William Billings is regarded as the first American choral composer. William Billings was born in Massachusetts. At the age of 14, the death of his father stopped Billings' formal schooling. In order to help support his family, young Billings trained as a tanner, he received musical instruction from John Barry, one of the choir members at the New South Church, but for the most part he was self-taught. Billings had a strong addiction to snuff, his contemporary wrote that Billings "was a singular man, of moderate size, short of one leg, with one eye, without any address & with an uncommon negligence of person. Still, he spake & sung & thought as a man above the common abilities." Billings died in poverty in Boston on September 1800, leaving behind a widow and six children. His funeral was announced in the Columbian Centinel: "Died- Mr. William Billings, the celebrated music composer, his funeral will be tomorrow at 4 o'clock, PM from the house of Mrs. Amos Penniman, in Chamber-street, West-Boston."
All of Billings' music was written for four-part chorus, singing a cappella. His many hymns and anthems were published in book-length collections, as follows: The New-England Psalm-Singer The Singing Master's Assistant Music in Miniature The Psalm-Singer's Amusement The Suffolk Harmony The Continental Harmony Sometimes Billings would revise and improve a song, including the new version in his next volume. Billings' music can be at times forceful and stirring, as in his patriotic song "Chester". "Jargon," from Singing Master's Assistant, shows his wit. Written as an answer to a criticism of his use of harmony, "Jargon" contains a tongue-in-cheek text, jarring dissonances that sound more like those of the 20th century than of the 18th, he wrote several Christmas carols, including "Judea" in 1778 and "Shiloh" in 1781. Most of the texts that Billings used in his works come from the poetry of Isaac Watts. Other texts were drawn from Universalist poets and local poets, whereas Billings himself wrote the text to about a dozen of his compositions.
As an example, McKay and Crawford compare Billings' metrical rendering of Luke 2:8–11 with that of Nahum Tate, thought to be the inspiration for Billings' work: Tate: Billings: Billings wrote long prefaces to his works in which he explained the rudiments of music and how his work should be performed. His writings reflect his extensive experience as a singing master, they provide information on choral performance practice in Billings's day. Such a conjunction of masculine and feminine voices is beyond expression and ravishing, is esteemed by all good judges to be vastly preferable to any instrument whatever, framed by human invention. Billings was involved in teaching singing schools throughout his life. In 1769, when Billings was twenty-three years old, the following announcement appeared in the Boston Gazette: "John Barrey & William Billings Begs Leave to inform the Publick, that they propose to open a Singing School THIS NIGHT... where any Person inclining to learn to Sing may be attended upon at said School with Fidelity and Dispatch."
He taught a singing school in Stoughton, Massachusetts in 1774 and all the pupils names were listed He was listed as "singing master" in the Boston city directory up until 1798. In the preface to the Singing Master's Assistant, Billings included advice for the practical running of a singing school, including topics such as logistics, expectations for manners and attentiveness in students, the need for the supremacy of the teacher's musical decisions. Billings' work was popular in its heyday, but his career was hampered by the primitive state of copyright law in America at the time. By the time the copyright laws had been strengthened, it was too late for Billings: the favorites among his tunes had been reprinted in other people's hymnals, permanently copyright-free. With changes in the public's musical taste, Billings' fortunes declined, his last tune-book, The Continental Harmony, was published as a project of his friends, in an effort to help support the revered but no longer popular composer.
His temporary employment as a Boston street sweeper was a project of a similar nature. Billings died in poverty at age 53, for a considerable time after his death, his music was completely neglected in the American musical mainstream. However, his compositions remained popular for a time in the rural areas of New England, which resisted the newer trends in sacred music. Moreover, a few of Billings' songs were carried southward and westward through America, as a result of their appearance in shape note hymnals, they resided in the rural South, as part of the Sacred Harp singing tradition. In the latter part of the twentieth century a Billings revival occurred, a sumptuous complete scholarly edition of his works was published. Works by Billings are sung by American choral groups today performers of early music. In addition, the recent spread of Sacred Harp music has acquainted many more people with Billings'
Shiloh, New Jersey
Shiloh is a borough in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States. It is part of the Vineland-Millville-Bridgeton Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area for statistical purposes; as of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 516, reflecting a decline of 18 from the 534 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 126 from the 408 counted in the 1990 Census. Shiloh was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 9, 1929, from portions of Hopewell Township and Stow Creek Township, based on the results of a referendum held on May 16, 1929; the borough was named for the Civil War Battle of Shiloh. It is a dry town, where alcohol cannot be sold, though alcohol is available at the winery in the borough; the settlement of Shiloh was founded in 1705 by Robert Ayars. He brought over 2,000 people from Rhode Island to be free of religious persecution. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.209 square miles, including 1.208 square miles of land and 0.001 square miles of water.
