A lapel pin is a small pin worn on clothing, often worn on the lapel of a jacket. Lapel pins can be ornamental or can indicate wearers affiliation with an organization or cause, before the popularity of wearing lapel pins, boutonnières were worn. Lapel pins are used as symbols of achievement and belonging in different organizations. Lapel pins from the organization are often collected by members and non-members alike, businesses use lapel pins to designate achievement and membership. Lapel pins are an element of employee recognition programs. Like fraternity and sorority pins, these lapel pins instill a sense of belonging to a group of performers at the organization. Businesses award lapel pins to employees more frequently to boost employee morale, the Soviet Union had great production of these. Besides pins showing political figures and as souvenirs for tourist spots, there were pins for various sports, the pins had countercultural meanings as well, for example, the pin featuring the robot spacecraft Kosmos 186 had a sexual connotation.
In recent years, pin collecting and trading has become a popular hobby. Disney pin trading is an example of this. In the 1970s, initiates of Guru Maharaj Ji extensively used buttons, sometimes quite large, senior politicians in the UKs government, wore official Games pins for the London 2012 Summer Olympics. Pin design starts off very similar to animation, everything is literally hand drawn with a blue line. It is done digitally or on paper with a light-box to plan out all of the elements. Once the design is approved, it is inked and placed on a mechanical sheet, step 1, Stamping Molding Molds the metal surface to form the design. Step 2, Outline Cutting Cutting molds are made separately, cut to the outline of the design. Additional outline cutting molds may be required depending on the complexity of the design, * If a center hole or cut-out is required, an additional cut-through mold must be used. Step 3, Attachment Solder attachment onto the back of each piece, step 4, Plating Plating now can be processed.
The quality of plating varies with the length of time the metal is soaked in the plating liquid, step 5, Polishing The metal surface is polished until it is smooth and shiny
Japanese sword mountings
Japanese sword mountings are the various housings and associated fittings that hold the blade of a Japanese sword when it is being worn or stored. Fuchi, The fuchi is a hilt collar between the tsuka and the tsuba. Habaki, The habaki is a shaped metal collar used to keep the sword from falling out of the saya and to support the fittings below. Kaeshizuno - a hook shaped fitting used to lock the saya to the obi while drawing, The kashira is a butt cap on the end of the tsuka. Kōgai, The kōgai is a spike for hair arranging carried sometimes as part of Katana-Koshirae in another pocket, The koiguchi is the mouth of the saya or its fitting, traditionally made of buffalo horn. Kojiri, The kojiri is the end of the saya or the protective fitting at the end of the saya, The kozuka is a decorative handle fitting for the kogatana, a small utility knife fit into a pocket on the saya. Kuri-kata, The kuri-kata is a knob on the side of the saya for attaching the sageo, The mekugi is a small peg for securing the tsuka to the nakago.
Menuki, The menuki are ornaments on the tsuka, to fit into the palm for grip, mekugi-ana, The mekugi-ana are the holes in the tsuka and nakago for the mekugi. Sageo, The sageo is the used to tie saya to the belt/obi when worn. Same-hada - literally the pattern of the ray skin, same-kawa, same-kawa is the ray or shark skin wrapping of the tsuka. Saya, The saya is a wooden scabbard for the blade, The seppa are washers above and below the tsuba to tighten the fittings. Shitodome - an accent on the kurikata for aesthetic purposes, often done in metal in modern reproductions. Tsuba, The tsuba is a hand guard, The tsuka is the hilt or handle, made of wood and wrapped in samegawa. Tsuka-maki - the art of wrapping the tsuka, including the most common hineri maki, Tsuka-ito, Tsuka-ito the wrap of the tsuka, traditionally silk but today most often in cotton and sometimes leather. Wari-bashi - metal chop-sticks fit in a pocket on the saya and they were externally featureless save for the needed mekugi-ana to secure the nakago, though sometimes sayagaki was present.
