Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017. It is a transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast; the municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north and west, is bounded to the east by the East China Sea. As a major administrative and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential; the city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession.
The city flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world, became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s. During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city, it has since re-emerged as a hub for international finance. Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China; the two Chinese characters in the city's name are 上 and 海, together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was on the sea.
Shanghai is abbreviated 沪 in Chinese, a contraction of 沪渎, a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean. This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn or Shēnchéng, from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai. Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F. C. and Shen Bao. Huating was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city; the city has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East". During the Spring and Autumn period, the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.
During the Warring States period, Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River, its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn". Fishermen living in the Shanghai area created a fish tool called the hù, which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city. During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746, it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas; the famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla. By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.
From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District. Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates, it measured 10 metres high and 5 kilometres in circumference. During the Wanli reign, Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602; this honour was reserved for prefectural capitals and not given to a mere county seat such as Shang
Georgetown College is a small, Christian liberal arts college in Georgetown, Kentucky. Chartered in 1829, Georgetown was the first Baptist college west of the Allegheny Mountains. With a student-to-faculty ratio of 13 to 1, the college offers undergraduate degrees and a Master of Arts in education. Georgetown College is located in the Bluegrass region of central Kentucky, 12 miles north of Lexington 70 miles east of Louisville, 75 miles south of Cincinnati, Ohio. Georgetown College traces its roots to Royal Springs Academy, a classical school founded by Baptist minister Elijah Craig in Georgetown in 1787; the institution was renamed Rittenhouse Academy in 1798 as part of a land grant agreement. It was led by Barton Stone, a co-founder of the Stone Campbell Movement, from 1816 to 1819; the academy declined and closed by 1829. In 1829, the Kentucky General Assembly chartered the Kentucky Baptist Education Society with the purpose of establishing a Baptist college in the state. 24 trustees under the leadership of Silas Noel selected the town of Georgetown as the site for the new school.
Georgetown was selected because the community agreed to raise $20,000 and to donate the assets of the closed Rittenhouse Academy. Georgetown College overcame numerous difficulties in its early years; the first president hired for the college in 1829, William D. Staughton, died before assuming his duties; the second president, Rev. Joel Smith Bacon, stayed two years, fighting court cases to release funding for the college before leaving out of frustration; the funds were not released until 1836, when Benjamin Franklin Farnsworth became the third president hired. By there was a power struggle in progress. After the Campbellites founded a rival college blocks away, Farnsworth found his attempts to build up Georgetown College stymied, resigned in 1837. In 1838, Rev. Rockwood Giddings became the fourth president of the college. During his short tenure, Giddings began construction on Recitation Hall, the school's first permanent building, he made many other advances. Giddings died of exhaustion after a year in office and was replaced by Rev. Howard Malcolm in 1840.
Malcolm oversaw the completion of the construction of the building, now known as Giddings Hall. He expanded the educational offerings beyond the classics and encouraged the founding of literary societies and the Georgetown Female Academy, he resigned in 1849 when his anti-slavery vote at Kentucky's third constitutional convention resulted in much criticism from slavery proponents and a threat on his life. As the student population grew in the late 20th century, the administration sought ways to diversify the campus and protect academic freedom. In 2005, Georgetown College and the Kentucky Baptist Convention redefined their formal relationship. With the approval of the new agreement by the Convention, the college reverted to its original arrangement with Kentucky Baptists. From 1829 to 1942, the college had an independent, self-perpetuating board of trustees and was designated as the senior, liberal arts college for Kentucky Baptists until the 1960s, when Campbellsville College and Cumberland College became senior colleges.
Under a 1942 agreement, the Convention chose the college's trustees. The college's board submitted candidates to the Convention's Committee on Nominations, delegates to the annual meeting of the Convention elected them. Georgetown College received an annual contribution from the Convention for all of the twentieth century. Under the new agreement, the Convention's annual contribution was phased out, the trustee board elects its members, at least 75 percent of the board's membership was to be Kentucky Baptists. However, the college continues to work cooperatively in ministry with the Convention, coordinated through the Campus Minister, a Convention-funded position; the college partners with Regent's Park College, a Baptist college at the University of Oxford. Georgetown College has produced five Rhodes Scholars and 38 Fulbright Scholars since 1989; the college has an honors program and a partnership with Regent's Park College, Oxford. In 2014, the college became one of only 18 schools nationwide to earn the highest rating for protecting free speech on campus.
