bearskin Lake First Nation is a member of the Windigo First Nations Council, a regional tribal council, a member of the Nishnawbe Aski Nation. Bearskin Lake is policed by an Aboriginal-based service. Bearskin First Nation is governed by Chief Rosemary McKay and her Deputy Chief Leonard "Wayne" Brown. In addition, the First Nation's Council is four councillors: Stuart Kamenawatamin, Gary Kamenawatamin, George Kamenawatamin, Roderick Kamenawatamin. Chiefs of Ontario profile AANDC profile
Long Lake 58 First Nation
Long Lake 58 First Nation is a Anishinaabe First Nation band government located in Northern Ontario, located 40 km east of Geraldton, Canada, on the northern shore of Long Lake north of Ginoogaming First Nation and west of the community of Longlac, Ontario. As of January, 2008, their total registered population was 1,248 people, of which their on-Reserve population was 427. In late August 1990, members of Long Lake 58 First Nation blocked the Canadian National Railway tracks passing through the 537-acre Long Lake 58 Indian reserve; the blockade was mounted both to support the Indian stand during the Oka crisis and to draw attention to the fact that the community's traditional lands have never been the object of treaty negotiations with the Crown. The First Nation maintains the key requirements of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 have never been met by the governments of Ontario and Canada making the CNR Crown Corporation one of a number of trespassers on the community's unceded hunting ground.
Because of the Crown's failure to deal with the community in the making of both the Robinson Superior Treaty in 1850 and in Treaty 9 in 1905, the citizens of Long Lake 58 were never able to negotiate a fair apportionment of land for their reserve. The Canadian government maintains that the First Nation ceded their lands to the Crown at the 1850 Robinson Superior Treaty. In the course of the blockade Long Lake 58 leaders demanded that officials of the Crown, including those overseeing the CNR, must show evidence to prove the legal basis for non-Aboriginal claims to the territory in question; the leadership asserted the unfairness of the principle that the onus of proof always lies with the Indigenous peoples to demonstrate the basis of their land claims. In the course of the dispute the leadership pointed to the contradiction between the government's position that Long Lake 58 lands have been ceded in the 1850 treaty covering the northern watershed of Lake Superior whereas the community itself is situated in lands drained by rivers flowing northward into Hudson Bay.
Regardless of land ownership clearcutting, the spraying of vast tree farms with toxic pesticides and herbicides, overfishing have left the community's traditional lands polluted and incapable of supporting hunting and other forms of traditional practice. Moreover, the community's town site had been relegated to a swampy lowland because the CNR tracks and the train yard on the reserve command the high ground of the Indian Reserve. Throughout this episode the blockade's elder statesman, Rayno Fisher, encouraged those in the protest camp to heed his interpretation; this experienced trapper extorted. "We're not trespassing the CNR, the CNR has been trespassing us for 75 years." Elder Frances Abraham provided inspirational leadership throughout ten-day blockade. When Indian OPP officials arrived on the reserve to read out in the Anishinaabe language an injunction obtained by the CNR, Abraham emplored, "Why do we always have to show the proof that our land has been taken but those who stole our land never have to prove anything."
No charges pressed by the Crown against the protesters suggests the veracity of Mr. Fisher's characterization. Long Lake 58's blockade of the CNR main line was backed up by simultaneous blockades of the Canadian Pacific Railway's main line led by members of Ojibways of the Pic River First Nation, Pic Mobert First Nation, Pays Plat First Nation further to the south. Of all the actions during the Indian summer of 1990 the train blockades initiated by Long Lake 58 in northern Ontario impacted most on transnational flows of commerce; the leadership of the First Nation is determined through the Act Electoral System. The current Chief is Veronica Waboose, serving along with the Deputy Chief and Councillor: Anthony Legarde and 9 other Councillors: Judy Desmoulin, Patrick Kakegabon, Marlow Wesley, Frank Sr. O'Nabigon, John Sr. O'Nabigon, Arthur Shebagabow, Noreen Agnew, Shirley Tyance and Mary Waboose; the First Nation is a member of a Regional Chiefs Council. Government services are provided by the First Nation, the Matawa First Nations and by the Nishnawbe Aski Nation.
