Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense and law enforcement applications, physical and spiritual development. Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s; the term means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors. Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs. contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts. Techniques taught: Armed vs. unarmed, within these groups by type of weapon and by type of combat By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, etc. Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs. "internal" styles UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields described as hybrid martial arts.
Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, Karate Kicking: Taekwondo, Savate Others using strikes: Muay Thai, Kung Fu, Pencak SilatGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Sumo, Aikido Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Sambo Pinning Techniques: Judo, AikidoArmedThe traditional martial arts, which train in armed combat encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts those of the German Renaissance. Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo and kyudo. Modern martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat, modern competitive archery. Combat-oriented Health-orientedMany martial arts those from Asia teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.
This is prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training. In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent. Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training.
The Koreans believe. Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual; some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music strong percussive rhythms; the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from eastern Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows. Chinese martial arts originated during the legendary apocryphal, Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling.
The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts. During the Warring States period of Chinese history extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War. Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from ancient India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China. Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD; the combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu. In Europe, the earlie
Japanese martial arts
Japanese martial arts refer to the variety of martial arts native to the country of Japan. At least three Japanese terms are used interchangeably with the English phrase Japanese martial arts; the usage of term budō to mean martial arts is a modern one and the term meant a way of life encompassing physical and moral dimensions with a focus of self-improvement, fulfillment or personal growth. The terms bujutsu and bugei have more discrete definitions, at least speaking. Bujutsu refers to the practical application of martial tactics and techniques in actual combat. Bugei refers to the adaptation or refinement of those tactics and techniques to facilitate systematic instruction and dissemination within a formal learning environment; the historical origin of Japanese martial arts can be found in the warrior traditions of the samurai and the caste system that restricted the use of weapons by other members of society. Samurai were expected to be proficient in many weapons, as well as unarmed combat, attain the highest possible mastery of combat skills.
Ordinarily, the development of combative techniques is intertwined with the tools used to execute those techniques. In a changing world, those tools are changing, requiring that the techniques to use them be continuously reinvented; the history of Japan is somewhat unusual in its relative isolation. Compared with the rest of the world, the Japanese tools of war evolved slowly. Many people believe that this afforded the warrior class the opportunity to study their weapons with greater depth than other cultures; the teaching and training of these martial arts did evolve. For example, in the early medieval period, the bow and the spear were emphasized, but during the Tokugawa period, fewer large scale battles took place, the sword became the most prestigious weapon. Another trend that developed throughout Japanese history was that of increasing martial specialization as society became more stratified over time; the martial arts developed or originating in Japan are extraordinarily diverse, with vast differences in training tools and philosophy across innumerable schools and styles.
That said, Japanese martial arts may be divided into koryū and gendai budō based on whether they existed prior to or after the Meiji Restoration, respectively. Since gendai budō and koryū share the same historical origin, one will find various types of martial arts on both sides of the divide. A note on the organization of this article. Instead, major sections are divided based on when the art originated, subsections are dedicated to the root type of martial art, such as jujutsu or kendo, wherein notable styles or major differences between styles may be discussed. Koryū, meaning "traditional school", or "old school", refers to schools of martial arts, originating in Japan, either prior to the beginning of the Meiji Restoration in 1868, or the Haitōrei edict in 1876. In modern usage, meaning military art/science, is typified by its practical application of technique to real-world or battlefield situations; the term is used to indicate that a particular style or art is "traditional", rather than "modern".
However, what it means for an art to be either "traditional" or "modern" is subject to some debate. As a rule of thumb, the primary purpose of a koryū martial art was for use in war; the most extreme example of a koryū school is one that preserves its traditional, ancient, martial practices in the absence of continuing wars in which to test them. Other koryū schools may have made modifications to their practices; this is as opposed to "modern" martial arts, whose primary focus is upon the self-improvement of the individual practitioner, with varying degrees of emphasis on the practical application of the martial art for either sport or self-defence purposes. The following subsections represent not individual schools of martial arts, but rather generic "types" of martial arts; these are distinguishable on the basis of their training methodology and equipment, though wide variation still exists within each. Sumo, considered by many to be Japan's national sport, has its origins in the distant past.
