A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages arranged alphabetically, which may include information on definitions, etymologies, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon. It is a lexicographical reference. A broad distinction is made between specialized dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study. In theory, general dictionaries are supposed to be semasiological, mapping word to definition, while specialized dictionaries are supposed to be onomasiological, first identifying concepts and establishing the terms used to designate them. In practice, the two approaches are used for both types.
There are other types of dictionaries that do not fit neatly into the above distinction, for instance bilingual dictionaries, dictionaries of synonyms, rhyming dictionaries. The word dictionary is understood to refer to a general purpose monolingual dictionary. There is a contrast between prescriptive or descriptive dictionaries. Stylistic indications in many modern dictionaries are considered by some to be less than objectively descriptive. Although the first recorded dictionaries date back to Sumerian times, the systematic study of dictionaries as objects of scientific interest themselves is a 20th-century enterprise, called lexicography, initiated by Ladislav Zgusta; the birth of the new discipline was not without controversy, the practical dictionary-makers being sometimes accused by others of "astonishing" lack of method and critical-self reflection. The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian Empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla and dated 2300 BCE.
The early 2nd millennium BCE Urra=hubullu glossary is the canonical Babylonian version of such bilingual Sumerian wordlists. A Chinese dictionary, the c. 3rd century BCE Erya, was the earliest surviving monolingual dictionary. Philitas of Cos wrote a pioneering vocabulary Disorderly Words which explained the meanings of rare Homeric and other literary words, words from local dialects, technical terms. Apollonius the Sophist wrote the oldest surviving Homeric lexicon; the first Sanskrit dictionary, the Amarakośa, was written by Amara Sinha c. 4th century CE. Written in verse, it listed around 10,000 words. According to the Nihon Shoki, the first Japanese dictionary was the long-lost 682 CE Niina glossary of Chinese characters; the oldest existing Japanese dictionary, the c. 835 CE Tenrei Banshō Meigi, was a glossary of written Chinese. In Frahang-i Pahlavig, Aramaic heterograms are listed together with their translation in Middle Persian language and phonetic transcription in Pazand alphabet. A 9th-century CE Irish dictionary, Sanas Cormaic, contained etymologies and explanations of over 1,400 Irish words.
In India around 1320, Amir Khusro compiled the Khaliq-e-bari which dealt with Hindustani and Persian words. Arabic dictionaries were compiled between the 8th and 14th centuries CE, organizing words in rhyme order, by alphabetical order of the radicals, or according to the alphabetical order of the first letter; the modern system was used in specialist dictionaries, such as those of terms from the Qur'an and hadith, while most general use dictionaries, such as the Lisan al-`Arab and al-Qamus al-Muhit listed words in the alphabetical order of the radicals. The Qamus al-Muhit is the first handy dictionary in Arabic, which includes only words and their definitions, eliminating the supporting examples used in such dictionaries as the Lisan and the Oxford English Dictionary. In medieval Europe, glossaries with equivalents for Latin words in vernacular or simpler Latin were in use; the Catholicon by Johannes Balbus, a large grammatical work with an alphabetical lexicon, was adopted. It served as the basis for several bilingual dictionaries and was one of the earliest books to be printed.
In 1502 Ambrogio Calepino's Dictionarium was published a monolingual Latin dictionary, which over the course of the 16th century was enlarged to become a multilingual glossary. In 1532 Robert Estienne published the Thesaurus linguae latinae and in 1572 his son Henri Estienne published the Thesaurus linguae graecae, which served up to the 19th century as the basis of Greek lexicography; the first monolingual dictionary written in Europe was the Spanish, written by Sebastián Covarrubias' Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española, published in 1611 in Madrid, Spain. In 1612 the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, for Italian, was published, it served as the model for similar works in English. In 1690 in Rotterdam was published, the Dictionnaire Universel by
Genpei Akasegawa was a pseudonym of Japanese artist Katsuhiko Akasegawa. He used Katsuhiko Otsuji, for literary works. Akasegawa was born in 1937 in Yokohama, moved to Ashiya, Ōita and Nagoya in his childhood because of his father's job. Shusaku Arakawa was a high school classmate in Nagoya. In 1960, Akasegawa became involved within the Neo-Dada Organizers, along with Ushio Shinohara, Shusaku Arakawa, Masanobu Yoshimura, he formed the Hi-Red Center with Jiro Takamatsu and Natsuyuki Nakanishi in 1963, a group of artists that presented their works as a collective in Japan. Akasegawa was associated with the avant-garde. In the 1970s he used the idea of Hyper-Art, an ordinary but useless street object that happened to look like a conceptual artwork despite nobody having intended this, he called such things Hyperart Thomasson and published photographs of them first within the magazine Shashin Jidai and within books. As "Katsuhiko Otsuji," he received the Akutagawa Prize in 1981 for his short story, "Chichi ga kieta".
