Norman De Mattos Bentwich OBE MC was a British barrister and legal academic. He was the British-appointed attorney-general of a lifelong Zionist. Norman Bentwich was the oldest son of British Zionist Herbert Bentwich, he attended Trinity College, Cambridge. Bentwich was a delegate at the annual Zionist Congresses from 1907 to 1912, he paid his first visit to Palestine in 1908. During the British military administration of Palestine, Bentwich served as Senior Judicial Officer, which continued in the civil administration after 1920 as Legal Secretary; the title was soon changed to Attorney-General, a post he held until 1931. Bentwich played a major role in the development of Palestinian law. According to Likhovski, he "concentrated his efforts on providing Palestine with a set of modern commercial laws that he believed would facilitate economic development and thus attract more Jewish immigration." Bentwich's perceived Zionist bias made him unpopular with Palestinian Arabs, who conducted demonstrations and other protests against his presence in the administration.
Some British officials, including the Colonial Office and the Chief Justice of Palestine Michael McDonnell, saw him as a liability and agitated for his dismissal. In 1929 he was barred from representing the government at the Shaw Commission into the August riots. In late 1930 he went on leave to England, where he unsuccessfully sought to gain support for his continued role in Palestine, he turned them down. In August 1931 his appointment as Attorney-General was terminated by the Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, who cited "the peculiar racial and political conditions of Palestine, the difficulties with which the Administration has in consequence to bear."In November 1929, Bentwich was shot in the thigh by a 17-year-old Arab employee of the Palestine Police. His assailant was sentenced to 15 years hard labour, despite Bentwich advocating for him. From 1932 to 1951 Bentwich occupied the Chair of International Relations at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, his first lecture, on "Jerusalem, City of Peace", was disrupted by Jewish students who considered him too conciliatory towards the Arabs.
Several of the ringleaders, one of them Avraham Stern, were suspended. Bentwich was a disciple of Zionist thinker Ahad Ha'am, wrote a book about him, Ahad Ha'am and His Philosophy, in 1927, he was one of the Jewish members of Palestine Administration who in 1929 joined Brit Shalom, a society founded to find rapprochement between Jews and Arabs in Palestine. He was President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. In his book, Mandate Memories, he stated that "the Balfour Declaration was not an impetuous or sentimental act of the British government, as has been sometimes represented, or a calculated measure of political warfare, it was a deliberate decision of British policy and idealist politics and reweighed, adopted only after full consultation with the United States and with other Allied Nations." Called to the bar, 1908 Ministry of Justice, Cairo, 1912–1915 Major, Camel Transport, 1916–1918 Legal secretary to military administration, Palestine, 1918–22 First attorney-general in mandatory government of Palestine, 1922–30 Recalled to Colonial Office, 1930–31 Professor of International Relations, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1932 and 1945–1951 Director of League of Nations High Commission for Refugees from Germany, 1933–1935 British Ministry of Information and Air Ministry, 1939–45 Co-editor of the Jewish Review, 1910–1913 and 1932–1934 Lecturer at Hague Academy of International Law, 1929, 1934 and 1955 Vice-President, Jewish Committee for Relief Abroad Chairman, National Peace Council, 1944–1946 Chairman, United Restitution Organization, 1948–1971 Foreign Office Committee on Restitution in British Zone of Germany, 1951 President, Jewish Historical Society, 1960–1962 Chairman, Friends of Hebrew University President of North Western Reform Synagogue, Alyth Gardens, London 1958–71 Bentwich published a large number of books and articles.
Some of his books are listed here. Philo-Judaeus of Alexandria, Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1910; the Declaration of London, with an introduction and notes and appendices, E. Wilson, London, 1911. Students leading cases and statutes on international law, Sweet & Maxwell, London, 1913. Josephus, Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1914. Bentwich, Norman. Palestine of the Jews: past and future. London: K. Paul, Trubner. Hellenism, The Jewish publication society of America, Philadelphia, 1919. Ahad Ha'am and his philosophy, Keren Hayesod and the Keren Kayemeth Le-Israel, Jerusalem, 1927; the Mandates System, London, 1930. England in Palestine, Kegan Paul, Trubner & Co. Ltd. London, 1932. Palestine, London, 1934. Fulfilment in the Promised land, 1917–1937, Soncino Press, London, 1938. Solomon Schecter: A Biography, Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1938 Wanderer Between Two Worlds – An Autobiography, Kegan Paul Trench Trubner, London, 1941. Judaea lives again, V. Gollancz, London, 1943.
