William Cuthbert Faulkner was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner wrote novels, short stories, a play, essays and he is primarily known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, based on Lafayette County, where he spent most of his life. Faulkner is one of the most celebrated writers in American literature generally, two of his works, A Fable and his last novel The Reivers, won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. Absalom, Absalom. is often included on similar lists, Faulkner was born William Cuthbert Falkner in New Albany, the first of four sons of Murry Cuthbert Falkner and Maud Butler. He had three brothers, Murry Charles Jack Falkner, author John Faulkner, and Dean Swift Falkner. Soon after his first birthday, his family moved to Ripley, Murry hoped to inherit the railroad from his father, John Wesley Thompson Falkner, but John had little confidence in Murrys ability to run a business and sold it for $75,000. Following the sale of the business, Murry became disappointed and planned a new start for his family by moving to Texas.
Maud, disagreed with this proposition, and it was decided that they would move to Oxford, where Murrys father owned several businesses, making it easy for Murry to find work. Thus, four days prior to Williams fifth birthday on September 21,1902, the Falkner family settled in Oxford and his family, particularly his mother Maud, his maternal grandmother Lelia Butler, and Caroline Callie Barr crucially influenced the development of Faulkners artistic imagination. Both his mother and grandmother were avid readers and painters and photographers, while Murry enjoyed the outdoors and encouraged his sons to hunt and fish, Maud valued education and took pleasure in reading and going to church. She taught her sons to read before sending them to school and exposed them to classics such as Charles Dickens. Faulkners lifelong education by Callie Barr is central to his novels preoccupations with the politics of sexuality, as a schoolchild, Faulkner had much success early on. He excelled in the first grade, skipped the second, and continued doing well through the third, beginning somewhere in the fourth and fifth grades of his schooling, Faulkner became a much more quiet and withdrawn child.
He began to play hooky occasionally and became indifferent to his schoolwork. The decline of his performance in school continued, and Faulkner wound up repeating the eleventh, and final grade, Faulkner spent much of his boyhood listening to stories told to him by his elders. These included war stories shared by the old men of Oxford and stories told by Barr of the Civil War, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Falkner family. Faulkners grandfather would tell him of the exploits of Williams great-grandfather, after whom he was named, William Clark Falkner, who was a successful businessman, writer. Telling stories about William Clark Falkner, whom the family called Old Colonel, had become something of a family pastime when Faulkner was a boy
In military terminology, a squad is a sub-subunit led by a non-commissioned officer that is subordinate to an infantry platoon. In countries following the British Army tradition, this organization is referred to as a section, in most armies, a squad consists of eight to fourteen soldiers, and may be further subdivided into fireteams. During World War 2 the German Wehrmacht infantry squad or Gruppe was mainly a general purpose machine gun based unit, the MG34 or MG42 GPMGs were normally used in the light machine gun role. An infantry Gruppe consisted of ten men, an officer or Unteroffizier squad leader, deputy squad leader. The riflemen carried additional ammunition, hand grenades, explosive charges or a machine gun tripod as required and provided security and covering fire for the machine gun team. Historically, a squad in the US Army was a sub-unit of a section, the smallest tactical sub-unit being the section, which was known as a half-platoon. Depending upon the period, the squad leader could be a sergeant, a corporal, a lance corporal.
In 1891, the US Army officially defined a rifle squad as consisting of seven privates, under the Triangular Division organization plan in 1939 rifle squads were no longer organized into sections. This soldier could serve as a either the squad leaders messenger to the commander or could be used to relay orders to other squad elements. However, the obvious weakness of so large a squad under one NCO rapidly became obvious in light of the pre-war mobilization and was corrected in 1940 when a second NCO was added to the squad. This adjustment raised the squad leader to a sergeant and the assistant squad leader to a corporal, the platoon leader now became a staff sergeant. This squad organization included two men serving as “scout, ” who along with the leader, formed the security element, designated as “Able. ”The second element was a three-man Browning Automatic Rifle team consisting of an automatic rifleman, an assistant automatic rifleman. This element formed the “base of fire” and was designated as “Baker.