Shiloh borders Stow Creek Township. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 516 people, 198 households, 138.006 families residing in the borough. The population density was 427.3 per square mile. There were 214 housing units at an average density of 177.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 93.80% White, 1.74% Black or African American, 2.33% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.58% from other races, 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.07% of the population. There were 198 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 24.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.10. In the borough, the population was spread out with 21.1% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 30.4% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42.0 years. For every 100 females there were 85.6 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 89.3 males. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 516, reflecting a decline of 18 from the 534 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 126 from the 408 counted in the 1990 Census; the Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $61,000 and the median family income was $63,594. Males had a median income of $44,375 versus $32,105 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $23,003. About 7.0% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.6% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 534 people, 194 households, 152 families residing in the borough; the population density was 446.7 people per square mile. There were 204 housing units at an average density of 170.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the borough was 95.13% White, 2.62% African American, 0.56% Native American, 0.00% from other races, 1.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.00% of the population. There were 194 households out of which 34.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.9% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.6% were non-families. 18.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.09. In the borough the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $49,191, the median income for a family was $54,219.
Males had a median income of $34,643 versus $20,000 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $16,880. 5.8% of the population and 4.1% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 4.5% are under the age of 18 and 0.0% are 65 or older. Shiloh is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government; the governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office; the Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Borough form of government used by Shiloh, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie.
The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council; as of 2016, the Mayor of Shiloh is Republican B
David Bar-Hayim is an Israeli Orthodox rabbi who heads the Shilo Institute, a Jerusalem-based rabbinical court and institute of Jewish education dedicated to the Torah of Israel. David Bar-Hayim was born in Australia. After moving to Israel in 1977, he studied in Yeshivat HaKotel, subsequently in Merkaz Harav Kook in Jerusalem, he studied under Rabbi Moshe Zuriel, received rabbinic ordination from Rabbi Yosef Kapach. For a number of years, Bar-Hayim taught Talmud and Jewish philosophy in Yeshivat Nahalath Tzvi. Bar-Hayim lives in Neve Daniel with eight children. Bar Hayim lectures in the greater Jerusalem area, publishes articles in English and Hebrew on various web sites. Though he is Orthodox, Bar-Hayim prefers the terms "Halakhic" or "Torah" Judaism, explaining that the term "Orthodox" Judaism is flawed by its definition. Bar-Hayim has proposed the re-establishment of the customs of Israel, religious observances and practices that reflect those of the pre-exile Jewish communities in Israel, rather than those of Babylon or Europe.
For this purpose, he has published a prayer book intended to reflect the original composition of early Israel, based upon the Jerusalem Talmud. Since 2001, Bar-Hayim has been working along with Machon HaYerushalmi to publish a new and elucidated edition of the Jerusalem Talmud. In 2006, Bar-Hayim founded the Shilo Institute for the research and dissemination of the Torah of Israel. Bar-Hayim established the Beth HaWa'ad rabbinical court to focus on actualizing the Torah of Israel and serve as an address for Gentiles the growing Noahide community. In light of the fact that Israel is yet again a sovereign Jewish state, with Jerusalem as its capital, Bar-Hayim has argued for increased utilization of the Jerusalem Talmud, which in his opinion, in regard to Torat Eretz Yisrael and Minhagei Eretz Yisrael, contains more lucid rulings than the Babylonian Talmud, given supremacy in "exile-mode" Judaism; this has led him to issue a number of controversial rulings, some of which are listed below: In a controversial ruling, Bar-Hayim has announced that any Jew worldwide, regardless of origin, despite the practice of their forefathers, may eat kitniyot on Passover, as most Sefardi Jews do, for it is a practice rejected as an unnecessary precaution by some Halachic authorities as early as the time of its emergence.
