Jagdschloss is the German term for a hunting lodge. It is a schloss set in a wildlife park or a hunting area that served as accommodation for a ruler or aristocrat and his entourage while hunting in the area. A Jagdschloss was the venue for a banquet accompanying a hunt, sometimes it hosted festivals and other events; the term Jagdschloss is equated to the Lustschloss or maison de plaisance as the hunt was a recreational activity. However, a Lustschloss and Jagdschloss differ in function as well as architecture; the layout and furnishing of a Lustschloss is unconstrained, while that of a Jagdschloss is always related to hunting: the walls may be adorned with antlers and other trophies, with scenes of hunting, by a deliberate use of wood or other natural materials. A Jagdschloss could be lavishly furnished, but unlike with a Lustschloss, timber-framed buildings or log cabins were not uncommon. Only a few imposing stone buildings have survived, which colours the general understanding of what a Jagdschloss is today.
A Jagdschloss had stables and other outbuildings used to house hunting equipment and the entourage. Larger examples form self-contained ensembles, while smaller ones, known as Jagdhäuser, were built within castle parks and gardens, within range of the Residenz of the owner. Amalienburg in the park of Nymphenburg Palace, Bavaria Augustusburg Hunting Lodge in Augustusburg, Saxony Clemenswerth in Sögel, Lower Saxony Engers Palace Falkenlust in Brühl, North Rhine-Westphalia Gelbensande Hunting Lodge Glienicke Hunting Lodge Granitz Hunting Lodge Grünau Hunting Lodge by Neuburg on the Danube Grunewald Hunting Lodge in Berlin Hubertusstock Hunting Lodge in the Schorfheide Kranichstein Hunting Lodge by Darmstadt Letzlingen Hunting Lodge Moritzburg Castle in Saxony Quitzin Hunting Lodge in Western Pomerania Rominten Hunting Lodge Springe Hunting Lodge Stern Hunting Lodge in Potsdam Wolfsgarten Castle in Hesse Wolfstein Hunting Lodge in Kochholz Schloss Fuschl in Austria Schloss Holzheim in Hesse Lustschloss Monique Chatenet: Maisons des champs dans l'Europe de la Renaissance.
Actes des premières Rencontres d'architecture européenne, Château de Maisons, 10-13 juin 2003. Picard, Paris, 2006, ISBN 2-7084-0737-6. Claude d'Anthenaise: Chasses princières dans l'Europe de la Renaissance. Actes du colloque de Chambord. Fondation de la Maison de la Chasse et de la Nature. Actes Sud, Arles, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7427-6643-7. Heiko Laß: Jagd- und Lustschlösser: Art and culture of two sovereign construction tasks. Imhof, Petersberg, 2006, ISBN 3-86568-092-5
The Wychwood, or Wychwood Forest, is an area now covering a small part of rural Oxfordshire. In past centuries the forest covered a much larger area, since cleared in favour of agriculture and towns. However, the forest's area has fluctuated. Parts cleared for agriculture during Britain's centuries under Roman rule reverted to forest; the existence of the ancient Wychwood is recognised by the authoritative Victoria County History, but the planned Volume XIX has yet to be completed. Wychwood is derived from an Old English name Huiccewudu meaning'wood of a tribe called the Hwicce; the Hwicce were the Anglo-Saxon people living in the area from some time in the 6th century until the assimilation of the Old English peoples into the wider Middle English society. Three villages take part of their name from Wychwood Forest: Milton-under-Wychwood, Shipton-under-Wychwood and Ascott-under-Wychwood; these villages referred to as The Wychwoods, used to be part of the Royal Forest of Wychwood. Long barrows and Bronze age round barrows show the area was settled from at least 3000 BC.
500BC to 40AD - increase in social organisation and construction of earthworks such as Knollbury Camp and Grim's Ditch. During Roman times, the region was within a road network with Akeman Street crossing it. Remains of Roman villas have been found at North Stonesfield. After the decline of Roman control much of the open land reverted to woodland. Saxon settlements were restricted to the woodland edge or large clearings. In the reign of Ethelred II a royal hunting lodge was established at Woodstock. Wychwood was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086; the king had hunting rights over the whole area designated as Royal Forest though much of the land was held by various lords. Only the woodland at Woodstock, Cornbury and a large area near Kingstanding Farm belonged directly to the king. By 1300 Wychwood was divided into 3 portions, centered on the parks of Woodstock, Cornbury and a part which included the Bishop of Winchester's Witney estate. In 1704 Woodstock Park was given by the Crown to the Duke of Marlborough.
