Derrial Book is a fictional character played by Ron Glass in the science-fiction/Western television series Firefly and its sequel movie, Serenity. He is a Shepherd, provides frequent spiritual advice and perspectives for the crew of Serenity. During production of the film Serenity, Book's first name was Meria, it appears as such in the documentary "Re-Lighting the Firefly". However, by the time the film was completed, Joss Whedon changed his first name to Derrial, the way it appears in all printed official works based on Firefly. Glass, a veteran actor well known for his role as Detective Ron Harris in the television sitcom Barney Miller, had tackled the science-fiction genre and was hesitant about this role when his agent approached him. However, once he read the script he "...fell in love with it". As Glass noted: "The thing, galvanizing for me was the characters, so the environment was secondary. I was happy to see how Book would unfold in that kind of environment and it worked really well."
Glass stated that Whedon and the costume designer Shawna Trpcic "had a pretty clear idea of how they wanted him to look", how he appears in the pilot with a distinctly priestly collar and scant possessions "was a strong reflection of the character". For the role in the film Serenity, Trpcic decided to make Book's clothing tighter after seeing his physique. Book's character during the series is that of a preacher, though Glass discussed with Whedon about making him more Buddhist, Whedon explained that the character of Inara Serra was to be the Buddhist-type and Book more of the "fundamentalist Christian guy". Glass, himself a Buddhist, found it intriguing to play this role: "What I was able to bring to the Christian part of it was the humanism and the humanistic point of view, it was the hook in terms of being able to make that adjustment. I wasn't born Buddhist, so I do have some other traditions to pull from." Whedon conceived the character because he felt that faith was important to people dealing with being that far out in space.
As Whedon states, "Shepherd Book is somebody I would get along famously with, except we don't agree about anything." He wanted to give "a voice for the other side". One of the underlying aspects of the show is Shepherd Book's secret past, he holds some sort of high priority status within the Alliance, on numerous occasions has demonstrated a depth of knowledge in a number of fields one would not expect a clergyman to be familiar with, including space travel, hand-to-hand combat, criminal activity. Glass enjoyed this aspect of the role as well: "Though rather mysterious, it was clear that he had had a full life before he went off to the monastery and took on that responsibility. I loved the fact that he could save your soul but he could kick your ass. That's a great combination to play."In the 14th episode of Firefly, "Objects in Space", Simon berates the bounty hunter Jubal Early for assaulting Book, a Shepherd. Early replies, "That ain't a Shepherd." In the DVD commentary Firefly, Whedon states this is due to Early's intuition and ability to size people up.
He comments that Early's methods for dealing with each crew member are custom-tailored to their personalities. Early disposes of Mal in a straightforward manner. Another hint to Book's mysterious past is shown in the episode "Safe"; when Book is accidentally wounded, Mal is forced to seek medical help from an Alliance cruiser. The commanding officer, after tersely dismissing Mal, changes his attitude once one of his officers shows him Book's identification. Though the exact information on the card is never shown, the crew does note that it affords Book urgent and immediate access to the medical facilities on board, as well as free passage for Serenity without the expected inspection. Several other episodes contain allusions to Book's past. On the 2007 Browncoat Cruise, Ron Glass revealed with Whedon's permission several facts about Book, including that Derrial was not the shepherd's real name, but the name of a man he had killed. A "part of is artificial, he found God in a bowl of soup, is best known for his greatest failure".
This was part of an announcement for a comic book series based on Book's past, titled The Shepherd's Tale. Scott Allie, editor for the Serenity: Better Days comic series, confirmed this announcement and stated that Dark Horse Comics was aiming for a late 2008 release, it was announced that this would be seeing print in November 2010, was subsequently released November 3, 2010. During the Dallas Sci Fi Expo 2012 Ron Glass said he did not like the fact that Book had never been married, would like to have married at some point in the show; the character always referred to as "Shepherd Book", is a Christian of an unknown denomination. The original script for pilot episode "Serenity" includes this scene establishment: "We see, passing through frame, Shepherd BOOK, his clothes are plain and identify him as some kind of Protestant minister." Throughout the series, he consults the Bible. Shepherd Book, in the pilot episode for the series, indicates he has been living in the Southdown Abbey and has never been married.
Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil, the épée, the sabre. A fourth discipline, appeared in the 1904 Olympics but was dropped after that, is not a part of modern fencing. Fencing was one of the first sports to be played in the Olympics. Based on the traditional skills of swordsmanship, the modern sport arose at the end of the 19th century, with the Italian school having modified the historical European martial art of classical fencing, the French school refining the Italian system. There are three forms of modern fencing, each of which uses a different kind of weapon and has different rules. Most competitive fencers choose to specialize in one weapon only. Competitive fencing is one of the five activities which have been featured in every modern Olympic Games, the other four being athletics, cycling and gymnastics. Fencing is governed by Fédération Internationale d'Escrime. Today, its head office is in Switzerland; the FIE is composed of 145 national federations, each of, recognised by its state Olympic Committee as the sole representative of Olympic-style fencing in that country.
The FIE maintains the current rules used by FIE sanctioned international events, including world cups, world championships and the Olympic Games. The FIE handles proposals to change the rules the first year after an Olympic year in the annual congress; the US Fencing Association has different rules, but adheres to FIE standards. Fencing traces its roots to the development of swordsmanship for duels and self defense. Fencing is believed to have originated in Spain. Treatise on Arms was written by Diego de Valera between 1458 and 1471 and is one of the oldest surviving manuals on western fencing shortly before dueling came under official ban by the Catholic Monarchs. In conquest, the Spanish forces carried fencing around the world to southern Italy, one of the major areas of strife between both nations. Fencing was mentioned in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor written sometime prior to 1602; the mechanics of modern fencing originated in the 18th century in an Italian school of fencing of the Renaissance, under their influence, were improved by the French school of fencing.
The Spanish school of fencing was replaced by the Italian and French schools. The shift towards fencing as a sport rather than as military training happened from the mid-18th century, was led by Domenico Angelo, who established a fencing academy, Angelo's School of Arms, in Carlisle House, London in 1763. There, he taught the aristocracy the fashionable art of swordsmanship, his school was run by three generations of his family and dominated the art of European fencing for a century. He established the essential rules of posture and footwork that still govern modern sport fencing, although his attacking and parrying methods were still much different from current practice. Although he intended to prepare his students for real combat, he was the first fencing master to emphasize the health and sporting benefits of fencing more than its use as a killing art in his influential book L'École des armes, published in 1763. Basic conventions were collated and set down during the 1880s by the French fencing master Camille Prévost.
It was during this time that many recognised fencing associations began to appear in different parts of the world, such as the Amateur Fencers League of America was founded in 1891, the Amateur Fencing Association of Great Britain in 1902, the Fédération Nationale des Sociétés d’Escrime et Salles d’Armes de France in 1906. The first regularized fencing competition was held at the inaugural Grand Military Tournament and Assault at Arms in 1880, held at the Royal Agricultural Hall, in Islington in June; the Tournament featured a series of competitions between army soldiers. Each bout was fought for five hits and the foils were pointed with black to aid the judges; the Amateur Gymnastic & Fencing Association drew up an official set of fencing regulations in 1896. Fencing was part of the Olympic Games in the summer of 1896. Sabre events have been held at every Summer Olympics. Starting with épée in 1933, side judges were replaced by the Laurent-Pagan electrical scoring apparatus, with an audible tone and a red or green light indicating when a touch landed.
Foil was automated in 1956, sabre in 1988. The scoring box reduced the bias in judging, permitted more accurate scoring of faster actions, lighter touches, more touches to the back and flank than before. There are three weapons in modern fencing: foil, épée, sabre; each weapon has its own strategies. Equipment needed includes at least 2 swords, a Lame, a white jacket, underarm protector, two body and mask cords, knee high socks and knickers; the foil is a light thrusting weapon with a maximum weight of 500 grams. The foil targets the torso, but not the legs; the foil has a small circular hand guard. As the hand is not a valid target in foil, this is for safety. Touches are scored only with the tip. Touches that lan
Firefly (TV series)
Firefly is an American space Western drama television series which ran from 2002–2003, created by writer and director Joss Whedon, under his Mutant Enemy Productions label. Whedon served as an executive producer, along with Tim Minear; the series is set in the year 2517, after the arrival of humans in a new star system and follows the adventures of the renegade crew of Serenity, a "Firefly-class" spaceship. The ensemble cast portrays the nine characters. Whedon pitched the show as "nine people looking into the blackness of space and seeing nine different things"; the show explores the lives of a group of people, some of whom fought on the losing side of a civil war, who make a living on the fringes of society as part of the pioneer culture of their star system. In this future, the only two surviving superpowers, the United States and China, fused to form the central federal government, called the Alliance, resulting in the fusion of the two cultures. According to Whedon's vision, "nothing will change in the future: technology will advance, but we will still have the same political and ethical problems as today".