”Lastly, there were five riflemen and the assistant squad leader, the BAR man and the senior rifleman of the Charlie element became corporals and de facto team leaders, even though not officially designated as such. After WWII, in 1948, the Army decided to downsize” the rifle squad to an organization, as post-war analysis had shown that the 12-man squad was too large. The five riflemen of the team, now led by the squad leader. In 1951 the pay grades were reversed, with master sergeant becoming E-7 and sergeant first class becoming E-6, so that the leader became a sergeant and the assistant squad leader. In the 1956 the Army began reorganizing into its Pentomic” plan under the ROCID TO&Es, the rifle squad was reorganized into an eleven-man organization with a sergeant as squad leader and two five-man fire teams. Each fire team consisted of a team leader, an automatic rifleman, an assistant automatic rifleman, a grenadier
Lewis Lew Wallace was an American lawyer, Union general in the American Civil War, governor of the New Mexico Territory, politician and author from Indiana. Wallaces military career included service in the Mexican–American War and the American Civil War and he was appointed Indianas adjutant general and commanded the 11th Indiana Infantry Regiment. Wallace, who attained the rank of general, participated in the Battle of Fort Donelson, the Battle of Shiloh. Wallace resigned from the U. S. Army in November 1865 and briefly served as a general in the Mexican army. Wallace was appointed governor of the New Mexico Territory and served as U. S. minister to the Ottoman Empire, Wallace retired to his home in Crawfordsville, where he continued to write until his death in 1905. Lewis Lew Wallace was born on April 10,1827, in Brookville and he was the second of four sons born to Esther French Wallace and David Wallace. Lews father, a graduate of the U. S, military Academy in West Point, New York, left the military in 1822 and moved to Brookville, where he established a law practice and entered Indiana politics.
David served in the Indiana General Assembly and as the lieutenant governor, and governor. Lew Wallaces maternal grandfather was circuit judge and Congressman John Test. In 1832 the family moved to Covington, where Lews mother died from tuberculosis on July 14,1834, in December 1836, David married nineteen-year-old Zerelda Gray Sanders Wallace, who became a prominent suffragist and temperance advocate. In 1837, after Davids election as governor of Indiana, the moved to Indianapolis. Lew began his education at the age of six at a public school in Covington. Wallace had a talent for drawing and loved to read, in 1840, when Wallace was thirteen, his father sent him to a private academy at Centerville, where his teacher encouraged Lews natural affinity for writing. Wallace returned to Indianapolis the following year, sixteen-year-old Lew went out to earn his own wages in 1842, after his father refused to pay for more schooling. Wallace found a job copying records at the Marion County clerks office and he joined the Marion Rifles, a local militia unit, and began writing his first novel, The Fair God, but it was not published until 1873.
Wallace acknowledged in his autobiography that he had never been a member of any organized religion and he was appointed a second lieutenant, and on June 19,1846, mustered into military service with the Marion Volunteers. Wallace rose to the position of adjutant and the rank of first lieutenant while serving in the army of Zachary Taylor. Wallace was mustered out of the service on June 15,1847, and returned to Indiana
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
H. Lawrence Hoffman
H. Lawrence Hoffman was a commercial book jacket designer and illustrator who worked in New York City. He illustrated book covers for over 25 publishing companies, including Pocket Books, Popular Library, Simon & Schuster, The Viking Press, over the course of his career, he created over 600 book jacket covers. From 1941 to 1951, he was an Art Director and Partner at Immerman Art Studios, from 1952 till the end of his career he worked as a free-lance artist and book illustrator. He taught Illustration and Lettering at The Cooper Union from 1960–67, post University from 1967 to 1976. Beginning in 1943, Hoffman designed all but 11 of the first 125 paperback covers for Popular Library, Hoffman repeated the cover illustration as a smaller line drawing on the title page. The book was selected as one of the 50 best books of the year by the American Institute of Graphic Arts, New York,1964 Operation Manhunt by Christopher Nicole, Holt Rinehart and Winston 1970 Flight of Exiles by Ben Bova, E. P. Dutton & Co.