By Cornbury was in private hands. In 1778 the navy procured 500 trees from Wychwood yet by 1792 a report by the Crown Commissioners found only 173 oaks of ship building quality, with fences down, coppices full of deer and swine, the locals helping themselves to firewood. In 1857 the 10 sq. miles of Wychwood remaining as Royal Forest was taken out of Forest Law by a Parliamentary Act of Disafforestation. Ancient forest rights, granted to commoners, were ended and the commoners compensated. Within 2 years 2000 acres of woodland was converted to farmland and housing and 10 miles of new roads were built. Seven new farmsteads were built, including King's Standing Farm; the parish of Leafield and its church dates from this time. The remaining woodland was enclosed in 1867 and still exists. While Wychwood was a designated Royal Forest, royalty entrusted the management of the forest to loyal servants; the men in charge of the forest were called Foresters of Wychwood and, in years, Keepers of Wychwood. Foresters were tasked with supplying the king with deer, wood and charcoal.
They were charged with upholding the king's law by protecting the forest with the assistance of under-foresters, riding foresters and walking foresters. Foresters, together with verderers could hold court and try offenders for both minor and major offences; the foresters of Wychwood were in the family of the de Langleys until 1361, followed by the Earls of Warwick until 1499. Management was given by the kings as favors to courtiers for life, among them were Robert Dudley, Sir John Fortescue, Lord Clarendon and George Spencer, the 4th Duke of Marlborough; some of the land, cleared for agricultural use was purchased by the Woodland Trust, re-planted with native English deciduous trees creating Shillbrook Wood, a 9-acre site near Bampton, Eynsham Wood, a 13.37-acre site near Eynsham. Since the late 1990s there has been a resurgence of interest in the history and identity of the Wychwood, exemplified by the founding of the Wychwood Project. Since 2000'Forest Fairs' have been held at a variety of locations within the old Wychwood boundary.
These are a better-behaved revival of traditional Fairs that were closed down in 1856 because of rowdy behaviour. The modern Fairs are centred on rural crafts, they attract a large number of visitors in bad weather. The Oxford University Historical Re-Enactment Society known as the Wychwood Warriors, is a reenactment group that recreates aspects of Saxon life in Wychwood during the Dark Ages; the Wychwood has given its name to a set of three villages in Oxfordshire, Milton-under-Wychwood, Shipton-under-Wychwood and Ascott-under-Wychwood. The villages together are known by locals as "The Wychwoods". Fragments of the ancient forest survive, one on the Cornbury Estate near Charlbury retaining the name'Wychwood'. This, a Site of Special Scientific Interest, contains an eponymous national nature reserve. By Newell Plain, Wychwood Forest, Oxfordshire by William Bowley Duck Shooting in Cornbury Park, Wychwood Forest, Oxfordshire by William Bowley (1789-1861 Barking Timber in Wychwood Forest, Oxfordshire by Joshua Cristall Wychwood Forest, Oxfordshire by William Turner.
Written in ink on the back of the painting: A scene where a pleasure fair was held in Wychwood Forest, Oxfordshire / William Turner Shipton on Cherwell / Oxon / 1809. Written on the back of the drawing in faded ink. In the Forest of Wychwood by Joseph Mallord William Turner Wychwood by E. V. Thompson Magic at Wychwood by Sally Watson Tales of Wyc
A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for baptism. The fonts of many Christian denominations are for baptisms using a non-immersive method, such as aspersion or affusion; the simplest of these fonts has a pedestal with a holder for a basin of water. The materials vary consisting of carved and sculpted marble, wood, or metal; the shape can vary. Many are eight-sided as a reminder of the new creation and as a connection to the practice of circumcision, which traditionally occurs on the eighth day; some are three-sided as a reminder of the Holy Trinity: Father and Holy Spirit. Fonts are placed at or near the entrance to a church's nave to remind believers of their baptism as they enter the church to pray, since the rite of baptism served as their initiation into the Church. In many churches of the Middle Ages and Renaissance there was a special chapel or a separate building for housing the baptismal fonts, called a baptistery. Both fonts and baptisteries were octagonal. Saint Ambrose wrote that fonts and baptisteries were octagonal "because on the eighth day, by rising, Christ loosens the bondage of death and receives the dead from their graves".