Firefly premiered in the U. S. on the Fox network on September 20, 2002. By mid-December, Firefly had averaged 4.7 million viewers per episode and was 98th in Nielsen ratings. It was canceled. Despite the short life span of the series, it received strong sales when it was released on DVD and has large fan support campaigns, it won a Primetime Emmy Award in 2003 for Outstanding Special Visual Effects for a Series. TV Guide ranked the series at No. 5 on their 2013 list of 60 shows that were "Cancelled Too Soon". The post-airing success of the show led Whedon and Universal Pictures to produce Serenity, a 2005 film which continues from the story of the series, the Firefly franchise expanded to other media, including comics and a role-playing game; the series takes place in the year 2517, on a variety of moons. The TV series does not reveal whether these celestial bodies are within one star system, only saying that Serenity's mode of propulsion is a "gravity-drive"; the film Serenity makes clear that all the planets and moons are in one large system, production documents related to the film indicate that there is no faster-than-light travel in this universe.
The characters refer to "Earth-that-was", the film establishes that, long before the events in the series, a large population had emigrated from Earth to a new star system in generation ships: "Earth-that-was could no longer sustain our numbers, we were so many". The emigrants established themselves in this new star system, with "dozens of planets and hundreds of moons". Many of these were terraformed, a process in which a moon is altered to resemble Earth; the terraforming process was only the first step in making a planet habitable and the outlying settlements did not receive any further support in the construction of their civilizations. This resulted in many of the border planets and moons having forbidding, dry environments, well-suited to the Western genre; the show takes its name from the "Firefly-class" spaceship Serenity that the central characters call home. It resembles a firefly in general arrangement, the tail section, analogous to a bioluminescent insectoid abdomen, lights up during acceleration.
The ship was named after the Battle of Serenity Valley, where then-Sergeant Malcolm Reynolds and then-Corporal Zoe Alleyne were among the few survivors on the losing side. It is revealed in "Bushwhacked" that the Battle of Serenity Valley is considered to have sealed the fate of the Independents. Throughout the series, the Alliance is shown to govern the star system through an organization of "core" planets, following its success in forcibly unifying all the colonies under a single government. DVD commentary suggests that the Alliance is composed of two primary "core" systems, one predominantly Western in culture, the other pan-Asian, justifying the mixed linguistic and visual themes of the series; the central planets are under Alliance control, but the outlying planets and moons resemble the 19th-century American West, under little governmental authority. Settlers and refugees on the outlying worlds have relative freedom from the central government, but lack the amenities of the high-tech civilization that exists on the inner worlds.
In addition, the outlying areas of space are inhabited by the Reavers, a cannibalistic group of nomadic humans that have become savage and animalistic. The captain of Serenity is Malcolm "Mal" Reynolds and the episode "Serenity" establishes that the captain and his first mate Zoe Washburne, née Alleyne are veteran "Browncoats" of the Unification War, a failed attempt by the outlying worlds to resist the Alliance's control. A episode, "Out of Gas", reveals that Mal bought the spaceship Serenity to continue living beyond Alliance control. Much of the crew's work consists of smuggling. A main story arc centers on her brother Simon. River is a child prodigy, whose brain was subjected to experiments at the hands of Alliance scientists at a secret government institution; as a result, she displays symptoms of schizophrenia and hears voices. It is revealed that she is a "reader", one who possesses telepathic abilities. Simon gave up a career as a successful trauma surgeon in an Alliance hospital to rescue her, they are both wanted fugitives.
In the original pilot, "Serenity", Simon joins the crew as a paying passenger with River smuggled on board as cargo. As Whedon states in an episodic DVD commentary, every show he does is about creating family. By the last episode, "Objects in Space", the fractured cha
Serenity (Firefly episode)
"Serenity" is the series pilot for the American science fiction television series Firefly created by Joss Whedon. However, Fox executives were not satisfied with this as a pilot, so instead, "The Train Job" was created as a second pilot and was the first episode of the series aired. "Serenity" was not aired until the end of the series' run on December 20, 2002. This episode shares its name with the feature film Serenity, which continues the series after the final episode. In 2003, the episode won the award for "Best visual effects in a television series" from Visual Effects Society, was nominated for a Hugo Award in 2003 for "Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form". Malcolm Reynolds and Zoe Washburne are survivors of their rebel unit in the Battle of Serenity Valley during the Unification War, in which their side lost, they are now seeking out an existence on the edges of space in their Firefly-class spaceship Serenity, taking odd jobs if they involve petty crime. They take on passengers to supplement their income, but one has a secret that makes their lives more difficult.
