The Shōwa period, or Shōwa era, refers to the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of Emperor Shōwa from December 25, 1926 until his death on January 7, 1989. The Shōwa period was longer than the reign of any previous Japanese emperor. During the pre-1945 period, Japan moved into political totalitarianism and fascism culminating in Japan's invasion of China in 1937; this was part of an overall global period of social upheavals and conflicts such as the Great Depression and the Second World War. Defeat in the Second World War brought about radical change to Japan. For the first and only time in its history, Japan was occupied by foreign powers. Allied occupation brought forth sweeping democratic reforms, it led to the end of the emperor's status as a living god and the transformation of Japan into a democracy with a constitutional monarch. In 1952, with the Treaty of San Francisco, Japan became a sovereign nation once more; the post-war Shōwa period led to the Japanese economic miracle.
In these ways, the pre-1945 and post-war periods regard different states: the pre-1945 Shōwa period concerns the Empire of Japan, while post-1945 Shōwa period was a part of the State of Japan. It was succeeded by the Heisei period; the term Shōwa could be understood as "radiant Japan" or "Japanese glory". The two kanji characters were from a passage of the Chinese Book of Documents: "百姓昭明，協和萬邦" From this same quotation, Japan adopted the era name Meiwa during the Edo period in the late-18th century. There were two other candidates at the time - Genka. In his enthronement address, read to the people, the Emperor referenced this era name: "I have visited the battlefields of the Great War in France. In the presence of such devastation, I understand the blessing of peace and the necessity of concord among nations." The election of Katō Takaaki as Prime Minister of Japan continued democratic reforms, advocated by influential individuals on the left. This culminated in the passage of universal manhood suffrage in May 1925.
This bill gave all male subjects over the age of 25 the right to vote, provided they had lived in their electoral districts for at least one year and were not homeless. The electorate thereby increased from 3.3 million to 12.5 million. Pressure from the conservative right, forced the passage of the Peace Preservation Law of 1925 along with other anti-radical legislation, only ten days before the passage of universal manhood suffrage; the Peace Preservation Act curtailed individual freedom in Japan at the beginning to some degree to a large degree. It outlawed groups that sought to abolish private ownership; the leftist movements, galvanized by the Russian Revolution were subsequently crushed and scattered. This was in part due to the Peace Preservation Act, but due to the general fragmentation of the left. Conservatives forced the passage of the Peace Preservation Law because the party leaders and politicians of the Taishō era had felt that, after World War I, the state was in danger from revolutionary movements.
The Japanese state never defined a boundary between private and public matters and, demanded loyalty in all spheres of society. Subsequently, any ideological attack, such as a proposal for socialist reforms, was seen as an attack on the existence of the state; the meaning of the law was stretched to academic spheres. After the passage of the Peace Preservation Law and related legislation, kokutai emerged as the symbol of the state. Kokutai was seen as the barrier against socialist movements in Japan. With the challenge of the Great Depression on the horizon, this would be the death knell for parliamentary democracy in Japan. After World War I, the Western Powers, influenced by Wilsonian ideology, attempted an effort at general disarmament. At the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–1922, the Great Powers met to set limits on naval armament; the Five Power Naval Limitation Agreement worked out in Washington limited competition in battleships and aircraft carriers to a ratio of 5:5:3 for the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan respectively.
Japanese ultra-nationalists viewed this as an attempt by Western powers to curb Japanese expansionism in an area of the globe over which they had no interest. But, those in power in Japan agreed to the disarmament, realizing that the global taste for war had been soured after the First World War and knowing that, the ratio was sufficient to maintain hegemony in the Pacific. In 1924, friendly U. S.-Japanese relations were torpedoed by the Japanese Exclusion Act. The act closed off Japanese immigration to the United States and dropped Japanese immigrants to the level of other Asians; the overwhelming reaction in Japan, both at the highest levels and in mass rallies that reflected angry public opinion, was hostile and sustained. Commentators suggested the opening guns of a race war and called for a new buildup of the Japanese armed forces. From 1928 to 1932, domestic crisis could no longer be avoided; as the left was vigorously put down by the state, the economic collapse brought a new hardship to the people of Japan.