Akasegawa is known for many humorous essays, his 1998 book Rōjinryoku was a bestseller. Akasegawa was fond of old cameras Leicas, from 1992 to around 2009, he joined Yutaka Takanashi and Yūtokutaishi Akiyama in the photographers' group Raika Dōmei, which held numerous exhibitions. In January 1963, Akasegawa sent out invitations to a solo exhibition at a gallery in Tokyo; the announcement was delivered to several close friends in a cash envelope sent through the postal service. The announcement itself was a 1,000-yen note reproduced in monochromatic colors on the front, with relevant information regarding the exhibit on the back, he produced four more during the next year. In January 1964, his 1,000-yen note partial reproductions became noticed by the police and he was indicted for creating imitations of banknotes, in violation of the 1894 Law Controlling the Imitation of Currency and Securities; the language of the law was quite vague, prohibiting any manufacture or sale of objects with an exterior front that may “be confused for currency or securities”.
In August 1966, he went on trial for what was dubbed the "Thousand-Yen Bill Incident". In June 1967, he was found guilty with a three-month suspended sentence, he appealed twice. The decision was upheld in 1970. Obuje o motta musansha. Tokyo: Gendai Shisōsha, 1970. Tuihō sareta yajiuma. Tokyo: Gendai Hyōronsha, 1972. Sakura gahō gekidō no sen nihyaku gojū ichi. Tokyo: Seirindō, 1974. Yume dorobō: Suimin hakubutsushi. Tokyo: Gakugei Shorin, 1975. Chōgeijutsu Tomason. Tokyo: Byakuya Shobō, 1985. Revised: Tokyo: Chikuma Shobō, 1987. ISBN 4-480-02189-2. English translation: Hyperart: Thomasson. New York: Kaya Press, 2010. ISBN 978-1-885030-46-7. Tōkyō mikisā keikaku. Tokyo: Parco, 1984. Reissue: Tokyo: Chikuma Shobō, 1994. ISBN 4-480-02935-4. Rōjinryoku. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobō, 1998, ISBN 978-4-480-81606-1. Reissue: Chikuma Shobō, 2001, ISBN 978-4-480-03671-1. Profile by SCAI The Bathhouse. Exhibiting Fluxus: Mapping Hi Red Center in Tokyo 1955–1970: A New Avant-Garde at The Museum of Modern Art SFAQ Review: “Hi-Red Center: Traces of Direct Action” at the Shoto Museum, Tokyo
The New Nelson Japanese-English Character Dictionary
The New Nelson Japanese-English Character Dictionary is a kanji dictionary published with English speakers in mind. It is an updated version of the original dictionary authored by Andrew N. Nelson, The Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary; the primary change in the new version is the adoption of the traditional 214 Kangxi radicals as the dictionary's main indexing method. The dictionary features two additional indices: the Universal Radical Index and the on-kun index; the dictionary uses rōmaji throughout. On-yomi readings of the kanji are denoted by small kun-yomi by italics. Okurigana are separated by parentheses; the New Nelson contains about 7,000 entries, many of which are variant characters. Every character has index numbers into the Morohashi dictionary and the Japanese JIS X 0208 standard if they exist. All characters are prioritized by their Jōyō simplifications, however traditional forms are provided for every one. Non-standard simplifications are not included in the variants of a character, however those characters do point to the main entry