In 2511, Sergeant Malcolm "Mal" Reynolds and Corporal Zoe Alleyne fight in the Battle of Serenity Valley during the Unification War. Without air support, their side is defeated by the Alliance. Six years Mal is the captain of his own transport ship, an older-model Firefly-class vessel he named Serenity, Zoe is his second-in-command; the rest of the ship's crew consists of Wash, the pilot and Zoe's husband. Inara, a "Companion" who rents one of Serenity's two shuttles travels with them, but she is away on business. While the crew are illegally salvaging some crates off a derelict Alliance spaceship, they are spotted by an Alliance cruiser. To escape capture, they deploy a decoy distress beacon; the Alliance cruiser falls for the deception, but broadcasts a bulletin that a Firefly-class ship is carrying stolen Alliance goods. The crew of Serenity travel to Persephone to deliver the stolen goods to Badger, the small-time gang leader who hired them for the heist. However, Badger reneges on their deal because he is worried about the Alliance broadcast about the theft.
He does not like the way Mal looks down on him. Mal decides to try selling the cargo to an old business associate who lives on Whitefall. Zoe has misgivings, since Patience shot Mal the last time they met, but Mal is desperate to get rid of the hot cargo; the crew picks up passengers before leaving Persephone for some income, Inara rejoins the ship. The new passengers are a preacher named Shepherd Book, a bumbling man named Dobson, a wealthy doctor named Simon Tam who brings aboard a mysterious large crate. En route to Whitefall, Wash discovers that someone on board sent a message hailing the nearest Alliance cruiser. Suspecting that Simon is the mole, Mal confronts him, only to discover that Dobson is the "Fed". Dobson surprises Mal by telling them it is Simon. During the tense confrontation, a nervous Dobson accidentally shoots Kaylee in the stomach before being overpowered by Book, good at hand-to-hand combat for a Shepherd; when an Alliance cruiser orders them to dock for prisoner transfer, Simon threatens not to treat Kaylee if they do not flee.
Mal reluctantly agrees. Mal opens Simon's mysterious crate and is surprised to find a young woman inside in cryonic sleep; the woman in the crate is Simon's sister. Simon explains that his sister was a brilliant child, sent to an elite, but secretive Alliance academy when she was fourteen. After River sent him an encoded letter for help, he discovered that the Alliance was experimenting on the academy students. Simon abandoned his career as a successful trauma surgeon to rescue her; the Alliance wants River back badly. Mal decides to drop off both the goods and the Tam siblings. Mal tells Jayne to interrogate Dobson to find out. Once Jayne finds out that the Alliance knows nothing, Dobson tries to bribe him, offering him enough money to buy his own ship. Soon after, they discover. Zoe explains to Simon that "If they take the ship, they'll rape us to death, eat our flesh and sew our skins into their clothing, and if we're very lucky, they'll do it in that order." Luckily, the Reaver ship passes by without incident.
Serenity lands on Whitefall. Not trusting Patience, he sends Jayne to take out her hidden snipers while he and Zoe meet Patience and some of her henchmen in a barren valley. Mal gives Patience a sample of the cargo; as expected, Patience tries to kill them after learning where they have buried the rest, but Mal and Jayne dispatch Patience's gang. Mal takes the money he was promised. Jayne is warned by Wash that the Reavers followed them to Whitefall. Meanwhile, back on the ship Dobson escapes, knocking out Book and grabbing River. Mal returns and shoots Dobson, dumping his body off the ship as they start to lift off, the Reavers hot on their tail. Mal orders Inara, Book and River to go to Inara's shuttle, just in case the ship is boarded. Jayne carries the still-convalescing Kaylee to the engine room, Book offers to help her. With Jayne and Book carrying out Kaylee's instructions, Wash is able to pull off a Crazy Ivan, Serenity escapes. Jayne tells Mal that they should dump the siblings since Dobson had told him that the Alliance will keep coming after River.
