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Shire (Middle-earth)

The Shire is a region of J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional Middle-earth, described in The Lord of the Rings and other works; the Shire is an inland area settled by Hobbits, the Shire-folk, removed from the goings-on in the rest of Middle-earth. It is in the region of Eriador and the Kingdom of Arnor; the Shire is the scene of action at the beginning and end of Tolkien's The Hobbit, in the sequel, The Lord of the Rings. Five of the protagonists in these stories have their homeland in the Shire: Bilbo Baggins, four members of the Fellowship of the Ring: Frodo Baggins, Sam Gamgee, Merry Brandybuck and Pippin Took; the main action in The Lord of the Rings returns to the Shire near the end of the book, in "The Scouring of the Shire", when the homebound hobbits find the area under the control of Saruman's ruffians, set things to rights. Tolkien based the Shire's landscapes, climate and fauna on rural England where he lived, first in Worcestershire as a boy in Oxfordshire. In Peter Jackson's films of both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, the Shire was represented by countryside and constructed hobbit-holes at Matamata, New Zealand, which became a tourist destination.

Tolkien took considerable trouble over the exact details of the Shire. Little of his carefully-crafted fictional geography, history and constitution appeared in The Hobbit or The Lord of the Rings, though additional details were given in the Appendices of editions; the Tolkien scholar Tom Shippey comments that all the same, they provided the "depth", the feeling in the reader's mind that this was a real and complex place, a quality that Tolkien believed essential to a successful fantasy. In Tolkien's fiction, the Shire is described as a small but beautiful and fruitful land, beloved by its hobbit inhabitants, they were not industrialized. The landscape included woods like the English countryside; the Shire was inland. The Shire measured 40 leagues ) east to west and 50 leagues from north to south, with an area of some 18,000 square miles: that of the English Midlands; the main and oldest part of the Shire was bordered to the east by the Brandywine River, on the north by uplands rising to the Hills of Evendim, on the west by the Far Downs, on the south by marshland.

It expanded to the east into Buckland between the Brandywine and the Old Forest, to the west into the Westmarch between the Far Downs and the Tower Hills. The Shire was subdivided into four Farthings; the Three-Farthing Stone marked the approximate centre of the Shire. Within the Farthings there are unofficial clan homelands: the Tooks nearly all live in or near Tuckborough in Tookland. Buckland, named for the Brandybuck family, across the Brandywine River to the east of the Shire, the Westmarch, between the Far Downs and the Tower Hills to the west, were given to the hobbits as the East and West Marches of the Shire by King Elessar after the War of the Ring; the Shire was first settled by Hobbits in the year 1601 of the Third Age. The hobbits from the vale of Anduin had migrated west over the perilous Misty Mountains, living in the wilds of Eriador before moving to the Shire. After the fall of Arnor, the Shire remained a self-governing realm; the first Thains were the heads of the Oldbuck clan.

When the Oldbucks settled Buckland, the position of Thain was peacefully transferred to the Took clan. The Shire was covertly protected by Rangers of the North, who watched the borders and kept out intruders; the only strangers entering the Shire were Dwarves travelling on the Great Road from their mines in the Blue Mountains, occasional Elves on their way to the Grey Havens. In S. R. 1147 the Hobbits defeated an invasion of Orcs at the Battle of Greenfields. R. 1311-12, white wolves from Forodwaith invaded the Shire across the frozen Brandywine river. In S. R. 1158-60, thousands of Hobbits perished in the Long Winter and the famine. The protagonists of The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings and Frodo Baggins lived at Bag End, a luxurious smial or hobbit-burrow, dug into The Hill on the north side of the town of Hobbiton in the Westfarthing. In S. R. 1341 Bilbo Baggins left the Shire on the quest recounted in The Hobbit. He returned the following year; this turned out to be the One Ring. The Shire was invaded by four Ringwraiths in search of the Ring.