Saint Augustine described the eighth day as "everlasting... hallowed by the resurrection of Christ". The quantity of water is small. There are some fonts where water pumps, a natural spring, or gravity keeps the water moving to mimic the moving waters of a stream; this visual and audible image communicates a "living waters" aspect of baptism. Some church bodies use special holy water while others will use water straight out of the tap to fill the font. A special silver vessel called; the mode of a baptism at a font is one of sprinkling, washing, or dipping in keeping with the Koine Greek verb βαπτιζω. Βαπτιζω can mean "immerse", but most fonts are too small for that application. Some fonts are large enough to allow the immersion of infants, however; the earliest baptismal fonts were designed for full immersion, were cross-shaped with steps leading down into them. Such baptismal pools were located in a separate building, called a baptistery, near the entrance of the church; as infant baptism became more common, fonts became smaller.
Denominations that believe only in baptism by full immersion tend to use the term "baptismal font" to refer to immersion tanks dedicated for that purpose, however in the Roman Catholic tradition a baptismal font differs from an immersion. Full-immersion baptisms may take place in a man-made tank or pool, or a natural body of water such as a river or lake; the entire body is immersed, submerged or otherwise placed under the water. This practice symbolizes the death of the old nature, as found in Romans 6:3-4. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, baptism is always by full triple immersion in the case of infant baptism. For this reason, Eastern baptismal fonts tend to be larger than Western, are shaped like a large chalice, are fashioned out of metal rather than stone or wood. During the baptismal service, three candles will be lit on or around the baptismal font, in honor of the Holy Trinity. In many Orthodox churches, a special kind of holy water, called "Theophany Water", is consecrated on the Feast of Theophany.
The consecration is performed twice: the first time on the Eve in a baptismal font. In the Roman Catholic Church after its Second Vatican Council, greater attention is being given to the form of the baptismal font; the Roman Catholic Church encourages baptismal fonts that are suitable for the full immersion of an infant or child, for at least the pouring of water over the whole body of an adult. The font should be located in a space, visibly and physically accessible, should preferably make provision for flowing water. Baptisms of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints are done in a simple font located in a local meetinghouse, although they can be performed in any body of water in which the person may be immersed. In Latter-day Saint temples, where proxy baptisms for the dead are performed, the fonts rest on the sculptures of twelve oxen representing the twelve tribes of Israel, following the pattern of the Molten Sea in the Temple of Solomon. Bronze laver Holy water font Nipson anomemata me monan opsin Fonts used to baptise the British royal family Combe, Thomas.
Illustrations of baptismal fonts. J. Van Voorst. Retrieved 25 September 2010. Catholic Encyclopedia article Church Furniture article in Christian Cyclopedia The Baptismal font of Renier d'Huy in Leige, Belgium "Font". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Greene King is the UK's largest pub retailer and brewer. It is based in Bury St Edmunds, England; the company owns pubs and hotels. It is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index; the brewery was founded by Benjamin Greene in Bury St. Edmunds in 1799. In Wilson’s biographical analysis of the Greenes, he credits members of their family for being able to achieve distinction in the worlds of business and banking and broadcasting in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.’In 1836 Edward Greene took over the business and in 1887 it merged with Frederick William King's brewing business to create Greene King. Greene King has grown via mergers and acquisitions, including Rayments Brewery, the Magic Pub Company, Hungry Horse, Morland Brewery, Old English Inns, Morrells, a large part of the Laurel Pub Company, Ridley's Brewery, Belhaven Brewery and Hansons, the Loch Fyne fish restaurant chain, Realpubs, the Capital Pub Company and the Spirit Pub Company; the Spirit acquisition, where Greene King bought Spirit for £773.6m, took the total number of Greene King sites to 3,116, brought 14 brands together and made Greene King the largest managed pub company in the UK.