Georgetown College became a member of the Southern University Conference in 2010. Georgetown College is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to award baccalaureate and master's degrees. Georgetown is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education and the Kentucky Education Professional Standards Board for initial and advanced level educator preparation programs, its affiliations include the American Council of Education, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Association of American Colleges and Universities, Association of Independent Kentucky Colleges and Universities, National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, Kentucky Independent College Foundation, the Network of Church-Related Colleges and Universities, the International Association of Baptist Colleges and Universities. Additionally and staff are affiliated with a number of regional and international professional organizations.
The Georgetown College Department of Chemistry has received American Chemical Society Approval and is one of only two private colleges in Kentucky with this prestigious rec
Georgetown is a town in and the county seat of Sussex County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 6,422, an increase of 38.3% over the previous decade. Georgetown is part of Maryland-Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lewes, sited on the Delaware Bay, was designated as the first county seat, it was the first colony in Delaware, founded by the Dutch in 1631, it remained the only significant European settlement in the region for some time. When English colonists William Penn organized the three southern counties of Pennsylvania, which are now Delaware, Lewes was the natural choice for the location of the Sussex County's Seat of Justice. Sussex County was not well defined until after 1760, following resolution of a dispute between William Penn's family and Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore after intervention from the Crown; this dispute over borders had delayed discussion over the location of a county seat. Earlier Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore had argued that the county ended with Lewes, while Penn's sons stated it continued into Fenwick Island, which it now does.
The Mason–Dixon line was surveyed as part the agreement between the Penns and Lord Baltimore, it has since defined the western and southern border of the county. Georgetown, located more centrally in the county, was designated as its seat for court. Lewes continued to serve as the county seat throughout much of the 18th century, although it was inconvenient for the growing population to the west. After petitioning by western citizens of the county to the Delaware General Assembly, a law was passed on January 29, 1791, to centralize the location of the county seat. At the time, the land in central Sussex County was for the most part uninhabited; the county government hired ten commissioners to purchase land, build a courthouse and jail, sell lots in an area at "James Pettyjohn's old field or about a mile from where Ebenezer Pettyjohn now lives," as the original order states, to encourage related development. On May 9, 1791, the commissioners, under the leadership of the Delaware State Senator George Mitchell, purchased 76 acres for a townsite.
Commissioner Rhodes Shankland began the survey by laying out "a spacious square of 100 yards each way." Georgetown was laid out in a circle one mile in diameter and centered around the original square surveyed by Shankland. The area within this circle is now listed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places; the new location proved better as an administrative center. The County Courthouse and Jail were built in the southeastern section of the town circle. Given this progress, the Seat of Justice was moved on October 26, 1791; the new community was named Georgetown in honor of the lead commissioner George Mitchell. Lots, measuring 60 by 120-foot, were sold to give a return to the State's investment; because of Delaware's status as a border state during the Civil War, men enlisted on both sides of the war, with some fighting for the Union and others for the Confederates. The town and some of its prominent families were divided by these split loyalties. In 2007, a monument commemorating Sussex County Confederates was constructed and installed at the Marvel Museum in Georgetown.
Since the turn of the 21st century, a major employer is Perdue Farms, which has a large chicken processing plant. It has attracted numerous immigrants from Haiti and Guatemala as workers, stimulating growth of the population and changing the town's demographics. Georgetown has a more diverse population. Many residents speak Haitian French or Creole, while others have a primary language of Spanish, in addition to those whose first language is English. In 2000 more than one-third of the population was ethnic Hispanic and one-fifth was African American. Georgetown is the home of the Georgetown Speedway; the latter attracts attendees from miles around during race season. Every two years, Georgetown hosts Return Day, a half-day-long parade and festival two days after Election Day, it stems from colonial days, when the public would congregate in Georgetown two days after the election to hear the results. The winners of that year's elections parade in horse-drawn carriages around The Circle. Together with the losers and the chairs of the county's political parties, they ceremonially "bury the hatchet" in a tub of sand.
The afternoon of Return Day is a holiday for state workers in Sussex County. The day's events are marked by a traditional ox feast, the beginning of the next round of campaigns. Georgetown is unusual among Delaware municipalities as the town was constructed around a circle, instead of the more traditional park square. Located at "The Circle" are the Town Hall and county buildings, the historic Sussex County Courthouse; the original Courthouse was replaced by the current structure, built in 1837 on South Bedford Street. It is managed by the Georgetown Historical Society. Lawyers' offices, stores, a bank, the Brick Hotel, which has completed renovation line the Circle; this layout is similar to that found in Maryland. The center of Georgetown's circle is a small green park with a fountain. Georgetown's oldest church, St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, was constructed in 1844 and remodeled in 1881 in the early Victorian Gothic style.