Israel, Ernest Bend, 1952. For Zion's Sake. A Biography of Judah L. Magnes. First Chancellor and First President of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jewish Publication Society, 1954. Israel And Her Neighbours: A Short Historical Geography, Rider And Company, London, 1955; the Jews in our Times, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1960. Israel Resurgent, Ernest Benn, London, 1960. My 77 years: an account of my life and times, 1883–1960, Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1961. Mandate Memories, The Hogarth Press, London, 1965. Is
Supreme Court of Israel
The Supreme Court is the highest court in Israel. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all other courts, in some cases original jurisdiction; the Supreme Court consists of 15 Judges, who are appointed by the President of Israel, upon nomination by the Judicial Selection Committee. Once appointed, Judges serve until retirement at the age of 70, unless they resign or are removed from office; the current President of the Supreme Court is Esther Hayut. The Court is situated in Jerusalem's Givat Ram governmental campus, about half a kilometer from Israel's legislature, the Knesset; when ruling as the High Court of Justice, the court rules on the legality of decisions of State authorities: government decisions, those of local authorities and other bodies and persons performing public functions under the law, direct challenges to the constitutionality of laws enacted by the Knesset. The court may review actions by state authorities outside of Israel. By the principle of binding precedent, Supreme Court rulings are binding upon every other court, except itself.
Over the years, it has ruled on numerous sensitive issues, some of which relate to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the rights of Arab citizens, discrimination between Jewish groups in Israel. Supreme Court Judges are appointed by the President of Israel, from names submitted by the Judicial Selection Committee, composed of nine members: three Supreme Court Judges, two cabinet ministers, two Knesset members, two representatives of the Israel Bar Association. Appointing Supreme Court Judges requires a majority of 7 of the 9 committee members, or two less than the number present at the meeting; the three organs of state—the legislative and judicial branches of government—as well as the bar association are represented in the Judges' Nominations Committee. Thus, the shaping of the judicial body, through the manner of judicial appointment, is carried out by all the authorities together. Supreme Court Judges cannot be removed from office except by a decision of the Court of Discipline, consisting of judges appointed by the President of the Supreme Court, or upon a decision of the Judicial Selection Committee—at the proposal of the Minister of Justice or the President of the Supreme Court—with the agreement of seven of its nine members.
The following are qualified to be appointed Judge of the Supreme Court: a person who has held office as a judge of a District Court for a period of five years, or a person, inscribed, or entitled to be inscribed, in the roll of advocates, has for not less than ten years –continuously or intermittently, of which five years at least in Israel – been engaged in the profession of an advocate, served in a judicial capacity or other legal function in the service of the State of Israel or other service as designated in regulations in this regard, or has taught law at a university or a higher school of learning as designated in regulations in this regard. An "eminent jurist" can be appointed to the Supreme Court; the number of Supreme Court Judges is determined by a resolution of the Knesset. There are 15 Supreme Court Judges. At the head of the Supreme Court and at the head of the judicial system as a whole stands the President of the Supreme Court, at his or her side, the Deputy President. A judge's term ends when he or she reaches 70 years of age, dies, is appointed to another position that disqualifies him or her, or is removed from office.
As of August 2018, the Supreme Court Judges are: Gilad Lubinsky Ziv and Sarit Abadian serve as the Court Magistrate Judges. Below is a list of presidents of the Supreme Court: As an appellate court, the Supreme Court considers cases on appeal on judgments and other decisions of the District Courts, it considers appeals on judicial and quasi-judicial decisions of various kinds, such as matters relating to the legality of Knesset elections and disciplinary rulings of the Bar Association. As the High Court of Justice, the Supreme Court rules as a court of first instance in matters regarding the legality of decisions of State authorities: Government decisions, those of local authorities and other bodies and persons performing public functions under the law, direct challenges to the constitutionality of laws enacted by the Knesset; the Israeli Defense Forces are subject to the HCJ's judicial review. The court has broad discretionary authority to rule on matters in which it considers it necessary to grant relief in the interests of justice, which are not within the jurisdiction of another court or tribunal.