While Frodo, Sam and Pippin were away on the quest to destroy the Ring, the Shire was taken over by Saruman through his underling Lotho Sackville-Baggins. They ran the Shire in a parody of a modern state, complete with armed ruffians, destruction of trees and handsome old buildings, ugly industrialisation; the Shire was liberated with the help of Frodo and his companions on their return at the Battle of Bywater. The trees of the Shire were restored with soil from Galadriel's garden in Lothlórien; the year S. R. 1420 was considered by the inhabitants of the Shire to be the most productive and prosperous year in their history. The hobbits of the Shire spoke Middle-earth's Westron or Common Speech. Tolkien however rendered their language as modern English in The Hobbit and in Lord of the Rings, just as he had used Old Norse names for the Dwarves. To resolve this linguistic puzzle, he

Henry the Younger of Poděbrady

Henry the Younger of Poděbrady was an Imperial Count and Count of Glatz. From 1462 to 1471, he served as Duke of Münsterberg jointly with his older brothers Victor and Henry the Elder, he ruled Duchy of Opava jointly with his brothers from 1465 to 1472. Henry the Younger, held at times the office of regent of Bohemia and is known as an author. Heinrich the Younger of Poděbrady was a son of King George of Podebrady of Bohemia from his second marriage with Johana of Rožmitál, he participated in knightly tournaments. His father, was King of Bohemia, but this crown was not heritable. George persuaded Emperor Frederick III in 1459 to appoint his eldest son Victor to Imperial Count. In 1462, Frederick appointed Henry the Younger and his elder brother Henry the Elder to Imperial Count. Earlier, George had appointed his three sons Count of Glatz and enfeoffed them with the County of Glatz and the Duchy of Münsterberg. In 1465 he enfeoffed them with the Duchy of Opava, which he had acquired in 1464. In 1471, Henry the Younger married the daughter of William III, Landgrave of Thuringia.

His father died soon thereafter. Although Henry had stood at his father's side politically and religiously when he was young, he turned to the Catholic faith. George's successor King Vladislas II undertook to protect George's sons and to take over their debts. George's sons ruled his territories together, but in 1472, the inheritance was split. Henry the Younger received Kostomlaty nad Labem and possessions in Silesia. From his mother he inherited Lichnice Castle and Teplice. At the state convention of Benešov in 1472, Henry was elected as the provincial administrator on the recommendation of his mother, who took part. Unlike his mother, however, he sided with Matthias Corvinus; the reason for this was that Vladislas repaid his debts only while Matthias Corvinus did so without hesitation. In 1475, Henry sold the Lordship of Kolín, which he had received from his older brother Victor, for 20000 ducats to Matthias Corvinus, who stationed his Hungarian occupation troops there. After Henry appointed the Corvinus supported and despot Racek Kocovský as the administrator of Konopiště, Vladislas's supporters aligned with those of Matthias Corvinus.

In 1478 it came to a reconciliation between Vladislas under the Treaty of Brno. Henry prepared the agreement to appointment Vladislas as King of Bohemia and played a significant role in resolving various religious and legal disputes Bohemia. In 1488 he chose the side of the Silesian princes. After the rebellion was suppressed, he had to assign his inherited possessions of Poděbrady and Kostomlaty to John Corvinus, an illegitimate son of Matthias Corvinus. Henry was, granted a life interest in these possessions. Henry the Younger died in 1492 at the Poděbrady Castle, his body was transferred to Kłodzko and buried in the Franciscan monastery founded by his brother Henry the Elder. In 1558 he and eight other members of the Poděbrady family, buried there as well, were reburied in the church in Kłodzko, his main heir was Henry the Elder, who took care of Henry's widow and her children. From his marriage to Catherine of Saxony, Henry had a daughter Anna, who married in 1493 with Henry IV of Neuhaus. With his mistress Catherine Vojkova of Štitar and Straznice, he had several children, including Frederick, to whom he bequeathed Kostomlaty.

Henry was active in literature. In his works he dealt with contemporary history, the conversion to Catholicism, property disputes and his political stance, his poems about happiness, virtue and wisdom are in the contemporary style of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance. He wrote entertaining prose. In his travels with King Matthias Corvinus, he met many humanists. Through him, the works of Giovanni Boccaccio became known in Bohemia, he translated them from German, added some of his own. Májový sen O Veršové milovníku http://www.cesky-jazyk.cz/zivotopisy/hynek-z-podebrad.html Marek, Miroslav. "bohemia/podieb.html". Genealogy. EU

Palace Armoury

The Palace Armoury is an arms collection housed at the Grandmaster's Palace in Valletta, Malta. It was the main armoury of the Order of St. John in the 17th and 18th centuries, as such it was the last arsenal established by a crusader military order. Although today only a part of the original armoury still survives, it is still one of the world's largest collections of arms and armour still housed in its original building; the Palace Armoury has been open to the public as a museum since 1860. In 1604, the Order's arsenal was transferred to the Grandmaster's Palace by Alof de Wignacourt, was housed in a large hall at the rear of the building. At the time, it contained enough arms and armour for thousands of soldiers; the armoury was rearranged under Manuel Pinto da Fonseca's magistracy in the 18th century. Parts of the armoury are believed to have been removed and shipped to France during the French occupation of Malta in 1798–1800, as part of "the organised robbery of art treasure and historic treasures" carried out by Napoleon.