John F. Kennedy School of Government
The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University is a public policy and public administration school, of Harvard University in Cambridge, United States; the school offers master's degrees in public policy, public administration, international development, grants several doctoral degrees, many executive education programs. It conducts research in subjects relating to politics, international affairs, economics. Since 1970 the school has graduated 17 heads of the most of any educational institution; the School's primary campus is located on John F. Kennedy Street in Cambridge; the main buildings overlook the Charles River, southwest of Harvard Yard and Harvard Square, on the site of a former MBTA Red Line trainyard. The School is adjacent to the public riverfront John F. Kennedy Memorial Park. In 2015, Douglas Elmendorf, the former director of the U. S. Congressional Budget Office who had served as a Harvard faculty member, was named Dean of the Harvard Kennedy School and Don K. Price Professor of Public Policy.
From 2004 to 2015, the School's Dean was David T. Ellwood, the Scott M. Black Professor of Political Economy at HKS. Ellwood was an assistant secretary in the Department of Health and Human Services in the Clinton Administration. A major $120m expansion and renovation of the campus began in 2015; the project was completed in late 2017 with an official opening in December 2017. Harvard Kennedy School was the Harvard Graduate School of Public Administration, was founded in 1936 with a $2 million gift from Lucius N. Littauer, a graduate of Harvard College, its shield was designed to express the national purpose of the school and was modeled after the U. S. shield. The School drew its initial faculty from Harvard's existing government and economics departments, welcomed its first students in 1937; the School's original home was in the Littauer Center north of Harvard Yard, now the home of the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences Economics Department. The first students at the Graduate School were so-called "Littauer Fellows", participating in a one-year course listing which developed into the school's mid-career Master in Public Administration program.
In the 1960s, the School began to develop today's public policy degree and course curriculum in the Master in Public Policy program. In 1966, the School was renamed for President John F. Kennedy. By 1978, the faculty—notably presidential scholar and adviser Richard Neustadt, foreign policy scholar and dean of the School Graham Allison, Richard Zeckhauser, Edith Stokey—had orchestrated the consolidation of the School's programs and research centers in the present campus. Under the terms of Littauer's original grant, the current HKS campus features a building called Littauer. In addition to playing a critical role in the development of the School's modern era, who at the time served as the Assistant Dean, was the founding Director of the Harvard Institute of Politics, created in 1966 in honor of President Kennedy; the IOP has been housed on the Kennedy School campus since 1978, today the Institute puts on a series of programs and study groups for Harvard undergraduates and graduate students. The John F. Kennedy, Jr. Forum in the new Littauer building is both the site of IOP forum events as well as a major social gathering place between HKS courses.
In 2012 the school announced a $500m fundraising campaign of which over $120m was to be used to expand the campus adding 91,000 square feet of space that will include six new classrooms, a new kitchen, dining facility and meeting spaces, a new student lounge and study space, more collaboration and active learning spaces as well as a redesigned central courtyard. Groundbreaking commenced on May 7, 2015 and the project was completed in late 2017, it was opened in December 2017. Harvard Kennedy School offers four master's degree programs; the two-year Master in Public Policy program focuses on policy analysis, management, ethics and negotiations in the public sector. There are three separate Master in Public Administration programs: a one-year Mid-Career Program, intended for professionals more than seven years after college graduation. Among the members of the Mid-Career MPA class are the Mason Fellows, who are public and private executives from developing countries. Mason Fellows constitute about 50% of the incoming class of Mid Career MPA candidates.