Silk and rice prices plummeted and exports decreased 50%. Unemployment in both the cities and the countryside skyrocketed and social agitation came to a head. Meanwhile, the London Naval Treaty was ratified in 1930, its purpose was to e
Mitsuishi River is a river in Hokkaidō, Japan. It has a drainage area of 159.4 square kilometers. The Mitsuishi River originates at Mount Setaushi in the Hidaka Mountains and flows south to southwest; the river flows into a reservoir at the Mitsuishi Dam. The Mitsuishi Dam was completed on the river in 1992 to prevent the flow of earth and sand from the Pirashike area, prone to landslides, it continues until it reaches the Pacific Ocean at Mitsuishi in Shinhidaka, Hokkaidō. Pishunbebō River Rubetsube River Bebō River Nobushitsu River Utsuma River Futamata River Pirashuke River Migikyūgō River or Ninth River on the Right Media related to Mitsuishi River at Wikimedia Commons
Chitose River is a river in Hokkaidō, Japan. The river is a class A river. In the city of Ebetsu, the river is sometimes known as Ebetsu River. In the Ainu language Chitose was called shikot, meaning big depression or hollow, like Lake Shikotsu a caldera lake. To the Japanese, this sounded too much like dead bones; the name of the river was changed in 1805. The Chitose River is the outflow of Lake Shikotsu. From the lake the river flows through a series of power plants owned by the Oji Paper Company; the Chitose River flows through the center of the city of Chitose, before entering the Ishikari Plain. On the plain, the river is fed by numerous irrigation canals. Here the Chitose River forms part of the border between Sorachi Subprefectures; the river passes through the city of Ebetsu before it flows into the Ishikari River. The Chitose River causes flooding damage about every two years, widening to as many as 40 kilometres; the last major flood was in 1981, where the river flooded 20,000 hectares of land.
National and local governments have been adopting numerous measures to try and reduce the severity of the flooding. Geographical Survey Institute
Rumoi River is a river in Hokkaidō, Japan. The Rumoi is 44 kilometres in length, it traces its source to Mount Poroshiri 731 metres in the Hidaka Mountain range, flows across Rumoi Subprefecture in the west of Hokkaidō and empties into the Sea of Japan. The mouth of the Rumoi River is in the city of Rumoi
The Tōhoku region, Northeast region, or Northeast Japan consists of the northeastern portion of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. This traditional region consists of six prefectures: Akita, Fukushima, Iwate and Yamagata. Tōhoku retains a reputation as a scenic region with a harsh climate. In the 20th century, tourism became a major industry in the Tōhoku region. In mythological times, the area was known as Azuma and corresponded to the area of Honshu occupied by the native Ainu; the area was the Dewa and the Michinoku regions, a term first recorded in Hitachi-no-kuni Fudoki. There is some variation in modern usage of the term "Michinoku". Tōhoku's initial historical settlement occurred between the seventh and ninth centuries, well after Japanese civilization and culture had become established in central and southwestern Japan; the last stronghold of the indigenous Emishi on Honshu and the site of many battles, the region has maintained a degree of autonomy from Kyoto at various times throughout history.
The haiku poet Matsuo Bashō wrote Oku no Hosomichi during his travels through Tōhoku. The region is traditionally known as a less developed area of Japan; the catastrophic 9.0-Magnitude earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, inflicted massive damage along the east coast of this region, killed 15,894 people and was the costliest natural disaster which left 500,000 people homeless along with radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Masamune, feudal lord of Date clan, expanded trade in the Tōhoku region. Although faced with attacks by hostile clans, he managed to overcome them after a few defeats and ruled one of the largest fiefdoms of the Tokugawa shogunate, he worked on many projects to beautify the region. He is known to have encouraged foreigners to come to his land. Though he funded and promoted an envoy to establish relations with the Pope in Rome, he was motivated at least in part by a desire for foreign technology, similar to that of other lords, such as Oda Nobunaga.
Further, once Tokugawa Ieyasu outlawed Christianity, Masamune reversed his position, though disliking it, let Ieyasu persecute Christians in his domain. For 270 years, Tōhoku remained a place of tourism and prosperity. Matsushima, for instance, a series of tiny islands, was praised for its beauty and serenity by the wandering haiku poet Matsuo Bashō, he showed sympathy for Christian traders in Japan. In addition to allowing them to come and preach in his province, he released the prisoner and missionary Padre Sotelo from the hands of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Date Masamune allowed Sotelo as well as other missionaries to practice their religion and win converts in Tōhoku; the most used subdivision of the region is dividing it to "North Tōhoku" consisting of Aomori and Iwate Prefectures and "South Tōhoku" consisting of Yamagata and Fukushima Prefectures. The population collapse of Tōhoku, which began before the year 2000, has accelerated, now including dynamic Miyagi. Despite this, Sendai City has grown due to the disaster.