Services include: Migizi Miigwanan Secondary School - Principal - Tom Rivers Long Lake Adult Education - Coordinator - Marlene Mitchell Migizi Wazisin Elementary School - Principal - Valerie Pheasant Early Learning Center - Manager - Marlene Mitchell Long Lake #58 General Store - Manager - Lloyd McLaughlin Subway Long Lake 58 First Nation Health Center Addictions and Harm Reductions Program Healthy Babies Program Victim Services Program AANDC profile FirstNation.ca profile
Wunnumin Lake First Nation
Wunnumin Lake First Nation is an Oji-Cree First Nation band government who inhabit 360 km northeast of Sioux Lookout in Ontario, Canada. Its registered population in January 2007 was 565. Wunnumin Lake First Nation can be accessed through air transportation, it consists of two reserves, their main reserve Wunnumin 1 and the nearby Wunnumin 2. Wunnumin Lake is policed by an Aboriginal-based service. Wunnumin Lake is called Wanaman-zaaga'igan meaning "Vermillion Lake", in reference to the vermillion-coloured clay about the lake. Legend says that Wiisagejaak used to hunt for food, found "Big Beaver" that lived on the Pipestone River and chased "Big Beaver" and its baby beaver to this area; when Wiisagejaak caught up with "Big Beaver" and its baby beaver, he killed the baby beaver and put it aside in this particular area with foliage. The blood from the baby beaver's wound seeped into the ground. Residents of Wunnumin Lake originated from Ontario. After a large forest fire, the community at Big Beaver House relocated to two separate location, of which one was Wunnumin Lake.
During 1929–1930 the leaders of Wunnumin Lake First Nation were summoned to Big Trout Lake to participate in the signing of the adhesion to Treaty 9. Its current government obtained their Reserve status on March 2, 1976; the current Chief is Rod Winnepetonga, the Deputy Chief is Luke Mckay. Gordon McKoop, Simon Winnepetonga and Zeb Sturgeon Zack Mamakwaserve as Band Councillor. Wunnumin Lake First Nation is affiliated with Shibogama First Nations Council. Wunnumin Lake First Nation have two reserves: a 5,855.1 hectares Wunnumin 1 Reserve and a 3,794.4 hectares Wunnumin 2 Reserve. The departments and programs offered by Wunnumin Lake First Nation are: Administration Crisis Prevention Economic Development Education Authority Health Authority Lands & Resources Public Works Social Workers Welfare Official website First Nation Connectivity Profile for Sandy Lake First Nation. AANDC profile
Matawa First Nations
Matawa First Nations as the Matawa First Nations Management, Inc. is a non-profit Regional Chiefs' Council representing Ojibway and Cree First Nations in Northern Ontario, Canada. The Council provides advisory services and program delivery to its ten member-Nations. According to their own website, the Matawa First Nations state their mission is "... to supporting each other and focusing our collective efforts on core strategic priorities. By working together as a regional community, we will use our combined knowledge and resources in order to champion the social and economic vitality of our First Nations and invest in community and people building." The Council is made up of a representing Chief from each of the ten member communities. The Chiefs provide political direction to the organization in its strategic planning, government relations and policy development. To assist in these activities, the Council maintains a political and advocacy staff to support its efforts in helping their communities to prosper.