The earliest written records of Japan, which are dated from the 8th century AD, record the first sumo match in 23 BC, occurring at the request of the emperor and continuing until one man was too wounded to continue. Beginning in 728 AD, the Emperor Shōmu began holding official sumo matches at the annual harvest festivals; this tradition of having matches in the presence of the emperor continued, but spread, with matches held at Shinto festivals, sumo training was incorporated into military training. By the 17th century, sumo was an organized professional sport, open to the public, enjoyed by both the upper class and commoners. Today, sumo retains much of its traditional trappings, including a referee dressed as a Shinto priest, a ritual where the competitors clap hands, stomp their feet, throw salt in the ring prior to each match. To win a match, competitors employ throwing and grappling techniques to force the other man to the ground.
The Japanese language makes use of honorific suffixes when referring to others in a conversation. These suffixes are attached to the end of names, are gender-neutral. Honorific suffixes indicate the level of the speaker and referred individual's relationship and are used alongside other components of Japanese honorific speech, called keigo. Although honorifics are not part of the basic grammar of the Japanese language, they are a fundamental part of the sociolinguistics of Japanese, proper use is essential to proficient and appropriate speech. Referring to oneself using an honorific, or dropping an honorific when it is required, is a serious faux pas, in either case coming across as clumsy or arrogant, they can be applied to either the first or last name depending on, given. In situations where both the first and last names are spoken, the suffix is attached to whichever comes last in the word order. An honorific is used when referring to the person one is talking to, or when referring to an unrelated third party in speech.
It is dropped, however, by some superiors, when referring to one's in-group, or in formal writing, is never used to refer to oneself, except for dramatic effect, or some exceptional cases. Dropping the honorific suffix when referring to one's interlocutor, known as to yobisute, implies a high degree of intimacy and is reserved for one's spouse, younger family members, social inferiors, close friends. Within sports teams or among classmates, where the interlocutors have the same age or seniority, it can be acceptable to use family names without honorifics; some people of the younger generation born since 1970, prefer to be referred to without an honorific. However, dropping honorifics is a sign of informality with casual acquaintances; when referring to a third person, honorifics are used except when referring to one's family members while talking to a non-family member, or when referring to a member of one's company while talking to a customer or someone from another company—this is the uchi–soto distinction.
Honorifics are not used to refer to oneself, except when trying to be arrogant, to be cute, or sometimes when talking to young children to teach them how to address the speaker. Use of honorifics is correlated with other forms of honorific speech in Japanese, such as use of the polite form versus the plain form—using the plain form with a polite honorific can be jarring, for instance. While these honorifics are used on proper nouns, these suffixes can turn common nouns into proper nouns when attached to the end of them; this can be seen on words such as neko-chan which turns the common noun neko into a proper noun which would refer to that particular cat, while adding the honorific -chan can mean cute When translating honorific suffixes into English, separate pronouns or adjectives must be used in order to convey characteristics to the person they are referencing as well. While some honorifics such as -san are frequently used due to their gender neutrality and simple definition of polite unfamiliarity, other honorifics such as -chan or -kun are more specific as to the context in which they must be used as well as the implications they give off when attached to a person's name.
These implications can only be translated into English using either adjectives or adjective word phrases. San is the most commonplace honorific and is a title of respect used between equals of any age. Although the closest analog in English are the honorifics "Mr.", "Miss", "Ms.", or "Mrs.", -san is universally added to a person's name. Because it is the most common honorific, it is the most used to convert common nouns into proper ones, as seen below. San may be used in combination with workplace nouns, so a bookseller might be addressed or referred to as hon'ya-san and a butcher as nikuya-san. San is sometimes used with company names. For example, the offices or shop of a company called Kojima Denki might be referred to as "Kojima Denki-san" by another nearby company; this may be seen on small maps used in phone books and business cards in Japan, where the names of surrounding companies are written using -san. San can be attached to the names of animals or inanimate objects. For example, a pet rabbit might be called usagi-san, fish used for cooking can be referred to as sakana-san, but both would be considered childish and would be avoided in formal speech.