New York, NY,1972 Cover photos of Hoffmans books, page about H. Lawrences son, filmmaker David Hoffman
In military operations, reconnaissance is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and enemy presence. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops, ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, espionage normally is not reconnaissance, because reconnaissance is a militarys special forces operating ahead of its main forces, spies are non-combatants operating behind enemy lines. Often called recce or recon, the verb is reconnaître. Traditionally, reconnaissance was a role that was adopted by the cavalry, speed was key in these maneuvers, thus infantry was ill suited to the task. From horses to vehicles, for warriors throughout history, commanders procured their ability to have speed and mobility, to mount and dismount, skirmishing is a traditional skill of reconnaissance, as well as harassment of the enemy. Reconnaissance conducted by ground forces includes special reconnaissance, armored reconnaissance, amphibious reconnaissance, aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance carried out by aircraft.
The purpose is to weather conditions, map terrain, and may include military purposes such as observing tangible structures, particular areas. Naval forces use aerial and satellite reconnaissance to observe enemy forces, navies undertake hydrographic surveys and intelligence gathering. Reconnaissance satellites provide military commanders with photographs of enemy forces and other intelligence, military forces use geographical and meteorological information from Earth observation satellites. A tracker needs to pay attention to both the environment and the psychology of his enemy. Knowledge of human psychology and cultural backgrounds is necessary to know the actions of the enemy and this is almost as necessary as to know the physical character of the country, its climate and products. Certain people will do certain things almost without fail, certain other things, perfectly feasible, they will not do. There is no danger of knowing too much of the habits of an enemy. One should neither underestimate the enemy nor credit him with superhuman powers and courage are latent in every human being, though roused into activity by very diverse means.
Types of reconnaissance, Terrain-oriented reconnaissance is a survey of the terrain, force-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the enemy forces and may include target acquisition. Civil-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the dimension of the battlespace. The techniques and objectives are not mutually exclusive, it is up to the commander whether they are carried out separately or by the same unit, some military elements tasked with reconnaissance are armed only for self-defense, and rely on stealth to gather information. Others are well-enough armed to deny information to the enemy by destroying their reconnaissance elements, reconnaissance-in-force is a type of military operation or military tactics used specifically to probe an enemys disposition
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States. As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War and he implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with President Andrew Johnson. His presidency has often criticized for tolerating corruption and for the severe economic depression in his second term. Grant graduated in 1843 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, after the war he married Julia Boggs Dent in 1848, their marriage producing four children. Grant initially retired from the Army in 1854 and he struggled financially in civilian life. When the Civil War began in 1861, he rejoined the U. S. Army, in 1862, Grant took control of Kentucky and most of Tennessee, and led Union forces to victory in the Battle of Shiloh, earning a reputation as an aggressive commander. He incorporated displaced African American slaves into the Union war effort, in July 1863, after a series of coordinated battles, Grant defeated Confederate armies and seized Vicksburg, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River and dividing the Confederacy in two.
After his victories in the Chattanooga Campaign, Lincoln promoted him to lieutenant general, Grant confronted Robert E. Lee in a series of bloody battles, trapping Lees army in their defense of Richmond. Grant coordinated a series of devastating campaigns in other theaters, as well, in April 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, effectively ending the war. Historians have hailed Grants military genius, and his strategies are featured in history textbooks. After the Civil War, Grant led the armys supervision of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states and he used the army to build the Republican Party in the South. After the disenfranchisement of some former Confederates, Republicans gained majorities, in his second term, the Republican coalitions in the South splintered and were defeated one by one as redeemers regained control using coercion and violence. In May 1875, Grant authorized his Secretary of Treasury Benjamin Bristow to shut down and his peace policy with the Indians initially reduced frontier violence, but is best known for the Great Sioux War of 1876.