In the early 19th century, the armoury was altered by the British with the addition of Egyptian style column-like supports. These were removed and returned to England in 1855. In the late 1850s, the armoury was restored under the personal direction of Governor John Gaspard Le Marchant, it opened to the public as a museum in 1860. In around 1900, the armoury's collections were catalogued by Guy Francis Laking, who published a book entitled The Armoury of The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. In World War II, the hall housing the armoury was damaged by aerial bombardment on 7 April 1942; the collections were subsequently transferred to the basement of the Grandmaster's Palace or to Girgenti Palace for safekeeping. The hall was repaired after the war, the armoury reopened in 1948. In 1969, UNESCO sent Polish experts Aleksander Czerwiński and Zdzisław Żygulski to make an inventory of the armoury, they called it one of "the most valuable historic monuments of European culture" in their report. In 1975, the collection was transferred from its original location to two former stables on the palace's ground floor, where it remains today.

The original armoury was converted into the meeting place of the Parliament of Malta, was used as such from 1976 to 2015, when a new purpose-built Parliament House was inaugurated near the entrance of Valletta. A study of the armoury was carried out by historian Stephen C. Spiteri in 2003. Today, the museum is managed by Heritage Malta, it is open daily from 9.00 to 17.00. The collections of the Palace Armoury include: several suits of armour belonging to knights of the Order of St. John dating from around 1550 to 1650; these include the personal armour of Grand Masters Martin Garzez and Alof de Wignacourt, Grand Commander Jean-Jacques de Verdelin. Many suits of battle armour for regular soldiers, dating from around 1550 to 1650; these were manufactured in Italy, but some were made locally or in France, Spain or Germany. Many firearms and other weapons, dating from the 16th to the 18th centuries; these include some Ottoman arms captured during the Great Siege of Malta in 1565. Several cannon and other artillery pieces, which were used to arm the various fortifications of Malta.

These date back to the 15th to 18th centuries. Two of the cannons were retrieved from sea in 1964 from a knights period shipwreck in Mellieħa; some modern armament dating back to World War I and World War II was included in the collection. When the armoury was moved in 1975, these were transferred to the National War Museum in Fort Saint Elmo. Spiteri, Stephen C.. Armoury of the Knights. Midsea Books. ISBN 99932-39-33-X. Sammut, Edward. "The Armoury of Valletta and a letter from Sir Guy Laking". Scientia. 25: 6–18. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Media related to Palace Armoury at Wikimedia Commons

Trier of fact

A trier of fact, or finder of fact, is a person, or group of persons, who determines facts in a legal proceeding a trial. To determine a fact is to decide, from the evidence, whether something existed or some event occurred. Various aspects of a case that are not in controversy may be the "facts of the case" and are determined by the agreement of the separate parties. In a jury trial, a jury is the trier of fact; the jury finds the facts and applies them to the relevant statute or law it is instructed by the judge to use in order to reach its verdict. Thus, in a jury trial, the findings of fact are made by the jury while the judge makes legal rulings as to what evidence will be heard by the jury and what legal framework governs the case. Jurors are instructed to follow the law as given by the judge, but are in no way obligated to do so. In some cases this amounts to jury nullification, e.g. the jury re-writing the law or blatantly ignoring it in a particular case. In Anglo-American–based legal systems, finding of fact made by the jury is not appealable unless wrong to any reasonable person.

This principle is enshrined in the Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, which provides that "... no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law." In a bench trial, judges are professional triers of fact. In a bench trial, the judge makes both findings of fact and rulings of law; the findings of a judge of first instance are not disturbed by an appellate court. In the United States, an administrative law judge both presides over trials and adjudicates the claims or disputes involving administrative law, but ALJs are not part of an independent judiciary. In mixed systems, such as the judiciary of Germany, a mixture of both judges and lay judges are triers of fact. Court ruling Fact-finding Justifiable homicide

Beau Casson

Beau Casson is a former Australian cricketer who played for Western Australia and New South Wales from 2002 to 2011, represented Australia at Test cricket. A left-arm wrist spinner, Casson was capable with the bat and had a highest first-class score of 99, he retired from first-class cricket in 2011. Casson grew up in the Perth suburb of Subiaco as one of seven children, he began bowling wrist-spin as a child after watching Shane Warne, citing him as a major influence in his career. Casson was born with Tetralogy of Fallot, a congenital heart defect for which he has undergone three open-heart surgeries. A talented junior cricketer, Casson represented the Australian U-19 cricket team in Youth Test and One Day International matches between 2001 and 2002, he was a vital part of the Australian Under 19 team that won the 2002 Under 19 Cricket World Cup in New Zealand, taking 12 wickets at 15.08 in 6 matches. He was a part of the Youth Test team that took on the Sri Lankan U-19 cricket team at Perth and Adelaide in 2001.