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Serenity (2005 film)
Serenity is a 2005 American science fiction action film written and directed by Joss Whedon. It is a continuation of Whedon's short-lived 2002 Fox television series Firefly and stars the same cast, taking place after the events of the final episode. Set in 2517, Serenity is the story of the crew of Serenity, a "Firefly-class" spaceship; the captain and first mate are veterans of the Unification War, having fought on the losing Independent side against the Alliance. Their lives of smuggling and cargo-running are interrupted by a psychic passenger who harbors a dangerous secret; the film stars Alan Tudyk, Adam Baldwin, Summer Glau and Chiwetel Ejiofor. It was released in North America on September 30, 2005 by Universal Pictures to positive reviews and several accolades, including the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation, the Prometheus Special Award and the Nebula Award for Best Script, but underperformed at the box office. In the 26th century, humanity has left an overpopulated Earth to colonize a new solar system.
The central planets formed the Alliance and won a war against the outer planet Independents—those who resisted joining the Alliance. River Tam is conditioned by Alliance scientists into becoming an assassin, she is rescued by her brother Simon. During her training, River inadvertently read the minds of several top government officials and learned their secrets. A top Alliance agent known only as the Operative is tasked with recapturing her; the siblings have found refuge aboard the transport spaceship Serenity with Captain Malcolm "Mal" Reynolds, first mate Zoe Washburne, pilot Hoban "Wash" Washburne, mercenary Jayne Cobb, mechanic Kaylee Frye. Despite Simon's objections, Mal brings River on a bank robbery. River warns them that cannibalistic Reavers are coming, they escape. Once there, however, a subliminal message in a television commercial causes River to attack numerous bar patrons, Mal takes the siblings back aboard the ship; the crew contacts reclusive hacker Mr. Universe, who discovers the message designed to trigger River's mental conditioning.
He warns that someone else saw the footage. Mal receives an invitation to visit from a former Serenity occupant. Despite knowing it is a trap, Mal goes to rescue her; the Operative confronts Mal, promising to let him go free. Mal refuses and, with Inara's help escapes. River reveals; the crew flies to the planet Haven to ponder their next move, but they find Haven devastated and their old friend, Shepherd Book, mortally wounded. The Operative claims responsibility, promising to keep pursuing them and killing anyone who assists them until he gets River. Despite the crew's objection, Mal disguises Serenity as a Reaver ship and travels to Miranda through a Reaver fleet without being attacked. On the planet, the crew find all its colonists dead and a recording by the last surviving member of an Alliance survey team, she explains that an experimental chemical designed to suppress aggression was added into Miranda's atmosphere. A small portion, had the opposite reaction and became aggressive and violent beyond madness.
In effect, the Alliance created this is the secret River Tam had discovered. Mr. Universe agrees luring the crew to the Operative. However, the Operative kills him, orders the destruction of his transmitting equipment, prepares an ambush. Knowing this, the crew deliberately provoke the Reaver fleet into chasing them and lead them to the Alliance armada in orbit of Mr. Universe's planet; the Reavers and Alliance ships battle while Wash manages to pilot Serenity through the crossfire to the planet. The Operative's ship is destroyed but he manages to get to an escape pod and heads to the broadcast tower; the rest of the crew make a last stand against the Reavers to buy Mal time to broadcast the recording. Through a message recorded by Mr. Universe before his death, Mal learns of a backup transmitter, but the Operative comes across this message as well. Sustaining heavy injuries, the crew retreats behind a set of blast doors that fail to properly close. A Reaver shoots through the opening wounding Simon.
River dives through the doors to close them. At the backup transmitter, Mal fights the Operative subduing him and forcing him to watch the broadcast recording. Mal returns to the crew, the blast doors open to reveal that River has killed all the Reavers. Alliance troops arrive; the Operative provides medical aid and resources to repair Serenity. He tells Mal the broadcast has weakened the Alliance government, but while he will try to convince the Parliament that River and Simon are no longer threats, he warns that they will continue their pursuit in retribution for getting the word out. Serenity takes off with River as Mal's new pilot; the film is based on Firefly, a television series canceled by the Fox Broadcasting Company in December 2002, after 11 of its 14 produced episodes had aired. Attempts to have other networks acquire the series failed, creator Joss Whedon started to sell it as a
Joseph Hill Whedon is an American screenwriter, producer, comic book writer, composer. He is the founder of Mutant Enemy Productions and co-founder of Bellwether Pictures, is best known as the creator of several television series, including Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Firefly and Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D.. Whedon co-wrote the Pixar animated film Toy Story and directed the Firefly film continuation Serenity, co-wrote and directed the Internet miniseries Dr. Horrible's Sing-Along Blog, co-wrote and produced the horror comedy film The Cabin in the Woods, he wrote and directed the Marvel Cinematic Universe superhero films The Avengers and its sequel Avengers: Age of Ultron, co-wrote the script for the DC Extended Universe superhero film Justice League, for which he served as director on reshoots. Born in New York City on June 23, 1964 as Joseph1 Hill Whedon, being a third-generation TV writer, he is a son of Tom Whedon, a screenwriter for Alice in the 1970s and The Golden Girls in the 1980s, a grandson of John Whedon, who worked on The Donna Reed Show in the 1950s and The Dick Van Dyke Show in the 1960s, as well as writing for radio shows like The Great Gildersleeve.