This position has been rejected by other rabbis, including Ovadia Yosef. When the first day of Sukkot falls on Shabbat, Israeli Jews should follow the Mishna and Jerusalem Talmud's ruling, perform the lulav ritual. Hallel should be recited on Israeli Independence Day. Stainless steel utensils do not absorb dairy or meat, may therefore just be washed with soap and water between dairy and meat use. Bar-Hayim claims that the rulings of the Shulchan Aruch were intended as a resource and depiction of common practice in certain areas, that the author never intended that his rulings become compulsory for Jewry; the size of an olive in Jewish law is the size of an olive. Those commentators who over-estimated the size of the olive were unfamiliar with olives, for they had lived in lands which lacked them; the process of conversion to Judaism should be one that welcomes sincere converts and allows them the right to choose a rabbi and community which they identify with. Jewish law requires one to follow the most convincing position, truest to the sources.
One need not uphold a tradition. The common form of reclining on Passover nowadays does not convey the aristocratic nobility it was intended to, may defeat its purpose; the main purpose of Torah study is to create a holy nation that obeys the law, not withdrawn individuals seeking personal gain. A blessing is to be recited. One may eat poultry followed by dairy without a waiting period. Torah sages can err, just. Married women should wear a hair covering, not a wig, since a wig is an invalid form of head covering, it is preferable for a married Jewish woman to expose her hair than to don a wig, for the wig increases attraction in the public domain and encourages the notion that Halakha is both irrational and intellectually dishonest. One may change his nusach tefillah at any time, because the idea that a Jew should not change his nusach tefillah, has to continue to pray in the way of his forefathers, is an invented Halacha of the galut; the Gaza War and the Killing of Non-Combatants in Warfare - Why are the Rabbis Silent?
Lecture by David Bar-Hayim. 2012. Shiloh Institute Rabbi Bar Hayim – Who or what is Machon Shilo? Siddur Nusaḥ Ereṣ Yisrael – Minḥa, Birkat HaMazon, Tefillat HaDerekh
Shiloh is a 1997 American family drama film produced and directed by Dale Rosenbloom. It was shown at the Heartland Film Festival in 1996, but its general release came on April 25, 1997; the original book by the same name was written by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor. There are Shiloh 2: Shiloh Season and Saving Shiloh, both directed by Sandy Tung. An unnamed abused dog runs away from his cruel owner, Judd Travers, meets a boy named Marty Preston; the dog is not allowed to stay with him. Marty decides to remodel an abandoned shack at the top of a hidden hill for the dog to stay in for the next few weeks. Marty bonds with the dog, names him Shiloh. Marty's strict father, Ray Preston, will not let Marty keep Shiloh because he belongs to Judd Travers. Judd is a mean old man. Shiloh was the most mistreated in the pack. Marty hesitantly returns Shiloh to Judd, after Shiloh is mistreated again, the dog returns to Marty. Knowing Ray will make him take Shiloh back to Judd, Marty decides to hide Shiloh in a shed behind his house.
His secret is soon revealed when his mother, Louise Preston, comes up the hill and sees Marty and Shiloh bonding. When a German Shepherd belonging to the Bakers family attacks Shiloh, Marty turns to Ray for help. Marty takes Shiloh to Shiloh recovers quickly. Soon, Ray says. Marty urges his father to keep Shiloh, pleading about. Ray agrees to keep Shiloh until he recovers, tries not to become attached to Shiloh; that night, when Ray thinks Marty is asleep he gives the dog a treat, soon his heart softens toward granting Marty's wish. Marty goes to see Judd, asks him if he can clean up Judd's place in exchange of Shiloh. Judd agrees. Marty works the next few days at Judd's, is excited to get his new pet. After all of Marty's hard work, Judd says that there were no witnesses to the deal, that a contract is not valid without it. Marty fights with the beer-guzzling Judd. Marty continues working, sometimes overtime without being paid a penny more. Marty told Judd that he wanted Shiloh and that he worked hard for nothing.