Australia swept the series 3-0 and Casson performed solidly taking 8 wickets at 17.37 with best figures of 5/52. Casson represented Western Australia at all junior levels, from playing in their Under 17 team in 1999 to their Under 19 team in 2001, he was a multiple graduate of the Australian Cricket Academy, being a part of the Academy intake in 2001, 2002 and 2006. As a junior, Casson competed for the Western Australian Under 17 and 19 teams as well as their Second XI team, however it wasn't until the 2002-03 season when he won his first full state contract. Prior to making his first-class debut, Casson played for a Western Australian XI that took on the travelling English cricket team, taking the wicket of James Foster and finishing with figures of 1/32. With seven of Western Australia's players away on international duties, Casson made his first-class debut on 8 December 2003 against Tasmania at the WACA Ground, he had a quiet debut with the ball, taking 0/44 in Tasmania's first innings, but had a solid showing with the bat, scoring 35 runs in Western Australia's second innings.

He had an excellent second first-class match as he tore through South Australia's batting line-up in the first innings to finish with 6/64 and went on to take 10 wickets for the match and was named Man of the Match for the first time in his senior career. Casson played the remaining games of the Pura Cup for Western Australia, however he faded with the ball towards the end of the season, finishing with 17 wickets at 39.35. The 2002-03 season saw Casson make his List A debut on 10 January 2003 against Victoria at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, he failed to take a wicket on debut, in the three other matches he played in the ING Cup season. Casson had a solid second season for Western Australia, taking 17 wickets at 34.11 in the Pura Cup and 4 wickets at 33.50 in the ING Cup, however he missed part of the season due to strained ligaments in his bowling hand. After recovering from his hand injury, Casson had mixed fortunes in the 2004-05 Australian season, he struggled with the ball and bat in the 2004-05 Pura Cup, taking 9 wickets at an average of 40.33 and scoring 36 runs at an average of 9.00.

In contrast, he performed well with the ball in the ING Cup taking 8 wickets at 17.75. The 2005-06 season was Casson's last for Western Australia, he performed poorly, managing 17 wickets at the hefty average of 54.29 in the Pura Cup and only 3 wickets at 41.33 in the ING Cup. In his four years with the Warriors, Casson took 71 first-class wickets at 39.38 and 15 List A wickets at 30.20. In May 2006, Casson announced. Although Western Australia tried to keep him, Casson felt that bowling on the more spin-friendly pitches of the Sydney Cricket Ground would help his career. Western Australia claimed. Cricket Australia, ruled that his transfer was lawful and Casson was cleared to play for New South Wales. While there were doubts over whether Casson would be able to hold down a permanent place in the New South Wales team with four other spinners in the squad, he managed to play seven matches in his first season with the Blues. Despite this, he had a poor first season, taking only 7 wickets at an average of 72.00, however his form was not helped by a shoulder injury that required reconstructive surgery.

Coming back from shoulder injury, Casson had an excellent 2007-08 Pura Cup season. Playing nine matches in the season, he took 29 wickets at an average of 35.13 and scored 485 runs at 60.62. He hit a career top score of 99 off 180 balls against South Australia at the Sydney Cricket Ground and he played a vital role in the Blues' 2007-08 Pura Cup final win. After scoring 89 in a state record seventh wicket stand with Brett Lee, he took 4 wickets in Victoria's unsuccessful run chase, including the final wicket that won the Cup for New South Wales, his strong season was rewarded with his first Cricket Australia contract on 9 April 2008. Despite performing well in first-class cricket, Casson struggled to make the New South Wales one-day side with Nathan Hauritz being the first choice List A spinner for the Blues. Casson only played one List two Twenty20 for New South Wales, he announced his retirement from all cricket in November 2011 due to his long-standing heart condition. On 1 April 2008, Casson was named in Australia's squad for the tour of the West Indies as a back-up for Stuart MacGill.