Grant responded to charges of corruption in executive offices more than any other 19th Century president and he appointed the first Civil Service Commission and signed legislation ending the corrupt moiety system. In foreign policy, Grant sought to trade and influence while remaining at peace with the world. His administration successfully resolved the Alabama claims by the Treaty of Washington with Great Britain, Grant avoided war with Spain over the Virginius Affair, but Congress rejected his attempted annexation of the Dominican Republic. His administration implemented a standard and sought to strengthen the dollar. Grant left office in 1877 and embarked on a two-year diplomatic world tour that captured the nations attention, in 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term
Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients treatments based on the severity of their condition. This rations patient treatment efficiently when resources are insufficient for all to be treated immediately, the term comes from the French verb trier, meaning to separate, sift or select. Triage may result in determining the order and priority of emergency treatment, Triage may be used for patients arriving at the emergency department, or telephoning medical advice systems, among others. This article deals with the concept of triage as it occurs in medical emergencies, including the setting, disasters. The term triage may have originated during the Napoleonic Wars from the work of Dominique Jean Larrey, the term was used further during World War I by French doctors treating the battlefield wounded at the aid stations behind the front. For many emergency medical systems, a similar model may sometimes still be applied. In the earliest stages of an incident, such as one or two paramedics exist to twenty or more patients, practicality demands that the above, more primitive model will be used.
However once a full response has occurred and many hands are available, paramedics will usually use the model included in their service policy, as medical technology has advanced, so have modern approaches to triage, which are increasingly based on scientific models. The categorizations of the victims are frequently the result of triage scores based on specific physiological assessment findings, some models, such as the START model may be algorithm-based. As triage concepts become more sophisticated, triage guidance is evolving into both software and hardware decision support products for use by caregivers in both hospitals and the field and this section is for concepts in triage. This step can be started before transportation becomes available, at its most primitive, patients may be simply marked with coloured flagging tape or with marker pens. Pre-printed cards for this purpose are known as a triage tags, a triage tag is a prefabricated label placed on each patient that serves to accomplish several objectives, identify the patient.
Identify the priority of the patients need for treatment and transport from the emergency scene. Track the patients progress through the triage process, identify additional hazards such as contamination. Triage tags may take a variety of forms, some countries use a nationally standardized triage tag, while in other countries commercially available triage tags are used, and these will vary by jurisdictional choice. The most commonly used commercial systems include the METTAG, the SMARTTAG, E/T LIGHT tm, some of these tracking systems are beginning to incorporate the use of handheld computers, and in some cases, bar code scanners. For classifications, see the section for that topic. In advanced triage and specially trained nurses may decide that some seriously injured people should not receive advanced care because they are unlikely to survive
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Nathan Bedford Forrest, called Bedford Forrest in his lifetime, was a lieutenant general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. A cavalry and military commander in the war, Forrest is one of the wars most unusual figures, although less educated than many of his fellow officers, before the war Forrest had already amassed a fortune as a planter, real estate investor, and slave trader. He was one of the few officers in either army to enlist as a private and be promoted to general officer and he created and established new doctrines for mobile forces, earning the nickname The Wizard of the Saddle. In their postwar writings, Confederate President Jefferson Davis and General Robert E. Lee both expressed their belief that the Confederate high command had failed to fully use Forrests talents, Ulysses S. Grant called him that devil Forrest. Another Union general, William Tecumseh Sherman, it is reported, considered him the most remarkable man our civil war produced on either side and he was unquestionably one of the Civil Wars most brilliant tacticians.