Kyōsuke Kindaichi was a Japanese linguist from Morioka, Iwate Prefecture. He is chiefly known for sagas of the Ainu people. Linguist Haruhiko Kindaichi was his son, his grandson is Keio University Professor Emeritus, Russian scholar, president of University of Nagano, Masumi Kindaichi. Kindaichi was active as a poet and had good contacts with Ishikawa Takuboku, he is the author of the dictionary Meikai Kokugo Jiten. Order of Culture Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class, Grand Cordon Junior Third Rank
Nichi-Ran jiten is a Japanese–Dutch dictionary compiled by Peter Adriaan van de Stadt and published by the Taiwanese branch of Nan'yō Kyōkai in 1934. It has about 33,800 entries; as of 2011, a second edition has not been published, but at least one facsimile edition was published in 1989 by the current Nan'yō Kyōkai, now based in Tokyo. While the Nichi-Ran jiten was published only in 1934, its compilation had been finished in 1925. According to the preface, the compiler, Peter Adriaan van de Stadt, was approached in 1922 by the Japanese consulate general Matsumoto in Batavia. Matsumoto had seen a Dutch-Japanese pocket dictionary by Van de Stadt and asked Van de Stadt to compile a larger Japanese–Dutch dictionary. Van de Stadt agreed after some persuasion, completed his work in 1925. However, when he offered the manuscript to the Nan'yō Kyōkai, they told him that the publication was too big a financial risk. Van de Stadt left the manuscript with Nan'yō Kyōkai. Only through the involvement of other parties, it was published nine years in 1934.
According to the book's colophon, the 1934 publication was by Nan'yō Kyōkai Taiwan shibu, the branch of Nan'yō Kyōkai in Taiwan. Van de Stadt is acknowledged as the sole author. There never was a second edition. However, a facsimile edition was printed in 1989 by the current Nan'yō Kyōkai based in Tokyo. Despite uninterrupted relations between Japan and the Netherlands dating back to 1640 and earlier, the Nichi-Ran jiten has been the only Japanese–Dutch Dictionary of at least medium size till 2006. On the other hand, efforts to compile a Dutch–Japanese dictionary date back to the period of Rangaku and lead to two major publications in Japan; the dictionary Haruma Wage was published in 1796–1799. The publication known as the ‘Nagasaki Haruma' was presented to the Shōgun in 1833 and published 1855–1858. Both publications were based on François Halma's Woordenboek der Nederduitsche en Fransche Taalen. However, when Japan was opened to other countries from 1854 on, Rangaku became obsolete, the attention of Japanese scholars switched form Dutch to English.
The next medium size Dutch–Japanese dictionary was published 150 years in 1994, by the Japanese publisher Kodansha. The dictionary contains about 33,800 entries; the entries are alphabetical and spelled in a version of modified Hepburn. Van de Stadt deviated from current usage of modified Hepburn by not using the apostrophe to indicate the long n before a vowel. Sometimes he ignored the special case of other times he used a hyphen; the Latin spelling of the title word is followed by the Japanese spelling and equivalents or a definition in Dutch. Example sentences follow directly the meaning for which they are relevant or are placed all at the end of the entry; some examples show expressions in kanbun. Below is a text impression of the entry for aida. A photographic reproduction of a full page can be seen at the right. Aida zn. ruimte v.. Vz. gedurende. ¶ 其間に intusschen. ¶ 間に立つ tusschenin staan. ¶ 七人の間に分ける tusschen zeven menschen verdeelen. ¶ の間は zoo lang als. ¶ 私が留守の間に gedurende mijn afwezigheid. ¶ 君と僕の間 tusschen ons beiden.