After the retirement of MacGill following the Second Test in Antigua, Casson was named in the Australian team for the final Test in Barbados. His Test debut came on 12 June 2008 at Kensington Oval, making him the 401st man to play Test cricket for Aus

Fleshtones vs. Reality

Fleshtones vs. Reality is an album released on Emergo Records in 1987 by The Fleshtones; the album was recorded at the Record Plant in New York City in the fall of 1986 with the exception of two songs, "Return of the Leather Kings" and "Too Late To Run", which were recorded in May 1986 at Axis Sound Studio in Atlanta, Georgia. All songs were composed by band members with the exception of "Treat Her Like A Lady", a cover of the 1971 hit by the Cornelius Brothers and Sister Rose; the back cover artwork displays a large image of a person's right hand with about 20 mystical symbols drawn on the palm of the hand in ink. Highlighted in ink are the "life line" and "heart line". Photos of the five band members appear where the five fingers should be, surrounded by handwriting identifying the band members and listing the instruments that they played on the album; the remaining liner notes are hand written on the album cover at various orientations. A long humorous message to the reader occupying most of the left side of the album reads as follows: Somebody had to do it!... and after waiting four years and studying the prophetic content of'I'm gonna build me a Cave!' by John Lee Hooker, the FLESHTONES decided to do it themselves!

The FLESHTONES are the FIVE ELEMENTS - combining to provide their'special brand' of alchemy... passing the Philosopher's Stone over the discarded - transforming the discredited - rescuing and revivifying the bones rummaged from the musical glue factory. They reverse the rotting affects of reality, creating a world where a playboy helps a FBI agent find a kidnapped scientist. Our kind of world!!! But ask the mealy-mouthed, doesn't the FLESHTONES collective pitching arm tire of lobbing'curve-balls' at boredom and pomposity? Can't anybody stop them? WHO WOULD WANT TO!!! Although internationally known as'Nice Guys', the FLESHTONES henceforth operate on a SUPER-REVENGE MOTIF, ensuring'Great Music' - and lots of laughs as their plans invariably explode in their faces. Do not attempt to recreate these stunts at home purchase this LP and let these trained professionals get your kicks for you. GO AHEAD. IT'S ALRIGHT; this is NOT just a brittle snag to break the head-long plunge into the chasm of obscurity.

NO - this is a'rare opportunity' as well a'standing invitation' from the FLESHTONES to step outside of time and claim the birthright they hold in trust for YOU! The FLESHTONES vs. Reality... YOU BE THE JUDGE!!! All songs by Peter Zaremba and Keith Streng, except as indicated. "Another Direction" "Way Up Here" "Way Down South" "Treat Her Like a Lady" "Too Late To Run" "The Return of the Leather Kings" "Our Own Time" "What Ever Makes You Happy" "Mirror Mirror" "The End of the Track" "Nothing's Gonna Bring Me Down" Peter Zaremba — vocals, piano, marimba, FLEX unbreakable pocket comb Keith Streng — guitar, backing vocals and bells Bill Milhizer — drums, backing vocals, marimba Jan Marek Pakulski — bass, backing vocals, marimba Gordon Russell Spaeth — harmonica, alto sax, baritone saxophone, organ and tenor recorders, brain-storms Robert Warren— bass on "What Ever Makes You Happy" and "Way Down South" Horns In New York Danny Lipman— trumpet Nelson Keene Carse— trombone Tony Orbach— tenor sax Paul Vercesi— alto sax In Atlanta Philip Rains— tenor sax Kenny Gregory— trumpetSquad Car - Ed, Joe,'Mid-Town North' Super-Gang vocals The King Family of the Lower East Side, Kenny Endicott, Sarah Fader, Keith Filbert,'Baby' Gregor Jose Hayot, Sharon Hyland, Jody Kurilla, Andrew Lavar, Tom Pakulski, Pomme Nicole, Bob Singerman, Peggy Stephaich, Phillip Stahl, Michael Ullmann, Anita Verdun, Wendy Wild, Peggy H. Wolf.

Backing vocals on "What Ever Makes You Happy" The L. D.'s - Barrence Whitfield, Wendy Wild, Michael Ullmann, Keith StrengSpecial "Phone-a-Rama" guest - "Mustang" Mike Cerezo James A. Ball - producer Teddy Treuhella - additional engineering George Pappas - additional engineering, co-producer of "Return of the Leather Kings" and "Too Late To Run" Paul Special - assistant engineer Joe Hennehan - assistant engineer Dan Vajanek - assistant engineer Mixed at the Record Plant by J. A. B. with various combinations of the Fleshtones and George Pappas Mastered by Greg Calbi Special assistance in Studio "D" - Joe and Mike Cover photo - Lawrence Ivy Art and design, etc. - P. Z. Carrie Hamilton - graphics consultant