Without military education or training, he became the scourge of Grant, Forrest fought by simple rules, he maintained that war means fighting and fighting means killing and that the way to win was to get there first with the most men. He played pivotal roles at Fort Donelson, the capture of Murfreesboro, the Nashville campaign, Brices Cross Roads, and in pursuit and capture of Streights Raiders. Forrest was notoriously accused of war crimes at the Battle of Fort Pillow for allowing forces under his command to massacre hundreds of black Union Army, Sherman investigated the allegations and did not charge Forrest with any improprieties. He was a delegate from Tennessee to the New York Democratic national convention of 4 July 1868. Forrest was an member of the Ku Klux Klan. Nathan Bedford Forrest was born to a poor Scotch-Irish American family in Bedford County and he and his twin sister, were the two eldest of blacksmith William Forrests 12 children with wife Miriam Beck. After the deaths of his father and Fanny to scarlet fever, in 1841, Forrest went into business with his uncle Jonathan Forrest in Hernando, Mississippi.
His uncle was killed there in 1845 during an argument with the Matlock brothers, in retaliation, Forrest shot and killed two of them with his two-shot pistol and wounded two others with a knife which had been thrown to him. One of the wounded Matlock men survived and served under Forrest during the Civil War, Forrest became a businessman and slaveholder. He owned several plantations in the Delta region of West Tennessee. He was a trader, at a time when demand was booming in the Deep South. In 1858, was elected a Memphis city alderman, Forrest supported his mother and put his younger brothers through college. By the time the American Civil War started in 1861, he had become a millionaire and one of the richest men in the South, before the Civil War, Forrest was well known as a Memphis speculator and Mississippi gambler
Albert Sidney Johnston
Albert Sidney Johnston served as a general in three different armies, the Texian Army, the United States Army, and the Confederate States Army. He saw extensive combat during his career, fighting actions in the Texas War of Independence, the Mexican–American War, the Utah War. Johnston was the officer, Union or Confederate, killed during the entire war. Davis believed the loss of Johnston was the point of our fate. Johnston was unrelated to Confederate general Joseph E. Johnston, Johnston was born in Washington, the youngest son of Dr. John and Abigail Johnston. His father was a native of Salisbury, although Albert Johnston was born in Kentucky, he lived much of his life in Texas, which he considered his home. He was first educated at Transylvania University in Lexington, where he met fellow student Jefferson Davis, both were appointed to the United States Military Academy, Davis two years behind Johnston. In 1826 Johnston graduated eighth of 41 cadets in his class from West Point with a commission as a second lieutenant in the 2nd U. S.
Infantry. Johnston was assigned to posts in New York and Missouri and served in the Black Hawk War in 1832 as chief of staff to Bvt, in 1829 he married Henrietta Preston, sister of Kentucky politician and future Civil War general William Preston. They had one son, William Preston Johnston, who became a colonel in the Confederate Army, the senior Johnston resigned his commission in 1834 in order to care for his dying wife in Kentucky, who succumbed two years to tuberculosis. After serving as Secretary of War for the Republic of Texas from 1838 to 1840, in 1843, he married Eliza Griffin, his late wifes first cousin. The couple moved to Texas, where they settled on a plantation in Brazoria County. Johnston named the property China Grove, here they raised Johnstons two children from his first marriage and the first three children born to Eliza and him. In 1836 Johnston moved to Texas and he enlisted as a private in the Texas Army during the Texas War of Independence against the Republic of Mexico.
He was named Adjutant General as a colonel in the Republic of Texas Army on August 5,1836, on January 31,1837, he became senior brigadier general in command of the Texas Army. On December 22,1838, Mirabeau B, the second president of the Republic of Texas, appointed Johnston as Secretary of War. He provided for the defense of the Texas border against Mexican invasion, in February 1840, he resigned and returned to Kentucky. Johnston returned to Texas during the Mexican–American War under General Zachary Taylor as a colonel of the 1st Texas Rifle Volunteers, the enlistments of his volunteers ran out just before the Battle of Monterrey
Many war novels are historical novels. The war novels origins are in the poetry of the classical and medieval periods, especially Homers The Iliad, Virgils The Aeneid, sagas like the Old English Beowulf. Other important influences on the war included the tragedies of dramatists such as Euripides, Seneca the Younger, Christopher Marlowe. Euripedes The Trojan Women is a disturbing play on the theme of wars horrors. A Notable non-western example of war novel is Luo Guanzhongs Romance of the Three Kingdoms, an example of one such work is Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausens Simplicius Simplicissimus, a semi-autobiographical account of the Thirty Years War. World War I produced a number of war novels, by writers from countries on all sides of the conflict. One of the first and most influential of these was the 1916 novel Le Feu by the French novelist, barbusses novel, with its open criticism of nationalist dogma and military incompetence, initiated the anti-war movement in literature that flourished after the war.