The need for specialized storage is because prolonged koshirae mounting harmed the blade, owing to such as the lacquered wood retaining moisture. Such mountings are not intended for combat, as the lack of a tsuba and proper handle wrappings were deleterious. However, there have been loosely similar hidden mountings, such as the shikomizue, the word koshirae is derived from the verb koshiraeru, which is no longer used in current speech
A bindi is a red dot worn on the centre of the forehead, commonly by Hindu and Jain women. The word Bindu dates back to the hymn of creation known as Nasadiya Sukta in the Rigveda, Bindu is considered the point at which creation begins and may become unity. It is described as the symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state. Bindi is a dot of red colour applied in the centre of the forehead close to the eyebrow worn in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia among Bali. Bindi in Hinduism and Jainism is associated with Ajna Chakra, Bindu is the point or dot around which the mandala is created, representing the universe. Bindi has historical and cultural presence in the region of Greater India, the area between the eyebrows is said to be the sixth chakra, the seat of concealed wisdom. The bindi is said to retain energy and strengthen concentration, the bindi represents the third eye. The Nasadiya Sukta of the Rig Veda, the earliest known Sanskrit text, the Ajna is symbolised by a sacred lotus with two petals, and corresponds to the colours violet, indigo or deep blue, though it is traditionally described as white.
It is at point that the two side nadi Ida and Pingala are said to terminate and merge with the central channel Sushumna, signifying the end of duality. The seed syllable for this chakra is the syllable OM, and the deity is Ardhanarishvara. The Shakti goddess of Ajna is called Hakini, in metaphysics, Bindu is considered the dot or point at which creation begins and may become unity. It is described as the symbol of the cosmos in its unmanifested state. Bindu is the point around which the mandala is created, representing the universe, Ajna, is known as the third eye chakra and is linked to the pineal gland which may inform a model of its envisioning. Ajnas key issues involve balancing the higher and lower selves and trusting inner guidance, ajnas inner aspect relates to the access of intuition. Mentally, Ajna deals with visual consciousness, Ajna deals with clarity on an intuitive level. In Hinduism and Jainism bindi is associated with Ajna Chakra, the very spot between the eyebrows known as Bhrumadhya is where one focuses his/her sight, so that it helps concentration.
In South Asia, bindi is worn by women of all religious dispositions and is not restricted to religion or region, the Islamic Research Foundation, located in India, says wearing a bindi or mangalsutra is a sign of Hindu women. The traditional bindi still represents and preserves the symbolic significance that is integrated into Indian mythology in many parts of India, the red bindi has multiple meanings which are all simultaneously valid— One simple interpretation it is a cosmetic mark used to enhance beauty
A brooch /ˈbroʊtʃ/ is a decorative jewelry item designed to be attached to garments, often to hold them closed. It is usually made of metal, often silver or gold, brooches are frequently decorated with enamel or with gemstones and may be solely for ornament or sometimes serve a practical function as a fastening, perhaps for a cloak. The earliest known brooches are from the Bronze Age, as fashions in brooches changed rather quickly, they are important chronological indicators. Many sorts of European brooches found in archaeology are usually referred to by the Latin term fibula, the fibula is an ornamental clasp used by Romans, Germanic peoples and by Celts and migratory tribes in Europe from the Early Bronze Age. They may have replaced fibulae made of more perishable Neolithic materials, fibulae are useful type-objects, carefully catalogued local typologies and distribution of fibulae can help date finds where neither numismatic nor ceramic materials provide a secure date. Fibulae were shaped somewhat like a safety pin and were used to hold clothing together.
They came in varieties and held prominent significance for the identity of the wearer, indicating ethnicity. Elaborately designed fibulae were an important part of Late Antique dress, the same types of fibulae can often be found on either side of the Roman limites, both among Roman and barbarian populations. The cultural interplay of elite objects designed to show status can be quite complex and it is likely that this type originated among Celtic groups and came to be adopted as an exotic fashion by Roman aristocrats, becoming naturalized as an important Roman emblem, and exported. From the eighteenth century through the Victorian era it was fashionable to incorporate hair, the practice began as an expression of mourning, expanded to keepsakes of loved ones who were living. Human hair was encased within the brooch or braided and woven into a band to which clasps were affixed and it was not uncommon for miniature brooch portraits to incorporate ground human hair as pigment. Two sided swivel brooches would display a portrait on one side and a lock of hair on the other, hellenic Ministry of Culture, Katie Demakopoulou, Bronze Age Jewellry in Greece Brooch.
Metropolitan jewelry, a catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries
A ring is a round band, usually of metal, worn as an ornamental piece of jewellery around the finger, or sometimes the toe, it is the most common current meaning of the word ring. Rings are most often made of metal but can be of almost any material, plastic, wood, bone and they may be set with a stone or stones, often a gemstone such as diamond, sapphire or emerald. Although tracing the history is difficult, the custom of giving and receiving finger rings dates back over approximately 6,000 years. The Hittite civilization produced rings, including rings, only a few of which have been discovered. People in Old Kingdom Egypt wore a variety of rings, of which a few examples have been found. Rings became more common during the Egyptian middle kingdom, with complex designs. Egyptians made metal rings but made rings from faience some of which were used as new year gifts, native styles were superseded by Greek and Roman fashions during the Ptolemaic dynasty. Archaic Greek rings were to some extent influenced by Egyptian rings, although they tended to be less substantial, a lack of locally available gold meant that rings made in the eastern colonies tended to be made from silver and bronze while Etruria used gold.