It was completed on 23 June 2015. It was announced in November 2018 that Rooney Anand will be stepping down from his role as CEO after 14 years in the position; the Greene King brewery in Bury St Edmunds produces beers branded in the names of breweries now closed, including Morland, Hardys & Hanson and Tolly Cobbold. The Belhaven brewery in Dunbar continues to operate in Scotland; the group operates 3,100 pubs and hotels: Its retail division is split between its destination pubs and restaurants and its local pubs. Its strategy is to open further retail outlets, its pub partners division has leased and franchised pubs. Its strategy is to reduce the numbers of these outlets. There is a visitor centre next to the brewery, tours are run throughout the week; the brewery has an exhibition of pub sign artwork by George Taylor, who designed over 250 such signs for Greene King pubs. Greene King has been supporting apprenticeships since 2011 through its award winning Greene King Apprenticeship Programme. Since launch, the scheme has welcomed some 9,000 apprentices.
In 2016, Greene King launched the Get Into Hospitality Programme in partnership with The Prince’s Trust. The aim of the programme is to address the skills and experience gaps that prevent unemployed people from getting into work; those who complete and graduate from the programme are offered a role onto the Greene King Apprenticeship Programme. In 2017, Greene King launched an 18 month brewing venture led by apprentices. Through the programme, apprentices earn while they learn about brewing and marketing. Through the scheme, they will gain a Level 3 NVQ Diploma in Sales; the first five beers from the Craft Academy was launched at Craft Beer Rising Festival in London and include. Greene King's ongoing business expansion has sometimes been the subject of criticism; as a result of its active acquisition policy, it has come to be known by beer protesters as Greedy King. The growing consumer reaction to Greene King buying out smaller breweries was demonstrated towards the end of 2006 when a pub in Lewes, East Sussex started a well-publicised protest against Greene King for removing the locally produced Harveys Sussex Best Bitter from sale, while continuing to sell other guest beers.
In January 2014, popular Manchester pub The Lass O'Gowrie, voted "Best Pub in Britain" at the Great British Pub Awards in 2012, closed after landlord Gareth Kavanagh was forced out in an argument over rent. Having lost 40% of their trade after the BBC moved to Salford, Kavanagh had won a rent reduction at an independent tribunal before being forced out by the brewery. Greene King has been criticised for removing many traditional and historic pub signs as part of rebranding schemes. Abbot Ale - A premium bitter first brewed in the 1950s; the ingredients are pale and amber malts. In 2007 Abbot Reserve was introduced as a winter special in the cask, with year-round availability in the bottle. Greene King IPA - A cask bitter served in pubs and cans available from supermarkets and off-licences nationally, it is made using pale and crystal malt. Greene King IPA controversially won the Gold award at the 2004 Campaign for Real Ale Great British Beer Festival in the Bitter category and runner-up in the Champion Beer of Britain category.
In 2009, Greene King began to roll out a new form of dispense which allows customers to choose either a "Northern" or a "Southern" head on their beer. In 2012, two extensions of the brand were launched: Reserve. IPA Export - A stronger cask bitter IPA available from off-licences in bottles made using Challenger and English First Gold hops. Olde Suffolk/Strong Suffolk Vintage - A strong old ale, a blend of two ales, one being aged in oak for two years, it is available in bottles. St Edmunds - A crisp golden ale available in both bottles and cask nationally. Greene King XX Mild. A dark mild ale available on cask. Black and Crystal malts, Northdown hops. Olde Trip - A 4.3% Premium Ale. Named in honour of the Nottingham inn Ye Olde Trip
Bledington is a village and civil parish in the Cotswold district of Gloucestershire, about four miles south-east of Stow-on-the-Wold and six miles south-west of Chipping Norton. The population of the civil parish in 2014 was estimated to be 490. Bledington lies in the Evenlode valley, forms part of the Gloucestershire–Oxfordshire boundary and stands on the Oxfordshire Way. There are deposits of alluvial soil, but most of the land is heavy clay, the parish being entirely on the Lower Lias; the village is built round a rectangle of streets, with the church in the south corner, the green, with most of the older houses near it, on the northwest side. The southern part of the village has been developed extensively since 1920; the village green is a large unenclosed stretch of grass, with a stream running through it. The parish church dates from the 12C and was extended in the 15C; the village has a county primary school which dates from the late 19C. It has The Kings Head, on the village green, its former shop and post office have long since closed, but funds are being raised and land has been acquired for a community shop.