The population collapse of Aomori and Akita Prefectures, Honshu's 3 northernmost, began in the early 1980s after an initial loss of population in the late 1950s. Fukushima Prefecture, prior to 1980, had traditionally been the most populated, but today Miyagi is the most populated and urban by far. Tōhoku, like most of Japan, is mountainous, with the Ōu Mountains running north-south; the inland location of many of the region's lowlands has led to a concentration of much of the population there. Coupled with coastlines that do not favor seaport development, this settlement pattern resulted in a much greater than usual dependence on land and rail transportation. Low points in the central mountain range make communications between lowlands on either side of the range moderately easy. Tōhoku was traditionally considered the granary of Japan because it supplied Sendai and the Tokyo-Yokohama market with rice and other farming commodities. Tōhoku provided 20 percent of the nation's rice crop; the climate, however, is harsher than in other parts of Honshū due to the stronger effect of the Siberian High, permits only one crop a year on paddy fields.
In the 1960s, steel, chemical and petroleum refining industries began developing. Designated citiesSendai Core citiesIwaki Koriyama Akita Morioka Aomori Hachinohe Other citiesAizuwakamatsu Daisen Date Fukushima Goshogawara Hachimantai Hanamaki Higashimatsushima Higashine Hirakawa Hirosaki Ichinoseki Ishinomaki Iwanuma Kakuda Kamaishi Kaminoyama Katagami Kazuno Kesennuma Kitaakita Kitakami Kitakata Kuji Kurihara Kuroishi Minamisōma Misawa Miyako Motomiya Murayama Mutsu Nagai Nan'yō Natori Nihonmatsu Nikaho Ninohe Noshiro Obanazawa Oga Ōdate Ōfunato Ōsaki Ōshū Rikuzentakata Sagae Sakata Semboku Shinjō Shiogama Shirakawa Shiroishi Sōma Sukagawa Tagajō Takizawa Tamura Tendō Tome Tomiya Tōno Towada Tsugaru Tsuruoka Yamagata Yokote Yonezawa Yurihonjō Yuzawa Mount Bandai Three Mountains of Dewa Hakkōda Mountains Mount Hayachine Mount Iwaki Lake Tazawa Lake Towada Kitakami River Oirase River Valley the islands of Matsushima Bay Mount Osore Sanriku Coastline Bandai-Asahi National Park Miss Veedol Beach Rikuchu Kaigan National Park Towada-Hachimantai National Park 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami 2006 Kuril Islands earthquake Geography of Japan Tōhoku dialect List of regions in Japan Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth..
Japan encyclopedia. Cambr
The Ishikari River, at 268 kilometres long, is the third longest in Japan and the longest in Hokkaidō. The river drains an area of 14,330 square kilometres, making it the second largest in Japan, with a total discharge of around 14.8 cubic kilometres per year. It originates from Mount Ishikari in the Daisetsuzan Volcanic Group and flows through Asahikawa and Sapporo. Major tributaries of the river include the Chūbetsu, Uryū, Toyohira rivers; until 40,000 years ago, it flowed into the Pacific Ocean near Tomakomai. Lava from the volcanic Shikotsu mountains moved its mouth to the Ishikari Bay; the name of the river is derived from the Ainu for "make itself go round about something", i.e. "winding." As it suggests, the river once meandered in the Ishikari plain and was as long as the Shinano River, the longest river in Japan. Massive construction left many oxbow lakes in the plain; the landscape and human activities along the Ishikari River the hard life of tenant farmers, are described in the novel'The Absentee Landlord' published in 1929 by the Japanese writer Takiji Kobayashi.
Ishikari-gawa - Britannica
Awa Dance Festival
The Awa Dance Festival is held from 12 to 15 August as part of the Obon festival in Tokushima Prefecture on Shikoku in Japan. Awa Odori is the largest dance festival in Japan, attracting over 1.3 million tourists every year. Groups of choreographed dancers and musicians known as ren dance through the streets accompanied by the shamisen lute, taiko drums, shinobue flute and the kane bell. Performers wear traditional obon dance costumes, chant and sing as they parade through the streets. Awa is the old feudal administration name for Tokushima Prefecture, odori means dance; the earliest origins of the dance style are found in the Japanese Buddhist priestly dances of Nembutsu-odori and hiji-odori of the Kamakura period, in kumi-odori, a lively harvest dance, known to last for several days. The Awa Odori festival grew out of the tradition of the Bon Odori, danced as part of the Bon "Festival of the Dead", a Japanese Buddhist celebration where the spirits of deceased ancestors are said to visit their living relatives for a few days of the year.