The Mason cohort is the most diverse at Harvard in terms of nationalities and ethnicities represented, it is named after late Harvard Professor and Dean of the Graduate School of Public Administration, now known as the John F. Kennedy School of Government, from 1947 to 1958 Edward Sagendorph Mason who thought of bringing the developing world leaders to Harvard to stand on the cutting edge of development knowledge aiming for a better world. In addition to the master's programs, HKS administers four doctoral programs. PhD degrees are awarded in political economy and Government, Public Policy, social policy, in conjunction with the Departments of government and sociology in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, as well as in health policy, in conjunction with FAS and the Harvard School of Public Health; the Harvard Kennedy School has a number of joint and concurrent degree programs, within Harvard and with other leadin
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Newark is a city in New Castle County, United States. It is located 12 miles west-southwest of Wilmington. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 31,454. Newark is home to the University of Delaware. Newark was founded by Scots-Irish and Welsh settlers in 1694; the town was established when it received a charter from George II of Great Britain in 1758. Schools have played a significant role in the history of Newark. A grammar school, founded by Francis Alison in 1743, moved from New London, Pennsylvania to Newark in 1765, becoming the Newark Academy. Among the first graduates of the school were three signers of the Declaration of Independence: George Read, Thomas McKean, James Smith. Two of which, Read and McKean, went on to have schools named after them in the state of Delaware: George Read Middle School and Thomas McKean High School. During the American Revolutionary War and American forces clashed outside Newark at the Battle of Cooch's Bridge. Tradition holds that the Battle of Cooch's Bridge was the first instance of the Stars and Stripes being flown in battle.
The state granted a charter to a new school in 1833, called Newark College. Newark Academy and Newark College joined together in the following year; the school was forced to close in 1859, but was resuscitated eleven years under the Morrill Act when it became a joint venture between the State of Delaware and the school's Board of Trustees. In 1913, pursuant to legislative Act, Delaware College came into sole ownership of the State of Delaware; the school would be renamed the University of Delaware in 1921. Newark received a license from King George II to hold semi-annual fairs and weekly markets for agricultural exchange in 1758. A paper mill, the first sizable industrial venture in Newark, was created around 1798; this mill known as the Curtis Paper Mill, was the oldest paper mill in the United States until its closing in 1997. Methodists built the first church in 1812 and the railroad arrived in 1837. One of Newark's major sources of employment and revenue was the Chrysler Newark Assembly plant, built in 1951.
Jamaican reggae star, Bob Marley worked as an assembly-line worker at the plant during his short stint in Delaware in the 1960s. Constructed to build tanks for the US Army, the plant was 3.4 million square feet in size. It employed 1,100 employees in 2008, down from 2,115 in 2005; this turn was due to the decline of sales of the Durango and Aspen vehicle models that were being produced. The plant stood for more than 50 years; the factory produced a wide variety of automobile models during its run. The plant was closed in late 2008 due to the recession and limited demand for larger cars. Newark is located at 39°41′01″N 75°44′59″W, it is located directly east of the Maryland state line, adjacent to the unincorporated community of Fair Hill, is less than a mile south of the tripoint where Delaware and Pennsylvania meet, known as The Wedge. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.3 square miles, all of it land. Surrounded by farmland, Newark is now surrounded by housing developments in some directions, although farmland remains just over the state lines in Maryland and Pennsylvania.
To the north and west are small hills, but south and east of the city, the land is flat. Despite the fact that Newark is located halfway between Philadelphia and Baltimore and is part of densely populated New Castle County, there is a large amount of public parkland—over 12,000 acres – surrounding the city. To the south is Iron Hill Park, to the west is Fair Hill Natural Resources Management Area, to the North is White Clay Creek State Park and White Clay Creek Preserve. Nearby is Middle Run Valley Natural Area, part of the New Castle County Park System; these parks provide ample hiking, mountain biking, horse back riding opportunities. Fair Hill Natural Resources Management Area and much of White Clay Creek State Park consist of land owned by the Du Pont family, ceded to the states of Maryland and Delaware, respectively; as of the census of 2000, there were 28,547 people, 8,989 households, 4,494 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,198.6 people per square mile. There were 9,294 housing units at an average density of 1,041.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 87.29% White, 6.00% Black, 0.16% Native American, 4.07% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, 1.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.53% of the population. 16.8% were of Irish, 13.5% Italian, 13.4% German, 10.2% English and 5.1% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. Of the 8,989 households, 20.7% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 50.0% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population was spread out with 12.5% under the age of 18, 43.6% from 18 to 24, 19.8% from 25 to 44, 14.9% from 45 to 64, 9.1% who were 65 years of age or older
Michael Newbold Castle is an American attorney and politician, Governor of Delaware and the U. S. Representative for Delaware's at-large congressional district, he is a member of the Republican Party. The district includes the entire state of Delaware and is the oldest intact surviving district in the nation, he was the longest-serving U. S. Representative in the state's history. Prior to his election to Congress, Castle served as a member of the Delaware General Assembly, starting in the State House of Representatives and followed by election to the State Senate, he was the 20th Lieutenant Governor of Delaware from 1981 to 1985, the 69th Governor of Delaware from 1985 to 1992. On October 6, 2009, Castle announced his candidacy in the 2010 special election for the seat in the United States Senate held by Democrat Ted Kaufman. Kaufman, appointed by Governor Ruth Ann Minner to fill the vacancy created by Joe Biden, was not a candidate in the special election; the election would determine who would fill the balance of Biden's term, which would end on January 3, 2015.