The village hall, which stands near the centre of the village, is a converted 18C barn of rubble with a Cotswold stone roof. A trust was formed and the building was bought in 1920 for the use of the people of Bledington and Foscot hamlet, it was renovated and re-roofed in 2016. Although Roman coins have been found near the centre of the parish, the settlement of Bledington was established in late Saxon times, taking its name from the nearby river Bladon, which forms the eastern boundary of the parish. With its heavy clay soil and poor drainage, Bledington seems to postdate nearby West Saxon manors situated on higher ground; the manor of Bladintona is recorded as being among the gifts of Coenwulf of Mercia to the abbey of Winchcombe in 798, they retained the control for over 700 years until the abbey's dissolution in 1539. There were 22 households in the manor in the Domesday survey in 1086, giving a population of about 100, but with no freemen and no priest. By this time, about half of the 1,539 acres of land in the parish were under cultivation.
The first mention of the parish church is in 1175. Bledington was still small and poor enough to be coupled with Sherbourne in 1303 as forming a knight's fee for the purpose of raising a feudal aid for the wedding of Edward I's daughter; the Black Death arrived in England in 1348 and manor court records suggest that at least one in three Bledington villagers died. The loss of income caused by the Black Death prompted the Abbot of Winchcombe to apply to the King, the Pope and the Bishop of Worcester for permission to appropriate the rectory in 1402, subordinating the resulting vicarage to the abbey and benefitting from the proceeds of the glebe and tithes. In 1546, following the Dissolution, the rectory, including farm and offerings, was granted to the Dean and Chapter of Christ Church, Oxford; the dean and chapter remained among the principal landowners in Bledington in the 19th century, but by the mid-20th century most of their land had been sold piecemeal and only part of Village Farm was still owned by them.
In March 1553, the manor was acquired from the Crown for £897.13s.1½d as part of an investment package by Thomas Leigh, a wealthy London merchant. At one stage the Leigh family owned the manors of Adlestrop and Longborough, as well as their originating village of Stoneleigh. Before the sale, a detailed survey of the manor was undertaken which reveals that there was pasturage for 870 sheep and 124 oxen. Arable land was being used for wheat and pulse together with some hemp for spinning. By 1600, Leigh's descendants had begun to sell parts of the estate, principally to its tenants, but these freeholds did not represent contiguous areas of land. A 1710 will reveals; the manorial common land was divided into parts held by yeomen whose ancestors had been customary tenants in the 16th century, but was still used as common pasture. In 1770 six open fields were enclosed, a total of 1,343 acres, with sixteen landowners receiving allotments. Although there was a certain amount of exchanging of land after enclosure, on the whole, the lands belonging to each farm remained scattered.
At a second enclosure in 1831 an area of 179 acres was divided between nine proprietors. In the 19th century, only Bledington Ground, Village Farm remained large farms; the arable land produced wheat and barley, by the late 19th century turnips and cider apples were being grown. And earlier edns. By the mid-20th century, this industry had stopped owing to the cost of labour and lack of facilities for making cider locally, but the orchards were still a prominent feature of the landscape. A mill at Bledington was recorded as part of Winchcombe Abbey's estate in the Domesday Book. There was a miller in Bledington up to 1935; the parish church of St Leonard is of stone, with roofs of lead and of Cotswold stone, comprises a chancel with a sanctus bell-cot, clerestoried nave, south aisle, south porch, embattled west tower. The church was lavishly rebuilt in the 15th century, though it retains earlier parts, the 15th-century painted glass surviving in some of the windows is a notable feature; the earliest known reference to a church in Bledington is in a confirmation dated 1175 by Pope Alexander III to Winchcombe Abbey of all its churches.