Married people refer to their spouse with -san. Due to -san being gender neutral and used, it can be used to refer to people who are not close or whom one does not know. However, it may not be appropriate when using it on someone, close or when it is clear that other honorifics should be used. Online, Japanese gamers append a numeral 3 to another player's name to denote -san, since the number three is pronounced san. Sama is a more respectful version for people of a higher rank than oneself or divine, toward one's guests or customers, sometimes toward people one admires, it is said to be the origin word for -san but there is no major evidence otherwise. Deities such as native Shinto kami and the Christian God are referred to as kami-sama, meaning "Revered spirit-sama"; when used to refer to oneself, -sama expresses extrem
The dan ranking system is used by many Japanese organizations and Korean martial arts to indicate the level of one's ability within a certain subject matter. As a ranking system, it was used at a go school during the Edo period, it is now used in modern fine arts and martial arts. The system was applied to martial arts in Japan by Kanō Jigorō, the founder of judo, in 1883, introduced to other East Asian countries. In the modern Japanese martial arts, holders of dan ranks wear a black belt. Dan ranks are given for strategic board games such as go, Japanese chess, renju, as well as for cultural arts such as flower arrangement, Japanese calligraphy and tea ceremony. The Chinese character for the word dan means step or stage in Japanese, but is used to refer to one's rank or grade, i.e. one's degree or level of expertise and knowledge. In Chinese pinyin, the same character is spelled duàn, was used to mean phase. Dan is used together with the word kyū in certain ranking systems, with dan being used for the higher ranks and kyū being used for lower ranks.
The dan ranking system in go was devised by Hon'inbō Dōsaku, a professional go player in the Edo period. Prior to the invention, top-to-bottom ranking was evaluated by comparison of handicap and tended to be vague. Dosaku valued the highest title holder, Meijin at 9 Dan, he was inspired by an ancient Chinese go ranking system and an earlier court ranking system, although lower numbers are more senior in those systems. Dan ranks were transferred to martial arts by the founder of judo. Kanō started the modern rank system in 1883. Prior to this, martial arts schools awarded progress with less frequent menkyo licenses or secret scrolls. There was still no external differentiation between mudansha. Different athletic departments within the Japanese school system were using markers of rank, most notably in swimming, where advanced swimmers wore a black ribbon around their waists. Kano adopted the custom of having his yūdansha wear black obi in 1886. At that time, these obi were not the belts that jūdōka wear today.
They wore the wide obi still worn with formal kimono. In 1907, Kanō invented the modern keikogi, belts in white for mudansha and black for yūdansha. Traditionally, the level of go players has been defined using dan ranks. Kyu ranks are considered student ranks, whilst dan ranks are considered master ranks. In amateur play, these ranks facilitate the handicapping system, with a difference of one rank corresponding to one free move at the beginning of the game. With the ready availability of calculators and computers, "rating" systems have been introduced. In such systems, a rating is rigorously calculated on the basis of game results. Dan ranks are for advanced players. Although many organizations let players choose their own kyū rank to a certain extent, dan ranks are regulated; this means that players will have to show good results in tournaments or pass exams to be awarded a dan rank. Serious students of the game will strive to attain a dan rank. Dan ranks are available up to about 7th dan. Like in go, shogi has traditionally used "dan" and "kyū" ranks to define the playing strength of a shogi player.
Amateur players can, through over-the-board play, achieve ranks from 15-kyū to 8-dan. In addition to dan and kyū, an Elo-type rating system is used by the Japan Amateur Shogi Association for the tournaments it organizes; the ranking system used by the Japan Shogi Association for professionals uses similar terminology, but is quite different in terms of ability. Professional player ranks go up to 9 dan. There used to be 10 dan ranking, but this is no longer used. Amateur players train to become professionals at one of the JSA's apprentice schools and are ranked from 6-kyū to 3-dan. Since only exceptionally strong amateur players are able to qualify for the shōreikai, it is believed that the typical shōreikai 6-kyū is at least the equivalent of an amateur 3 or 4 dan player. Shōreikai 3-dan players who either win or finish runner-up in one of the two 3-dan league tournaments held each year are awarded the rank of 4-dan and granted professional status. Although there is no difference in the systems used for men and women amateurs, the JSA and the Ladies Professional Shogi-players' Association of Japan, or LPSA, do use a different system for ranking women professionals.