The classical period showed a shift away from bronze to wider adoption of silver, the most typical design of the period involved a lozenge bezel mounting an intaglio device. Over time the bezel moved towards a circular form. During the early and middle imperial era the closest there is to a typical Roman ring consisted of a hoop that tapered directly into a slightly wider bezel. An engraved oval gem would be embedded within the bezel with the top of the gem only rising slightly above the ring material. Such rings are referred to Henig II and III/Guiraud 2 in formal academic parlance or simply as Roman rings by modern jewellers, in general Roman rings became more elaborate in the third and fourth centuries AD. The fourth digit or ring finger of the hand has become the customary place to wear a wedding ring in much of the world. This custom was established as the norm during World War II. The use of the finger of the left hand is associated with an old belief that the left hands ring finger is connected by a vein directly to the heart.
This idea was known in 16th and 17th century England, when Henry Swinburne referred to it in his book about marriage. It can be traced back to ancient Rome, when Aulus Gellius cited Appianus as saying the ancient Egyptians had found a fine nerve linking that particular finger to the heart, occasionally rings have been re-purposed to hang from bracelets or necklaces
Jewellery or jewelry consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, necklaces and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, for many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact – with 100, the most widespread influence on jewellery in terms of design and style have come from Asia. Jewellery may be made from a range of materials. Gemstones and similar such as amber and coral, precious metals and shells have been widely used. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a symbol, for its material properties, its patterns. Jewellery has been made to nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings. The word jewellery itself is derived from the jewel, which was anglicised from the Old French jouel. In British English, Indian English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Australian English, both are used in Canadian English, though jewelry prevails by a two to one margin.
Numerous cultures store wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or make jewellery as a means to store or display coins, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good, an example being the use of slave beads. Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles, originated as functional items. Jewellery can symbolise group membership or status, wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures. These may take the form of symbols, plants, body parts, in creating jewellery, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, palladium, most contemporary gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity, many whimsical fashions were introduced in the extravagant eighteenth century.
Cameos that were used in connection with jewellery were the attractive trinkets along with many of the objects such as brooches, ear-rings. Some of the necklets were made of pieces joined with the gold chains were in and bracelets were made sometimes to match the necklet
In art, the crown may be shown being offered to those on Earth by angels. In religious art, a crown of stars is used similarly to a halo, crowns worn by rulers often contain jewels. A crown is often an emblem of the monarchy, a monarchs government, the word itself is used, particularly in Commonwealth countries, as an abstract name for the monarchy itself, as distinct from the individual who inhabits it. A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules, costume headgear imitating a monarchs crown is called a crown. Such costume crowns may be worn by actors portraying a monarch, people at parties, or ritual monarchs such as the king of a Carnival krewe. The nuptial crown, sometimes called a coronal, worn by a bride, in the present day, it is most common in Eastern Orthodox cultures. The Eastern Orthodox marriage service has a section called the crowning, wherein the bride and groom are crowned as king, in Greek weddings, the crowns are diadems usually made of white flowers, synthetic or real, often adorned with silver or mother of pearl.
They are placed on the heads of the newlyweds and are held together by a ribbon of white silk and they are kept by the couple as a reminder of their special day. In Slavic weddings, the crowns are made of ornate metal, designed to resemble an imperial crown. A parish usually owns one set to use for all the couples that are married there since these are more expensive than Greek-style crowns. This was common in Catholic countries in the past, a Crown of thorns according to the Bible, was placed on the head of Jesus before his crucifixion and has become a common symbol of martyrdom. According to Roman Catholic tradition, the Blessed Virgin Mary was crowned as Queen of Heaven after her assumption into heaven and she is often depicted wearing a crown, and statues of her in churches and shrines are ceremonially crowned during May. The Crown of Immortality is common in historical symbolism, dancers of certain traditional Thai dances often wear crowns on their head. These are inspired in the worn by deities and by kings.