The east and west walls of the nave are said to be from this era. The chancel, the nave arcade of three bays, the south porch were built in the 13th century, some new windows were added in the 14th
Thames Valley Police
Thames Valley Police known as Thames Valley Constabulary, is the territorial police force responsible for policing the Thames Valley area covered by the counties of Berkshire and Oxfordshire. It is one of the largest territorial police forces in England covering 2,200 square miles and a population of over 2.1 million people. The police force consists of 4,244 constables, 506 special constables, 466 Police Community Support Officers and 2,576 police staff. Policing in Thames Valley dates back to 1773 when Newbury Borough Police were operating as a small police force; the force was one of around twenty borough forces. These were Buckinghamshire Constabulary, Oxfordshire Constabulary, Berkshire Constabulary, Reading Borough Police and Oxford City Police founded in 1857, 1857, 1856, 1836 and 1868 respectively. Under the Police Act 1964 these five forces were amalgamated on 1 April 1968 to form Thames Valley Constabulary. Thomas Charles Birkett Hodgson, David Holdsworth Peter Imbert Colin Smith Sir Charles Pollard Peter Neyroud Sara Thornton Francis Habgood John Campbell Thames Valley Police is overseen by a locally elected Thames Valley Police and Crime Commissioner.
The incumbent commissioner is Anthony Stansfeld, a Conservative Party candidate elected with 34.7% of the votes in the first round of voting and 57.2% of the votes after the second round. The police and crime commissioner is scrutinised by the Thames Valley Crime Panel. Thames Valley was overseen by a police authority consisting of 19 members, made up of councillors, members from unitary authorities, independents and a magistrate. In April 2011, the force adopted a Local Policing Model; as a result, the force is now split into each led by a superintendent. These consist of two local authority areas; these are in turn split into a number of neighbourhoods which are based off ward and parish boundaries. This alignment is to ensure. Aylesbury Bracknell and Wokingham* Cherwell and West Oxfordshire Chiltern and South Bucks Milton Keynes Oxford Reading South Oxfordshire and Vale of White Horse Slough West Berkshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wycombe Each area is responsible for delivering response policing, neighborhood policing teams and a local priority crime and Criminal Investigation Department.
Other functions that used to be held at Basic Command Unit level are now delivered at Force Headquarters level using a shared service approach. A number of teams are run from Force Headquarters with their staff deployed at various locations around the Force area: Major Investigation Team Control and Communications Police Dog Section Counter Terrorism Squad Intelligence Agency Thames Valley Police has a local policing team working from every police station; these teams consist of officers, community support, special constables and police staff who work to patrol and attend local incidents. They use marked vans which read neighbourhood policing on the side rear panel under the Thames Valley Police corporate logo; these officers will be unarmed and carry taser weapons. The neighbourhood police vans double up as prisoner transport vans. However, most LPA police vehicles are available to this unit. LPA Response units work out of most major stations in the force area and are tasked with patrolling and responding to 999 calls.
These officers are constables issued with Taser weapons. These officers may be tasked to patrol high crime areas for an increased police presence or to conduct follow up investigations. Both the Neighbourhood Policing Group and Incident Response Unit units all share the LPA standard Vauxhall Astra police car; some rural police offices make use of Mitsubishi L200's as a more effective vehicle. Thames Valley Police have 52 operational police dogs; the dogs are donated from the RSPCA or public, are trained at the force headquarters. They serve until they are 8 years old, receiving refresher training every year, living with their handler after retirement, they are part of the Joint Operations Unit with Hampshire Police. The dog section operates with marked and unmarked Mitsubishi Outlanders as well as Ford Mondeo estates. Thames Valley Police patrols 196 miles of motorways including the M1, M4, M40, A329, A404 and M25, as well as many other'A' route roads including the busy A43; the Unit Mainly uses Marked Volvo V70s and New BMW 530d touring's, Unmarked BMW 330ds and Volvo V80's along with some Marked BMW X5s and Mitsubishi Shoguns.
These units are based at 6 geographical traffic bases. Roads Policing in Thames Valley is part of the Joint Operations Unit which works together with Hampshire Constabulary's Roads Policing Unit. Thames Valley Police's Armed Response Unit is a 24/7 unit that responds to major and serious crimes where firearms may be involved; this unit is shared with Hampshire Police as part of the Joint Operations Unit. The training facility is at Sulhamstead with a state of the art firearms range; the unit uses the traffic bases within the force basing themselves out of Three Mile Cross, Milton Keynes, Bicester. This unit can be identified by the red asterisk on the marked patrol cars they use, which includes the Volvo XC70 and BMW X5; the unit use