The High Court of Justice grants relief through orders such as injunction and Habeas Corpus, as well as through declaratory judgments. The Supreme Court can sit at a “further hearing” on its own judgment. In a matter on which the Supreme Court has ruled, whether as a court of appeals or as the High Court of Justice, with a panel of three or more Judges, it may rule at a further hearing with a panel of a larger number of Judges. A further hearing may be held if the Supreme Court makes a ruling inconsistent with a previous ruling or if the Court deems that the importance, difficulty or novelty of a ruling of the Court justifies such hearing; the Supreme Court, both as an appellate court and the High Court of Justice, is constituted of a panel of three Judges. A single Supreme Court Judge may rule on interim orders
Israel Friedlander spelled Friedlaender, was a rabbi, educator and biblical scholar. Together with Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan, he was a founding adviser to a lecture series that became the Young Israel movement of Modern Orthodox Judaism. Friedlander was born in Włodawa, Poland to Pinchas Friedlander, a cattle dealer, his wife Gittel, 16 years old at the time of his birth, he was the eldest of four children. As a boy, he attended cheder in Warsaw. From 1896 to 1900 he attended Berlin University and the Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary, where he received his rabbinic ordination, he received his PhD from the University of Strasbourg in 1901. His first position was as a privatdozent in Semitic languages at the University of Strasbourg from 1902 to 1903. In October 1903 he came to the Jewish Theological Seminary of America as the Sabato Morais Professor of Biblical Literature and Exegesis, a position he held until his death, he served as a history instructor at the Teacher's Institute of the Seminary. A translator and Arabist, Friedlander was fluent in Yiddish, Russian and Assyrian.
As his command of English was poor, he taught in German during his early years at the Jewish Theological Seminary. He authored and translated numerous works, he married Lilian Ruth Bentwich of London, England, on 26 September 1905. They had three daughters. With his marriage, Friedlander became the brother-in-law of Norman Bentwich, the first Attorney-General of Mandate Palestine from 1918 to 1931. In 1909 Friedlander became the founding president of Young Judaea, an amalgam of several Zionist youth groups. In 1912, together with Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan, a professor of homiletics and philosophy of religion at the Jewish Theological Seminary, he guided young Jewish adults in combating assimilation into secular American society or Reform circles; these efforts resulted in a popular lecture series, which were a predecessor of the Young Israel movement to combat the wave of assimilation by Jews. Friedlander was the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Bureau of Education of the Jewish community in New York.
He was part of the Governing Board of the Intercollegiate Menorah Society, the Executive Committee of Bureau of Education of the Jewish Community of New York City and the Executive Committee of the Federation of American Zionists. He was known for his ardent support of Zionism. In 1918, Friedlander was invited to travel to Mandate Palestine as the Jewish representative of a Red Cross relief mission. In January 1920, Friedlander traveled to Poland as part of a four-member commission of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee to distribute $35 million to starving Jews in Poland and Ukraine; the US State Department gave its permission for the trip, but would not issue passports or afford any protection to the commission members. On July 5, Friedlander and Rabbi Bernard Cantor were murdered by soldiers of the Red Cavalry near Kamenetz-Podolsk, Ukraine. After her husband's death, Lilian moved her family back to England. Past and Present: A Collection of Jewish Essays The Problem of Judaism in America The Problem of Jewish Education in America, the Bureau of Education of the Jewish Community of New York City The Present Crisis in American Jewry The Jews of Russia and Poland: A Bird's-Eye View of Their History and Culture Zionism and the World Peace Beizer M.
Who Murdered Professor Israel Friedlaender and Rabbi Bernard Cantor: The Truth Rediscovered, American Jewish Archives Journal, Vol. 55, # 1, 2003, pp. 63–113. Works by Israel Friedlaender at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Israel Friedlander at Internet Archive
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
University of Chicago Law School
The University of Chicago Law School is a professional graduate school of the University of Chicago. It employs more than 200 full-time and part-time faculty and hosts more than 600 students in its Juris Doctor program, while offering the Master of Laws, Master of Studies in Law and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees in law, it is ranked among the top law schools in the world, has produced many distinguished alumni in the judiciary, government and business. The law school was conceived in 1902 by the President of the University of Chicago, William Rainey Harper, who requested assistance from faculty at Harvard Law School in setting up the new school. Harper and the law school's first Dean, Joseph Henry Beale, designed the school's curriculum with inspiration from Ernst Freund's interdisciplinary approach to legal education; the construction of the school was financed by John D. Rockefeller and the cornerstone was laid by President Theodore Roosevelt; the law school opened for classes in 1903.