Three distinct categories of crowns exist in those monarchies that use crowns or state regalia, worn by monarchs when being crowned. State, worn by monarchs on other state occasions, consort crowns, worn by queens consort, signifying rank granted as a constitutional courtesy protocol. In Classical antiquity, the crown that was awarded to people other than rulers, such as triumphal military generals or athletes, was actually a wreath or chaplet. Numerous crowns of various forms were used in antiquity, such as the Hedjet, the Pschent double crown and it was referred to as the chaplet studded with sunbeams” by Lucian, about 180 AD
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals. Goldsmiths must be skilled in forming metal through filing, sawing, casting, the trade has very often included jewellery-making skills, as well as the very similar skills of the silversmith. Many universities and junior colleges offer goldsmithing, compared to other metals, gold is malleable, rare, and it is the only solid metallic element with a yellow color. It may easily be melted and cast without the problems of oxides and gas that are problematic with other such as bronzes. It is fairly easy to weld, wherein similarly to clay two small pieces may be pounded together to make one larger piece. Gold is classified as a noble metal—because it does not react with most elements and it usually is found in its native form, lasting indefinitely without oxidization and tarnishing. Gold has been worked by humans in all cultures where the metal is available, either indigenously or imported, and the history of these activities is extensive.
Superbly made objects from the ancient cultures of Africa, Europe, North America, some pieces date back thousands of years and were made using many techniques that still are used by modern goldsmiths. Techniques developed by some of those goldsmiths achieved a level that was lost and remained beyond the skills of those who followed. In medieval Europe goldsmiths were organized into guilds and usually were one of the most important, the guild kept records of members and the marks they used on their products. These records, when they survive, are useful to historians. Goldsmiths often acted as bankers, since they dealt in gold and had sufficient security for the storage of valuable items. The Sunar caste is one of the oldest communities in goldsmithing in India, in India, Vishwakarma are the goldsmith caste. The printmaking technique of engraving developed among goldsmiths in Germany around 1430, the notable engravers of the fifteenth century were either goldsmiths, such as Master E. S. or the sons of goldsmiths, such as Martin Schongauer and Albrecht Dürer. A goldsmith might have an array of skills and knowledge at their disposal.
Gold, being the most malleable metal of all, offers opportunities for the worker. In todays world a variety of other metals, especially platinum alloys. 24 Carat is pure gold and historically, was known as fine gold, because it is so soft, however,24 Carat gold is rarely used
A clockmaker is an artisan who makes and/or repairs clocks. Since almost all clocks are now factory-made, most modern clockmakers only repair clocks, modern clockmakers may be employed by jewellers, antique shops, and places devoted strictly to repairing clocks and watches. The trade requires fine motor coordination as clockmakers must frequently work on devices with small gears, clockmakers were master craftsmen who designed and built clocks by hand. A qualified clockmaker can typically design and make a piece for a clock without access to the original component. Clockmakers generally do not work on watches, the skills and tools required are different enough that watchmaking is a field, handled by another specialist. The earliest use of the term clokkemaker is said to date from 1390, from the beginning in the 15th century through the 17th century, clockmaking was considered the leading edge, most technically advanced trade existing. Historically, the best clockmakers often built instruments, as for a long time they were the only craftsmen around trained in designing precision mechanical apparatus.
In one example, the harmonica was invented by a young German clockmaker, prior to 1800 clocks were entirely handmade, including all their parts, in a single shop under a master clockmaker. Examples of these complex movements can be seen in the many longcase clocks constructed in the 16th and 17th centuries. By the 19th century, clock parts were beginning to be made in factories, but the skilled work of designing, assembling. By the 20th century, interchangeable parts and standardized designs allowed the clock to be assembled in factories. As the art of making clocks became widespread and distinguished. There are many guilds where clockmakers meet to buy and get clocks to repair from customers, early clockmakers fashioned all the intricate parts and wheelwork of clocks by hand, using hand tools. They developed specialized tools to help them, balance Truing Caliper, This device was used in fashioning the wheels and gearwork of the clock, to make sure the wheel, particularly the balance wheel was balanced and circular.