His mother, Ann Lee Stearns from Kentucky, was a teacher at Riverdale Country School as Lee Whedon, an aspiring novelist. His parents had both acted, appeared in a play together at the Harvard Radcliffe Dramatic Club. Whedon is the younger sibling of Samuel and Matthew Whedon and older sibling of writers Jed and Zack Whedon. At a young age, he showed great interest in British television with series like Masterpiece and Monty Python, he started out as a staff writer for 1990 sitcom Rosanne Whedon attended Riverdale Country School in New York City where his mother taught history. He spent three years at Winchester College in England, taking note of omnipresent bullying, he concluded, "it was clear to me from the start that I must take an active role in my survival". Whedon graduated from Wesleyan University in 1987, where he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters in 2013. There, he studied under renowned academic Richard Slotkin. After leaving Wesleyan, Whedon came up with the first incarnation of Buffy Summers, "Rhonda, the Immortal Waitress".
From 1989 to 1990, Whedon worked as a staff writer on the sitcoms Parenthood. As a script doctor, Whedon was an uncredited writer on films including The Getaway, Speed and Twister. X-Men, on which Whedon worked on an early draft, contained at least two dialogue exchanges of Whedon's contribution, while the final cut of Speed left in most of his dialogue. While he was script consulting, he wrote Buffy the Vampire Slayer—the film that would precede the series—Alien Resurrection and an early draft for Atlantis: The Lost Empire and co-wrote Toy Story and Titan A. E. the former of which earned him a shared Academy Award nomination for Best Original Screenplay. Whedon has expressed strong dissatisfaction with the released versions of the films Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Titan A. E. and Alien Resurrection. In 1997, Whedon created his first television series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer.2 The series depicts Buffy Summers, the latest in a line of young women called to battle against vampires and other forces of darkness.
The idea came directly from his aversion to seeing the Hollywood formula of "the little blonde girl who goes into a dark alley and gets killed in every horror movie". Whedon said he wanted to subvert the idea and create someone, a hero; this conception came from "the first mission statement of the show, the joy of female power: having it, using it, sharing it". The writing process came together from conversations about the emotional issues facing Buffy Summers, how she would confront them in her battle against supernatural forces. Whedon directed episodes from his own scripts that held the most cathartic moments in Buffy's story; the series received numerous awards and nominations, including an Emmy Award nomination for the 1999 episode "Hush". The 2001 episode "The Body" was nominated for a Nebula Award in 2002, the fall 2001 musical episode "Once More, with Feeling" was nominated for a Best Dramatic Presentation Hugo Award and a Best Script Nebula Award; the final episode "Chosen" was nominated for a Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form Hugo Award in 2003.
All written and directed by Whedon, they are considered some the most effective and popular episodes of the series. Scholar A. Asbjørn Jøn recognized that the series has shifted the way vampires have since been depicted in popular culture representations. Since the end of the series, Whedon has stated that his initial intention was to produce a "cult" television series and acknowledged a corresponding "rabid insane fan base" that subsequently emerged. In June 2012, Slate magazine identified it as the most written about popular culture text of all time. "ore than twice as many papers and books have been devoted to the vampire drama than any of our other choices—so many that we stopped counting when we hit 200". A lifelong comic book fan, Whedon authored the Dark Horse Comics miniseries Fray, which takes place in the far future of the Buffyverse. Like many writers of the show, he contributed to the series' comic book continuation, writing for the anthology Tales of the Slayers, the main storyline of the miniseries Tales of the Vampires.
Whedon and the other writers released a new ongoing series, taking place after the series finale "Chosen", which he recognizes as the canonical eighth season. Whedon returned to the world of Fray during the season eight-story arc "Time of Your