¶ 此間 kort geleden. ¶ 御座候間 aangezien The compiler of the Japanese–Dutch dictionary Nichi-Ran jiten was Peter Adriaan van de Stadt. Van de Stadt was trained to be a government official at the University of Leiden. In 1895 he went to the Dutch East Indies. With the exception of 8 years in service of a private company and 3 years of additional study Van de Stadt worked as a civil servant. From 1918 on he was adviser for Japanese affairs, in which capacity he read and translated Japanese, he retired in 1932. Van de Stadt was made officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau in 1910, he received the Order of the Rising Sun and the Legion of Honor as well. Van de Stadt compiled the Chinese dictionary Hakka woordenboek, Batavia landsdrukkerij, The Hague, 1912. A searchable photographic version of Nichi-Ran jiten 日蘭辭典 An indexed photographic version of the Edo Haruma Dutch–Japanese dictionary is hosted by the library of the Waseda University: 早稲田大学図書館所蔵 江戸ハルマ（蘭和辞書）全文画像 Van de Stadt, P. A... 日蘭辭典. 臺北: 南洋協會臺灣支部. Van de Stadt, C.
J... Engel van de Stadt, 1746–1819. Zijn voor- en nageslacht. Den Haag. Van Sterkenburg, P. G. J. & W. J. Boot et al... Kodansha's Nederlands-Japans Woordenboek・講談社オランダ語辞典. Kodansha・講談社: 東京, 1994. ISBN 4-06-154801-8
Kōjien is a single-volume Japanese dictionary first published by Iwanami Shoten in 1955. It is regarded as the most authoritative dictionary of Japanese, newspaper editorials cite its definitions; as of 2007, it had sold 11 million copies. Kōjien was the magnum opus of Shinmura Izuru, 1876–1967, a professor of linguistics and Japanese at Kyoto University, he was born in Yamaguchi Prefecture and graduated from the prestigious Tokyo University, where he was a student of Kazutoshi Ueda. After studying in Germany, Ueda taught comparative linguistics and edited foreign-language dictionaries in the latter part of the Meiji era. Through his tutelage, Shinmura became involved in Japanese language lexicography. Kōjien editions published after his death credit Shinmura as the chief editor; the predecessor of Kōjien originated during the Great Depression in East Asia. In 1930, the publisher Shigeo Oka wanted to create a Japanese dictionary for high school students, he asked his friend Shinmura to be chief editor, they chose the title Jien in a classical allusion to the Ziyuan Chinese dictionary.
Shinmura appointed his son Takeshi Shinmura as an editor, in 1935, Hakubunkan published the Jien dictionary. It contained some 160,000 headword entries of old and new Japanese vocabulary, as well as encyclopedic content, became a bestseller; the editors began working on a revised edition, but the 1945 Firebombing of Tokyo destroyed their work. After the war and his lexicographers began anew in September 1948. Iwanami Shoten published the first Kōjien in 1955, it included 200,000 headwords, about 40,000 more than the Jien. The 2nd edition deleted about 20,000 old entries and added about 20,000 new ones scientific terms. On December 1, 1976, a revised and expanded version of the 2nd edition was published; the 3rd edition added 12,000 entries, was published in CD-ROM format in 1987. Three major Japanese publishers released new dictionaries designed to compete with the Iwanami's popular and profitable Kōjien: Sanseidō's Daijirin, Shōgakukan's Daijisen, Kōdansha's Nihongo Daijiten. In response, the 4th edition Kōjien was a major revision that added some 15,000 entry words, bringing the total to over 220,000.
The CD-ROM version was published in 1993 and revised with color illustrations in 1996. In 1992, Iwanami published a useful Gyakubiki Kōjien; the 5th edition includes over 230,000 headwords, its 2996 pages contain an estimated total of 14 million characters. Iwanami Shoten publishes Kōjien in several printed and digital formats, sells dictionary subscription services for cell phone and Internet access. Various manufacturers of Japanese electronic dictionaries have licensed the digital Kōjien, it is the core dictionary in many models. Shinmura's preface to the 1st edition stated his hope that the Kōjien would become regarded as the standard by which other dictionaries would be measured; this has been fulfilled. It remains a bestseller in Japan. According to Iwanami, the 1st edition Kōjien sold over one million copies, the 5th edition brought cumulative total sales to over eleven million in 2000; the sixth edition was released on January 11, 2008, includes more than 10,000 new entries, bringing the total to 240,000.