The pivots of the wheel were mounted in the caliper, an index arm was moved next to the edge and the wheel was spun to see if the edge was true. Die/Screw Plate, The die plate was used to cut threads on small screws and it had a number of threaded die holes of different sizes for making different threads. A piece of wire was inserted in a hole and turned to cut a thread on the end, a head would be formed on the other end of the wire to make a screw. File, Hardened steel files were used to shape the metal before it was used to make, there were many variations of files
A belt buckle is a buckle, a clasp for fastening two ends, such as of straps or a belt, in which a device attached to one of the ends is fitted or coupled to the other. The word enters Middle English via Old French and the Latin buccula or cheek-strap, Belt buckles and other fixtures are used on a variety of belts, including cingula, baltea and waist-belts. Belt buckles go back at least to the age and a gold great buckle was among the items interred at Sutton Hoo. Primarily decorative shield on tongue buckles were common Anglo-Saxon grave goods at this time, elaborately decorated on the shield portion and associated only with men. One such buckle, found in a 7th-century grave at Finglesham, frame-style buckles are the oldest design. In a frame-and-prong buckle the prong attaches to one end of the frame and extends away from the wearer through a hole in the belt, where it anchors against the opposite side of the frame. The oldest styles have a loop or D shaped frame. Very small buckles with removable center pins and chapes were introduced and used on shoes, beginning in the 17th century, a chape is the fixed cover or plate which attaches buckle to belt while the mordant or bite is the adjustable portion.
Plate-style buckles are common on western military belts of the mid-19th century, officers might have a similar but more intricate clasp-style closure that featured two interlocking metal parts. In practice, the term belt plate refers to any flat, the distance between the fixed frame or chape of a plate buckle and its adjustment prong is called the throw. Box-out buckles make the traditional belt seen today, usually made with an enduring leather or other synthetic material as the band, these belt buckles are less functional but more fashionable. These belts became popular after Hollywood began using them in movies for their fresh, now they dominate belt production, and are viewed as a more attractive belt. Box-frame buckles are another, 20th-century style of military friction buckle, the box-frame buckle consists of three parts. There may or may not be a tip on the opposite tongue end of the belt for easier insertion. Earlier, military-style buckles often use friction and are designed for use with cloth belts or straps, simple friction buckles are one-piece frames with no prong whatsoever, the strap or belt winding through a series of slots, and may more technically be called belt slides or belt trims.
Although technically not buckles, other such as plastic side-clasp or even seat belt latches are often used on belts. Because of their association with military equipment, belt buckles were primarily a masculine ornament well into the 19th century. Belt buckles became more popular as fashion accessories in the early 20th century, the large, flat surface of the western-style belt buckles make them a popular ornament or style of jewelry
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form as opposed to needing extraction from an ore and this led to very early human use, from c.8000 BC. Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris, Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the hemoglobin in fish. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, the adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.
The filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak. This observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper, at the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. The softness of copper partly explains its high conductivity and high thermal conductivity. The maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. 1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than gray or silver. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air, as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. A green layer of verdigris can often be seen on old structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings.
Copper tarnishes when exposed to sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper, 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising approximately 69% of naturally occurring copper, both have a spin of 3⁄2
Pectoral (Ancient Egypt)
The pectorals of ancient Egypt were a form of jewelry, often represented as a brooch. These were mostly worn by people and the pharaoh. One type is attached with a necklace, meant to be suspended from the neck, statuary from the Old Kingdom onwards shows this form. A form was attached as a brooch, with the thematic, iconographic function, the thematic statements were typically about the pharaoh or statements of ancient Egyptian mythology and culture. They are usually of gold with inlays of gemstones. The basic definition of a brooch is as a piece of jewellery. Therefore, one form of the pectoral word listings uses the word for breadth, broad, to be wide or spacious, 15) None may have an alternate determinative used to define the word. From the above definitions, it can be seen that the collar, pectoral, etc. can include amulets inclusive into the pectorals iconography. The above listed words are refenced in E. A. Wallis Budges dictionary to 200 works, papyri, Egyptian literature, personal literature, statements in Egyptian language hieroglyhs were often the theme of famous pectorals, regardless of their actual use for adornment.
One famous complex pectoral for Amenemhat III has a statement of his rulership, the Pectoral of Amenemhat III states the following, Lord Heaven, God-Good, Lord of the Two Lands, Ny-Maat-Ra, Lord Lands. Kamrins modern hieroglyph primer for Egyptian artifacts uses Amenemhat IIIs pectoral for Exercise 22, the discussion explains that the extended wings of the Vulture Goddess relate to Lord of the Sky-, the Vulture Goddess. Her translation, Lord of the sky Nimaatre, the god, lord of the Two Lands. Gardiners Sign List#S. Crowns, Staves, gardiners Sign List List of ancient Egyptian statuary with amulet necklaces, Budge. An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, E. A. Wallace Budge, ©1978, ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs, A Practical Guide, Janice Kamrin, ©2004, Harry N. Abrams, Lambelet. Orbis Terrae Aegiptiae, Museum Aegiptium, Illustrated Guide of the Egyptian Museum, Edouard Lambelet, ©1981, Lehnert & Landrock & Co