The term "Awa Odori" was not used until the 20th century, but Bon festivities in Tokushima have been famous for their size and anarchy since the 16th century. Awa Odori's independent existence as a huge, citywide dance party is popularly believed to have begun in 1586 when Lord Hachisuka Iemasa, the daimyō of Awa Province hosted a drunken celebration of the opening of Tokushima Castle; the locals, having consumed a great amount of sake, began to drunkenly weave and stumble back and forth. Others picked up available musical instruments and began to play a simple, rhythmic song, to which the revelers invented lyrics; the lyrics are given in the'Song' section of this article. This version of events is supported by the lyrics of the first verse of "Awa Yoshikono Bushi", a local version of a popular folk song which praises Hachisuka Iemasa for giving the people Awa Odori and is quoted in the majority of tourist brochures and websites. However, according to local historian Miyoshi Shoichiro, this story first appeared in a Mainichi Shimbun newspaper article in 1908 and is unsupported by any concrete evidence.
It is unclear after this article appeared. Some evidence of the festival's history comes from edicts issued by the Tokushima-han feudal administration, such as this one dating from 1671: 1; the bon-odori may be danced for only three days.2. Samurai are forbidden to attend the public celebration, they must keep the gates shut. No quarrels, arguments or other misbehaviour are allowed.3. The dancing of bon-odori is prohibited in all temple grounds; this suggests that by the 17th century, Awa's bon-odori was well established as a major event, lasting over three days—long enough to be a major disruption to the normal functioning of the city. It implies that samurai joined the festival alongside peasants and merchants, disgracing themselves with brawling and unseemly behaviour. In 1674, it was "forbidden for dancers or spectators to carry swords, daggers or poles". In 1685 revelers were prohibited from dancing after midnight and dancers were not allowed to wear any head or face coverings, suggesting that there were some serious public order concerns.
In the Meiji period the festival died down as the Tokushima's indigo trade, which had financed the festival, collapsed due to imports of cheaper chemical dyes. The festival was revitalised at the start of the Shōwa period when Tokushima Prefectural authorities first coined the name "Awa Odori" and promoted it as the region's leading tourist attraction; the song associated with Awa Odori is called Awa Yoshikono and is a localised version of the Edo period popular song Yoshikono Bushi. Parts of it are sung, others are chanted; the origins of the melodic part have been traced to Kumamoto, Kyūshū, but the Awa version came from Ibaraki Prefecture, from where it spread back down to Nagoya and Kansai. The lyrics of the first verse are: Awa no tono sama Hachisuka-sama ga ima ni nokoseshi Awa OdoriWhat Awa's Lord Hachisuka left us to the present day is Awa Odori The song is sung at a point in the parade where the dancers can stop and perform a stationary dance — for example a street intersection or in front of the ticketed, amplified stands which are set up at points around the city.
Not every group has a singer, but dancers and musicians will break out into the Awa Yoshikono chant as they parade through the streets: The dancers chant hayashi kotoba call and response patterns such as "Yattosa, yattosa", "Hayaccha yaccha", "Erai yaccha, erai yaccha", "Yoi, yoi, yoi". These calls help to encourage the dancers. During the daytime a restrained dance called Nagashi is performed, but at night the dancers switch to a frenzied dance called Zomeki; as suggested by the lyrics of the chant, spectators are encouraged to join the dance. Men and women dance in different styles. For the men’s dance: right foot and right arm forward, touch the ground with toes step with right foot crossing over left leg; this is repeated with the left leg and arm. Whilst doing this, the hands draw triangles in the air with a flick of the wrists, starting at different points. Men dance in a low crouch with knees pointing outwards and arms held above the shoulders; the women's dance uses the same basic steps.
The restrictive kimono allows only the smallest of steps forward but a crisp kick behind, the hand gestures are more restrained and graceful, reaching up towards the sky. Women dance in tight formation, poised on the ends of their geta sandals. Children and adolescents of both sexes d