Marty keeps Shiloh for the next few days. Marty fights with Judd again about keeping Shiloh with the help of Ray. Judd tries to kidnap Shiloh. Ray comes to the rescue and knocks Judd down, they both fight. Judd escapes Ray, grabs Shiloh, drives away in his truck. Marty can tell how much Judd is going to abuse Shiloh. Watching Marty and Shiloh in the mirror, Judd seems to consider everything and releases Shiloh from his truck and the dog runs into Marty's arms. Sheena Easton sings the theme "Are There Angels" for the Shiloh soundtrack during the credits, which show Marty walking with Shiloh at his side. Michael Moriarty as Raymond "Ray" Preston Blake Heron as Martin "Marty" Preston Scott Wilson as Judd Travers Ann Dowd as Louise "Lou" Preston J. Madison Wright as Samantha "Sam" Wallace Shira Roth as Dara Lynn Preston Tori Wright as Rebecca "Becky" Preston Bonnie Bartlett as Mrs. Wallace Rod Steiger as Dr. Wallace Frannie as Shiloh Roger Ebert gave the film 3.5 stars out of 4, calling it "a remarkably mature and complex story about a boy who loves a dog and cannot bear to see it mistreated" and that "it deals with real moral issues: with property and honesty, with whether there is a higher good that justifies breaking ordinary rules."
It has a rating of 73% on Rotten Tomatoes. Shiloh on IMDb Shiloh at Box Office Mojo Shiloh at Rotten Tomatoes Shiloh at AllMovie http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/shiloh-1997
Shiloh, DeKalb County, Alabama
Shiloh is a town in DeKalb County, United States. It incorporated in 1962. At the 2010 census the population was 274. Shiloh is located atop Sand Mountain. Shiloh is located west of the center of DeKalb County at 34°27′56″N 85°52′38″W at an elevation of 1,263 feet, it is bordered to the southwest by the town of Fyffe. Alabama State Route 75 passes through Shiloh, connecting Fyffe. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Shiloh has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 289 people, 116 households, 80 families residing in the town. The population density was 168.5 people per square mile. There were 135 housing units at an average density of 78.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.58% White, 1.38% Native American, 0.35% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.69% of the population. There were 116 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families.
25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 31.1% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $34,861, the median income for a family was $36,696. Males had a median income of $29,219 versus $25,893 for females; the per capita income for the town was $28,431. About 4.3% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.2% under the age of 18 and 15.2% ages 65 or older. Media related to Shiloh, DeKalb County, Alabama at Wikimedia Commons
Shiloh (biblical city)
Shiloh was an ancient city in Samaria mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and Christian Old Testament. It has been positively identified with modern Khirbet Seilun, a tell or archaeological mound, called in Modern Hebrew Tel Shiloh, it is located in the West Bank, to the west of the modern Israeli settlement town of Shilo and to the north of the Palestinian town of Turmus Ayya. Relative to other archeological sites, it is south of ancient Lebonah and 16 kilometres north of Beth El. Shiloh was the major Israelite worship centre; the meaning of the word "Shiloh" is unclear. Sometimes, it is translated as a Messianic title that means He Whose It Is or as Pacific, Pacificator or Tranquility that refers to the Samaritan Pentateuch. Regardless, the name of Shiloh the town is derived from שלה and may be translated as Tranquility Town. Mentioned in the Books of Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel, 1 Kings and Jeremiah, Shiloh is situated north of Bethel, east of the Bethel–Shechem highway, south of Lebonah in the hill-country of Ephraim.