Women professionals are ranked from 3-kyū to 6-dan and it is believed that the strongest women professionals are only equivalent in playing strength to shōreikai 1- or 2-dan ranked players. In fact, no woman professional has successfully completed the shōreikai system and been awarded the rank of 4-dan. Three women have made it as far as 1 dan in the shōreikai, two have made it as far as 3 dan. While the use of the kyū/dan system, colored belts is common to both gendai budō or arts of other east Asian origin, to arts that are derived from these, or from other areas, it is not universal. In modern times, a dan-ranked practitioner of a style is recognized as a martial artist who has surpassed the kyū, or basic, ranks, they may become a licensed instructor in their a
Aikido is a modern Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies and religious beliefs. Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while protecting their attacker from injury. Aikido is translated as "the way of unifying life energy" or as "the way of harmonious spirit". Aikido's techniques include: irimi, tenkan movements, various types of throws and joint locks. Aikido derives from the martial art of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but began to diverge from it in the late 1920s due to Ueshiba's involvement with the Ōmoto-kyō religion. Ueshiba's early students' documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu. Ueshiba's senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending on when they studied with him. Today, aikido is found all over the world in a number of styles, with broad ranges of interpretation and emphasis. However, they all share techniques formulated by Ueshiba and most have concern for the well-being of the attacker.
The word "aikido" is formed of three kanji: 合 – ai – joining, combining, fitting 気 – ki – spirit, mood, morale 道 – dō – way, pathThe term aiki does not appear in the Japanese language outside the scope of budō. This has led to many possible interpretations of the word. 合 is used in compounds to mean'combine, join together, meet', examples being 合同, 合成, 結合, 連合, 統合, 合意. There is an idea of reciprocity, 知り合う, 話し合い, 待ち合わせる. 気 is used to describe a feeling, as in X気がする, 気持ち. The term dō is found in martial arts such as judo and kendo, in various non-martial arts, such as Japanese calligraphy, flower arranging and tea ceremony. Therefore, from a purely literal interpretation, aikido is the "Way of combining forces" or "Way of unifying energy", in which the term aiki refers to the martial arts principle or tactic of blending with an attacker's movements for the purpose of controlling their actions with minimal effort. One applies aiki by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique.
Aikido was created by Morihei Ueshiba, referred to by some aikido practitioners as Ōsensei. The term aikido was coined in the twentieth century. Ueshiba envisioned aikido not only as the synthesis of his martial training, but as an expression of his personal philosophy of universal peace and reconciliation. During Ueshiba's lifetime and continuing today, aikido has evolved from the aiki that Ueshiba studied into a variety of expressions by martial artists throughout the world. Ueshiba developed aikido during the late 1920s through the 1930s through the synthesis of the older martial arts that he had studied; the core martial art from which aikido derives is Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu, which Ueshiba studied directly with Takeda Sōkaku, the reviver of that art. Additionally, Ueshiba is known to have studied Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū with Tozawa Tokusaburō in Tokyo in 1901, Gotōha Yagyū Shingan-ryū under Nakai Masakatsu in Sakai from 1903 to 1908, judo with Kiyoichi Takagi in Tanabe in 1911; the art of Daitō-ryū is the primary technical influence on aikido.
Along with empty-handed throwing and joint-locking techniques, Ueshiba incorporated training movements with weapons, such as those for the spear, short staff, the bayonet. However, aikido derives much of its technical structure from the art of swordsmanship. Ueshiba moved to Hokkaidō in 1912, began studying under Takeda Sokaku in 1915, his official association with Daitō-ryū continued until 1937. However, during the latter part of that period, Ueshiba had begun to distance himself from Takeda and the Daitō-ryū. At that time Ueshiba was referring to his martial art as "Aiki Budō", it is unclear when Ueshiba began using the name "aikido", but it became the official name of the art in 1942 when the Greater Japan Martial Virtue Society was engaged in a government sponsored reorganization and centralization of Japanese martial arts. After Ueshiba left Hokkaidō in 1919, he met and was profoundly influenced by Onisaburo Deguchi, the spiritual leader of the Ōmoto-kyō religion in Ayabe. One of the primary features of Ōmoto-kyō is its emphasis on the attainment of utopia during one's life.
This was a great influence on Ueshiba's martial arts philosophy of extending love and compassion to those who seek to harm others. Aikido demonstrates this philosophy in its emphasis on mastering martial arts so that one may receive an attack and harmlessly redirect it. In an ideal resolution, not only is the receiver unharmed, but so is the attacker. In addition to the effect on his spiritual growth, the connection with Deguchi gave Ueshiba entry to elite political and military circles as a martial artist; as a result of this exposure, he was able to attract not only financial backing but gifted students. Several of these students would found their own styles of aikido. Aikido was first brought to the rest of the world in 1951 by Minoru Mochizuki with