In the 1930s, the law school's curriculum was transformed by the emergence of the law and economics movement. Economists Aaron Director and Henry Calvert Simons taught courses integrated with the antitrust curriculum taught by statesman Edward H. Levi, leading to the development of the Chicago school of economics and the Chicago School approach to antitrust law; the law school expanded in the 1950s under Levi's leadership and, in the 1970s and 1980s, many scholars with connections to the social sciences were attracted to the school's influence in law and economics, including Nobel laureates Ronald Coase and Gary Becker and the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century, Richard A. Posner; the law school's flagship publication is the University of Chicago Law Review. Students edit two other independent law journals, with another three journals overseen by faculty; the law school was housed in Stuart Hall, a Gothic-style limestone building on the campus's main quadrangles. Since 1959, it has been housed in an Eero Saarinen-designed building across the Midway Plaisance from the main campus of the University of Chicago.
The building was expanded in 1987 and again in 1998. It was renovated in 2008. In 1902, the President of the University of Chicago, William Rainey Harper, requested assistance from the faculty of Harvard Law School in establishing a law school at Chicago. Joseph Henry Beale a professor at Harvard, was granted a two-year leave of absence to serve as the first Dean of the law school. Beale and Harper assembled the faculty and designed the curriculum, inspired by jurist and professor Ernst Freund. Freund had suggested that the school advocate an interdisciplinary approach to legal studies, offering elective courses in subjects such as history and political science. In 1903, the law school opened for classes in the University Press Building. John D. Rockefeller paid the $250,000 construction cost, President Theodore Roosevelt laid its cornerstone. At the time of its opening, the law school consisted of 78 students. In 1904, the law school moved to Stuart Hall on the main University campus. In the same year, Sophonisba Breckinridge became the first woman to graduate from the law school.
The law school established its first alumni association. There was considerable change in the law school in the years leading up to World War I and shortly thereafter; the law school established a chapter of the Order of the Coif in 1911. It established the Moot Court program in 1914. During World War I, enrolment at the law school declined: in Spring 1917, 241 students were enrolled. In 1920, Earl B. Dickerson became the first African-American to graduate from the law school. In 1926, enrolment reached 500 students for the first time and, in 1927, the law school began to offer its first seminars. In the 1930s, the law school's curriculum transformed to reflect the emerging influence of the law and economics movement. Aaron Director and Henry Simons began offering economics courses in 1933. Faculty member Edward Levi introduced economics in the antitrust course, permitting Director to teach one of every five classroom sessions; the first volume of the University of Chicago Law Review was published in 1933.
The law school established a legal writing program in 1938 and the Law and Economics Program in 1939. The LL. M. program was established in 1942, while Harry A. Bigelow Teaching Fellowships were established in 1947; as was the case during World War I, enrolment at the law school, like at many of the other top law schools in the country and its academic calendar was adjusted to meet military needs. In the 1950s and 1960s, the law school experienced a period of profound growth and expansion under the leadership of Edward Levi, appointed Dean in 1950. In 1951, Karl Llewellyn and Soia Mentschikoff joined the law school, the latter being the first woman on the faculty. In 1958, Director founded the Journal of Economics. In 1959, the law school moved to its current building on 60th Street, designed by Eero Saarinen. In 1960, constitutional law scholar Philip Kurland founded the Supreme Court Review. Levi served as the Provost and the President of the University of Chicago, before becoming the United States Attorney General under President Gerald Ford.
During his time at the law school, Levi supported the Committee on Social Thought graduate program. By the 1970s and 1980s, the law and economics movement had attracted a series of scholars with strong connections to the social sciences, such as Nobel laureates Ronald Coase and Gary Becker and scholars Richard A. Posner and William M. Landes. In 1972, Posner foun