Shihezi

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Shihezi
石河子市شىخەنزە شەھىرى
Sub-prefecture-level city
Shihezi city 01.jpg
Shihezi is located in Xinjiang
Shihezi
Shihezi
Location in Xinjiang
Coordinates: 44°18′N 86°02′E / 44.300°N 86.033°E / 44.300; 86.033Coordinates: 44°18′N 86°02′E / 44.300°N 86.033°E / 44.300; 86.033
Country People's Republic of China
Region Xinjiang
Government
 • CPC Shihezi Committee Secretary
Area
 • Total 460 km2 (180 sq mi)
Population [1]
 • Total 640,000
 • Density 1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 832000
Area code(s) 0993

Shihezi (Chinese: 石河子; pinyin: Shíhézǐ; literally: "Stony river banks"; Uyghur: شىخەنزە, Шихәнзә‎, ULY: Shixenze, UYY: Xihənzə?) is a sub-prefecture-level city in northern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. It has a population of 380,130 according to the 2010 census.

History[edit]

Farms surrounding Shihezi fueled the development of the city, these quasi-military structured farms produce materials for the factories that have been the economic driver of the city. In 1974 Shihezi became a city.

Demographics[edit]

Over 90% of Shihezi's population are Han Chinese, with smaller number of Hui, Uighurs, Kazakhs, and various other minorities.

Population by ethnicity – 2010 census[2]
Ethnicity Population %
Han 349,149 91.85%
Hui 15,092 3.97%
Uyghur 7,574 1.99%
Kazakhs 3,042 0.80%
Tujia 1,500 0.39%
Mongol 624 0.16%
Manchu 620 0.16%
Kyrgyz 319 0.08%
Dongxiang 306 0.08%
Xibe 157 0.04%
Russian 138 0.04%
others 1,609 0.43%
Total 380,130 100%

Economy[edit]

Nowadays textile and food industries are the most important in Shihezi. Railway connection to Wusu and Ürümqi skirts the city, while a United Nation economic development project provided high quality highway systems for the city. Textile industry is the primary employment, although international trade environment on textiles has brought in fluctuations in employment, as a hub to surrounding farms, the city's destiny is currently tied with theirs. Sugar beets are cultivated near Shihezi. Cultivation of cotton in the farms was accelerated in the 1990s and now dominates the economy.[3]

Geography and climate[edit]

Shihezi is located at the northern foothills of the middle part of the Tian Shan range approximately 136 kilometres (85 mi) from the regional capital of Ürümqi.

Although Shihezi is almost surrounded from east, west, and north by Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture (which also includes the city's eastern neighbor, the much older historically Hui town of Manas), it is not a part of it.

Located in an area further from the nearest seacoast than any other region on earth, Shihezi has a continental semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), with very large temperature differences between summer and winter. Monthly average temperatures range from −15.3 °C (4.5 °F) in January to 25.3 °C (77.5 °F), and the annual mean temperature is 7.39 °C (45.3 °F). Precipitation is very low year-round, with an annual total of only 206 millimetres (8.11 in), compared to the annual evaporation rate, which is usually more than 1,000 millimetres (39 in).[4]

Climate data for Shihezi (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
6.6
(43.9)
22.7
(72.9)
35.4
(95.7)
37.4
(99.3)
39.2
(102.6)
42.2
(108)
41.0
(105.8)
39.4
(102.9)
33.3
(91.9)
17.5
(63.5)
8.3
(46.9)
42.2
(108)
Average high °C (°F) −10
(14)
−6.3
(20.7)
4.7
(40.5)
19.3
(66.7)
26.3
(79.3)
30.9
(87.6)
32.8
(91)
31.4
(88.5)
25.4
(77.7)
15.5
(59.9)
3.0
(37.4)
−6.9
(19.6)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −15.3
(4.5)
−11.6
(11.1)
−0.1
(31.8)
12.1
(53.8)
18.8
(65.8)
23.6
(74.5)
25.3
(77.5)
23.3
(73.9)
17.2
(63)
8.2
(46.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
−11.1
(12)
7.4
(45.3)
Average low °C (°F) −20.8
(−5.4)
−17
(1)
−4.9
(23.2)
5.0
(41)
11.2
(52.2)
16.0
(60.8)
17.7
(63.9)
15.2
(59.4)
9.4
(48.9)
1.8
(35.2)
−5.7
(21.7)
−15.5
(4.1)
1.0
(33.8)
Record low °C (°F) −34.4
(−29.9)
−36.5
(−33.7)
−30.5
(−22.9)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−0.2
(31.6)
6.6
(43.9)
9.6
(49.3)
3.5
(38.3)
−0.5
(31.1)
−8.9
(16)
−28.9
(−20)
−36.0
(−32.8)
−36.5
(−33.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 8.6
(0.339)
8.4
(0.331)
12.5
(0.492)
26.2
(1.031)
29.9
(1.177)
21.0
(0.827)
21.5
(0.846)
15.1
(0.594)
15.9
(0.626)
18.9
(0.744)
16.8
(0.661)
11.2
(0.441)
206.0
(8.11)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.4 6.6 6.0 6.1 7.2 8.1 9.1 5.9 5.0 5.2 6.2 9.0 82.8
Source: Weather China[4]

The Manas River forms the administrative border between Shihezi City and its eastern neighbor, Manas County. An extensive system of reservoirs (such as the Jiahezi Reservoir (夹河子水库, Jiāhézi shuǐkù, with the dam at 44°27′00″N 86°7′15″E / 44.45000°N 86.12083°E / 44.45000; 86.12083) and irrigation canals has been constructed in the area, supporting irrigated agriculture.

Education[edit]

Shihezi University is located in Shihezi. It is the 2nd largest university in Xinjiang, with approximately 40,000 students.

Transport[edit]

Shihezi is served by China National Highway 312, the Northern Xinjiang and the Second Ürümqi-Jinghe Railways. Construction to rebuild Shihezi Airport began in May 2012 and the airport is expected to reopen in 2014.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Copyright by Yingkou People
  2. ^ Stanley W. Toops (August 2012). Susan M. Walcott, Corey Johnson, eds. Eurasian Corridors of Interconnection: From the South China to the Caspian Sea. Routledge. pp. 65–66. ISBN 978-1135078751. 
  3. ^ Shihezi a 'Shining Pearl in the Gobi Desert' (China.org.cn by staff reporter Wang Qian, October 3, 2004)
  4. ^ a b 石河子城市介绍 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 2011-11-29. 

External links[edit]