Of equal significance is the work of Ernst Jünger, In Stahlgewittern. The work not only provides for a perspective of the War. One example of type of novel is Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway, in which a key subplot concerns the tortuous descent of a young veteran, Septimus Warren Smith, toward insanity. In 1924, Laurence Stallings published his war novel, Plumes. The 1920s saw the so-called war book boom, during which men who had fought during the war were finally ready to write openly and critically about their war experiences. Novels about World War I appeared less in the 1930s, though during this decade historical novels about earlier wars became popular, margaret Mitchells Gone with the Wind, which recalls the American Civil War, is an example of works of this trend. World War II gave rise to a new boom in contemporary war novels, among more recent European novels is Ukraine - In the Time of War, by Sonia Campbell-Gillies which has seen a sudden upsurge in demand since the annexation of Crimea by Russia.
Ukraines war-torn history is mirrored in the struggle for survival, Ukrainian literature is scarce since the Ukrainian language was banned during occupation by various forces. The previous volume Le sursis (1945, The Reprieve, explores the ramifications of the appeasement pact that Great Britain, another significant French war novel was Pierre Boulles Le Pont de la rivière Kwaï. He served as an agent under the name Peter John Rule and helped the resistance movement in China, Burma. He served in the cavalry in 1940 and even took part in an attack on horseback against tanks, Greenes The End of the Affair is set mainly during the flying bomb raids on London of 1944
Battle of Shiloh
The Battle of Shiloh, known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7,1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union force known as the Army of the Tennessee under Major General Ulysses S. T. Beauregard, launched an attack on Grants army from its base in Corinth. Johnston was killed in action during the fighting, who succeeded to command of the army. Overnight Grant was reinforced by one of his own divisions stationed further north and was joined by three divisions from another Union army under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell. This allowed them to launch a counterattack the next morning which completely reversed the Confederate gains of the previous day. On April 6, the first day of the battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the river, Johnston hoped to defeat Grants army before the anticipated arrival of General Buells Army of the Ohio. The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fighting, and Grants men instead fell back to the northeast.
A Union position on a sunken road, nicknamed the Hornets Nest. Benjamin Prentisss and William H. L. Wallaces divisions, provided critical time for the remainder of the Union line to stabilize under the protection of artillery batteries. Wallace was mortally wounded when the position collapsed, while several regiments from the two divisions were surrounded and surrendered. General Johnston was shot in the leg and bled to death while leading an attack. Beauregard, his second in command, acknowledged how tired the army was from the days exertions, Confederate forces were forced to retreat from the area, ending their hopes of blocking the Union advance into northern Mississippi. Smiths orders were to lead raids intended to capture or damage the railroads in southwestern Tennessee, Brig. Gen. William T. Shermans troops arrived from Paducah, Kentucky, to conduct a similar mission to break the railroads near Eastport, Mississippi. Halleck ordered Grant to advance his Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River, Grant left Fort Henry and headed upriver, arriving at Savannah, Tennessee, on March 14, and established his headquarters on the east bank of the river.
Grants troops set up camp farther upriver, five divisions at Pittsburg Landing, meanwhile, Hallecks command was enlarged through consolidation of Grants and Buells armies and renamed the Department of the Mississippi. With Buells Army of the Ohio under his command, Halleck ordered Buell to concentrate with Grant at Savannah, Buell began a march with much of his army from Nashville and headed southwest toward Savannah. The railroad was a supply line connecting the Mississippi River at Memphis, Tennessee to Richmond. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant developed a reputation during the war for being concerned with his own plans than with those of the enemy