It contains an additional 1,500 quotations. The seventh edition was released on January 12, 2018. Changes include 10,000 new words were added from 100,000 words collected by its editors firstly, including "apuri", "Isuramu-koku", LGBT, "hanii torappu", "jidori" and "diipu raningu". Other changes include citing available source literature for a given explanation of a term, listing changes of the usages of a term, addition of 140 pages without adding book thickness. However, the definition of LGBT in the edition was written as "individuals whose sexual orientation differs from the majority." Some netizens criticized that the definition only describes the "LGB" portion of the acronym which refers to sexual orientation, while the "T" refers to sexual identity. In addition, Taiwanese government objected the change of definition of Taiwan as'the 26th province of People's Republic of China'. Jien?th printing Kōjien 1st edition?th printing Kōjien 2nd edition?th printing Kōjien 2nd revised edition?th printing Kōjien 3rd edition:?th printing Kōjien 4th edition: Includes 220,000 entries, 2500 illustrations.
Regular edition:?th printing desktop edition: B5 page size.?th printing reverse index regular edition?th printing reverse index desktop edition: B5 page size.?th printing leather edition?th printing EPWING CD-ROM edition: CD-ROM includes 84 bird sounds, 234 colour samples, search engine.?th printing Electronic Kōjien 4th edition (
The Ruiju myōgishō, alternatively misread as Ruijū myōgishō, is a Japanese dictionary from the late Heian Period. The title, sometimes abbreviated as Myōgishō, combines the ruiju from the Wamyō Ruijushō and the myōgi from the Tenrei Banshō Myōgi. Additional Buddhist titles, like Sanbō ruiju myōgishō, use the word sanbō because the text was divided into butsu, hō, sō sections; the origins of the Ruiju myōgishō are uncertain. Bailey concludes it was "compiled early in the twelfth century by a priest." Kaneko believes the received edition dates from the late 12th century, but the original version was compiled around 1081-1100 CE. There are various received texts of several indexes. Like other early Japanese dictionaries, the Ruiju myōgishō borrowed from Chinese dictionaries, in particular the Yupian and the Qieyun. For collation of character entries, the Chinese Yupian has a system of 542 logographic radicals; the Ruiju myōgishō cuts them down into 120 radicals simpler than the Japanese Shinsen Jikyō system of 160.
The Ruiju myōgishō compounds. The entries give both on'yomi Sino-Japanese borrowings and kun'yomi native Japanese readings for kanji, using Chinese fanqie spellings, Man'yōgana, katakana. Meanings are illustrated by quotations from over 130 Chinese classic texts and classical Japanese literature; these quotes have two types of Kanbun annotations, shōten for Chinese tones and Japanese accents, occasional kunten for Japanese pronunciations. "Many passages contain no Japanese readings at all," says Bailey, "but there are a total of 10,000 Japanese readings given in the whole work." While special care is needed for its commentary nature, the Ruiju myōgishō remains a standard Japanese source of information regarding Heian era pronunciation. There are various extant editions; the main editions include: The Zushoryō edition. It is part of the Shoryōbu collection in the Imperial Household Agency. Compiled between 1081 and 1100, it retains signs of the original. It provides detailed literary citations for entries.
The Kanchi-in edition. It is a national treasure of Japan, it is a mid-Kamakura period facsimile. While it is an expanded and revised edition of the original, it is the only complete edition surviving today; the Kōzan-ji edition. Part of the Tenri Central Library collection, it is entitled Sanbō ruiju jishū, is a revised edition. It only contains the butsu part of the 巻上 section found in the Kanji-in edition; the Hōbodai-in edition. It is part of the Tō-ji Hōbodai-in collection. Revised and incomplete. In addition to the above, the Ren'jō-in and Sainen-ji revised editions exist, but both are incomplete. Bailey, Don Clifford.. "Early Japanese Lexicography". Monumenta Nipponica 16:1-52. Kaneko Akira 金子彰.. "類聚名義抄." In Nihon jisho jiten 日本辞書辞典, Okimori Takuya 沖森卓也, et al. eds. pp. 269-272. Tokyo: Ōfū. ISBN 4-273-02890-5 Li, Shin Woongchul, Kazuhiro Okada.. "Japanese Rendition of Tenrei Bansho Meigi's Definition in Early Japanese Lexicography: An Essay". Journal of the Graduate School of Letters 11:83-96