Shiloh was identified unambiguously with Khirbet Seilun by American philologist E. Robinson in 1838; the location had been established long before by the Roman writer Eusebius, by Nestorius ha-Parhi. Long before the advent of the Israelites, Shiloh was a walled city with a religious shrine or sanctuary during Middle and Late Bronze Age Canaan; when the Israelites arrived in the land, they set up there the ancient wilderness tent shrine. There Joshua and Eleazar divided the land among the tribes who had not yet received their allocation and dealt with the allocation of cities to the Levites. Subsequently, Shiloh became one of the leading religious shrines in ancient Israel, a status it held until shortly before David's elevation of Jerusalem; the whole congregation of Israel assembled together at Shiloh and set up the tent of the congregation there. The tabernacle had been built under Moses' direction from God to house the Ark of the Covenant built under Moses' direction from God. According to Talmudic sources, the tent sanctuary remained at Shiloh for 369 years until the Ark of the Covenant was taken into the battle camp at Eben-Ezer and captured by the Philistines at Aphek.
At some point during its long stay at Shiloh, the portable tent seems to have been enclosed within a compound — a Greek "temenos". It was at Shiloh that Eli and Samuel ministered and Shiloh was the site of a physical structure that had "doors". At some point, the Tent of Meeting was moved to Gibeon, which became an Israelite holy site under David and Solomon. Shiloh was one of the main centers of Israelite worship during the pre-monarchic period, by virtue of the presence there of the Tent Shrine and Ark of the Covenant; the people made pilgrimages there for major feasts and sacrifices, Judges 21 records the place as the site of an annual dance of maidens among the vineyards. According to 1 Samuel 1–3, the sanctuary at Shiloh was administered by the Aaronite high priest Eli and his two sons and Phinehas. According to this account, the young Samuel was dedicated by his mother Hannah there, to be raised at the shrine by the high priest, his own prophetic ministry is presented as having begun there.
Hophni and Phinehas are noted as malicious in their dealings with those who came to the shrine to offer sacrifices. It was under Eli and his sons that the Ark was lost to Israel in a battle with the Philistines at Aphek. W. F. Albright, hypothesized that the Philistines destroyed Shiloh at this time; the place may have been destroyed as well, the biblical text records no such claimed destruction. The shadowy figure of Ahijah the Shilonite, who instigated the revolt of Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, against David's grandson Rehoboam, came from there, he bore the same name as the Aaronite priest that consulted the Ark for Saul in I Samuel 14:3. Schley has claimed that the capture of the Ark and the death of Saul occurred in the same battle and that the Davidic editors redacted the texts to make it appear as if Saul had ruled without either Tent Shrine or Ark, thus without sacral legitimacy; this claim is disputed. What is certain is that during the prophetic ministry of Jeremiah over three hundred years Shiloh had been reduced to ruins.
Jeremiah used the example of Shiloh to warn the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem what Yahweh Elohim will do to the "place where I caused my name to dwell," warning them that their holy city, like Shiloh, could fall under divine judgment. Shiloh is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in Genesis 49:10 as part of the benediction given by Jacob to his son Judah, it could be a figure the Messiah, or a place, as mentioned in Judges and in Jeremiah 41:5. A resident of Shiloh was the prophet Achiyah mentioned in I Kings 14. St. Jerome, in his letter to Paula and Eustochius, dated about 392–393, writes: "With Christ at our side we shall pass through Shiloh and Bethel "; the official church of Jerusalem did not schedule an annual pilgrimage unlike Bethel. On the contrary, Samuel's feast was held on August 20 in the village of Masephta; the pilgrims did not visit Shiloh, for the only one that mentions its name—the sixth-century pilgrim Theodosius —wrongly locates it midway between Jerusalem and Emmaus. The mistaken identifi
Shiloh College is a historic school building located at 13043 Walnut Street in Shiloh Hill, Illinois. Preparations for Shiloh College's founding began in 1836. In 1839, area residents purchased 80 acres for the school and the Illinois legislature incorporated the college. Shiloh College's students included John A. Logan, the future Civil War general, candidate for Vice President, founder of Memorial Day. By 1896, the college was financially strapped, ceased operations, leased the building to the Shiloh Hill school district; the building served as a public school until 1954, when the school was consolidated into Trico School District. The only surviving building from Shiloh College is a Greek Revival building constructed in 1881; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 15, 2005. It is one of two one-room schoolhouses remaining in the Shiloh Hill area. In 1998, the Randolph County Historical Society took ownership of the College building. In 2004, the Shiloh College Foundation was founded to support restoration of the college building