In turn, the Council is a member of Nishnawbe Aski Nation, a Tribal Political Organization representing majority of Treaty 5 and Treaty 9 First Nations in northern Ontario. Advisory Services Communications Economic Development Education Financial Advisory Services Membership Services Technical Services Administration & Finance Health & Social Services Employment & Training MFNM Business Aroland First Nation Constance Lake First Nation Eabametoong First Nation Ginoogaming First Nation Hornepayne First Nation Long Lake 58 First Nation Marten Falls First Nation Neskantaga First Nation Nibinamik First Nation Webequie First Nation Matawa First Nations 233 South Court Street Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 2X9 website INAC profile
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Wahgoshig First Nation
Wahgoshig First Nation known as Abitibi-Ontario Band of Abitibi Indians or as Abitibi, is an Anishinaabe and Cree First Nation band governments whose reserve communities are located near Matheson in Cochrane District in northeastern Ontario, Canada. They have reserved for themselves the 7,770.1 hectares Abitibi Indian Reserve No. 70 on the south end of Lake Abitibi. In January 2008, the First Nation had 270 people registered with the nation, of which their on-reserve population was 121; the first recorded reference to the native people about Lake Abitibi was in The Jesuit Relations in 1640. They were a nomadic group of hunter-gatherers, whose traditional territory straddled a large segment of what is now northeastern Ontario and northwestern Quebec, their hunting and trapping grounds extended and still extend east and northeast of Long Sault to Pierre and Montreuil Lakes in Ontario, on a parallel line into Quebec and as far east as Amos. The southernmost limit of the territory was a little south of Kirkland Lake in Ontario and Rouyn In Quebec.
Cochrane, Ontario is the western boundary. The Abitibi Indian Reserve No. 70 was created when the James Bay Treaty was signed at the Hudson's Bay Company post on Lake Abitibi in Quebec on June 7, 1906. It encompasses 30 square miles. However, the treaty commissioners revealed that they were only authorized to negotiate with the Anishinaabe whose hunting grounds were in Ontario; the Abitibi Indians who were part of the same group, but whose hunting territory lay within Quebec, were told that negotiations for a reserve for them would occur but the Quebec government stalled that process for a considerable time after a treaty was signed with the Ontario band. Two years after the signing of the James Bay Treaty the Canadian federal government still had not been able to get Quebec to set aside a reserve for the Quebec Indians, it arranged with the Quebec government to bring them under Treaty 9, which meant that they would receive annuities and would share in the revenues allocated to Abitibi 70, income from this reserve was, still is, divided on a per capita basis.
This is the origin of much of the economic disparity that Wahgoshig First Nation contends with today. This has proved to be a disincentive towards developing the on-reserve natural resources; until 1972, the Department of Indian Affairs in Quebec administered the affairs of both the Abitibi-Dominion Band of Abitibi Indians and the Abitibi-Ontario Band of Abitibi Indians. From 1972 onward, Indian Affairs in Sudbury, took over the affairs of the Abitibi-Ontario band. In 1979, the Abitibi-Dominion Band changed its name to Abitibiwinni First Nation, the Abitibi-Ontario Band became Wahgoshig First Nation; the Wahgoshig First Nation have a Custom Electoral system of government. Elected officials have 4-year term; the current elected officials consists of Chief Joel "Bear" Babin and six Councillors: Dave Morris, Chris Sackaney, Dannah Ellison, Shawna Malette, Joseph Matthews and Paul McKenzie. The Chief's term began in April 2016 and the Council's term began in June 2016; as a signatory to Treaty 9, the First Nation is a member of the Wabun Tribal Council, a Regional Chief's Council, a member of the Nishnawbe Aski Nation, a Tribal Political Organization representing majority of First Nations in Northern Ontario.
However, the Wahgoshig First Nation is a political member of the Algonquin Anishinabeg Nation Tribal Council since November 2000, together with other nations which Wahgoshig First Nation maintained strong historical ties. There is an on-reserve village. West of the village, the land becomes undulating and it contains many wet swampy areas - ideal moose habitat. Moose, bears and other game are quite abundant in the area; the reserve is served by Highway 101, which provides access to the 5.8 km long reserve road 50 km east of Matheson, within a few miles of the western Quebec border. The north end of the reserve meets the south shore of Lake Abitibi, which separates the two provinces. N/A = Data Not Available. For the Abitibi village of about 25 ha, the First Nation provides the following services: band office health clinic warehouse / fire hall public works garage community hallWahgoshig is policed by the Nishnawbe-Aski Police Service, an Aboriginal-based service. Wahgoshig First Nation Website AANDC profile Information from Township of Black River-Matheson Algonquin Anishinabeg Nation Tribal Council profile Abitibi 70 Population Data