In one of the most surprising election results of the 2010 campaign season, Castle was defeated in the Republican primary for the US Senate seat by Christine O'Donnell. He would have been favored in the general election against Democrat Chris Coons, who went on to beat O'Donnell by 17 percentage points. Castle has acknowledged drafting the bill which became law and created the Trillion Dollar Coin controversy by authorizing the United States Department of Treasury to mint platinum coinage in any denomination. Castle is a member of the ReFormers Caucus of Issue One. Castle was born in Wilmington, the son of Louisa Johnston and James Manderson Castle, Jr. One of his maternal great-great-grandfathers was Virginia Senator John W. Johnston, Castle's fifth great-grandfathers were founding fathers Benjamin Franklin and Daniel Carroll. Castle's father was a patent lawyer for DuPont, a firm so central to the city that it was long known in Wilmington as "the company." After graduating from Tower Hill School in 1957, he attended Hamilton College in Clinton, Oneida County, New York.
He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in economics from Hamilton in 1961. While at Hamilton, Castle was a brother of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. In 1964, he earned a Juris Doctorate degree from Georgetown University Law Center in Washington, D. C, he was admitted to both the Delaware Bar and the Washington, D. C. Bar that same year. Michael Castle and Jane DiSabatino married on May 23, 1992. Both are Roman Catholics. Following his admission to the bar, Castle returned to Wilmington and joined Connolly and Lodge, working as an associate and partner. A Republican, he served as Deputy Attorney General of Delaware from 1965 to 1966, was elected to the Delaware House of Representatives in 1966, he served as a state representative for two years before winning a seat in the Delaware Senate, where he remained for eight years. He served as minority leader from 1975 to 1976. In 1976, Castle left the state legislature and returned to the full-time practice of law, founding his own firm with Carl Schnee, he returned to politics in 1980, when he was recruited to run for Lieutenant Governor of Delaware by Governor Pete du Pont.
He defeated Democratic state senator Thomas B. Sharp, with 59% to 40% of the vote, he served from 1981 to 1985, headed panels on education and drunk driving. As the hand-picked choice of the popular Governor du Pont, he won election as Governor of Delaware, defeating former Delaware Supreme Court Justice William T. Quillen. In the campaign, Castle was criticized for being a shadow of his mentor and only promising an extension of du Pont's program. Delaware voters however elected him to another term in 1988 when he defeated Democrat Jacob Kreshtool by a wide margin, is the last time a Republican won a governor election in the state. Castle served two terms, cutting the second one short when he resigned to begin his first term as U. S. Representative. Committee on Education and Labor Subcommittee on Early Childhood and Secondary Education Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, Competitiveness Committee on Financial Services Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government-Sponsored Enterprises Subcommittee on Financial Institutions and Consumer Credit Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy and TechnologyIn 1992, Castle could not run again for Governor, due to constitutional term limits.
The result was what became known as "the Swap." Castle ran for the seat of U. S. Representative Tom Carper and Carper ran for Governor. Delaware's political leadership had worked out the arrangement and retained the services of two popular office holders. Castle was first elected U. S. Representative in 1992, defeating former Lieutenant Governor Shien Biau Woo. Since he won election by wide margins eight times, defeating Democrats Carol Ann DeSantis in 1994, Dennis E. Williams in 1996 and 1998, Michael C. Miller in 2000 and 2002, Paul Donnelly in 2004, Dennis Spivack in 2006, Karen Hartley-Nagle in 2008. Castle was president of the Republican Main Street Partnership and was the co-chair of several Congressional caucuses, including the Diabetes Caucus, the Community College Caucus, the Biomedical Research Caucus and the Passenger Rail Caucus, he was considered one of the most moderate Republicans in the U. S. House. In the wake of Tom DeLay's indictment in September 2005, liberal columnist E. J. Dion