Robert O'Hara Burke
Robert O'Hara Burke was an Irish soldier and police officer who achieved fame as an Australian explorer. He was the leader of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition, the first expedition to cross Australia from south to north, finding a route across the continent from the settled areas of Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria; the expedition party was well equipped. A Royal Commission report conducted upon the failure of the expedition was a censure of Burke's judgement. Burke was born in St Clerens, County Galway, Ireland in May 1821, he was the second of three sons of James Hardiman Burke, an officer in the British army 7th Royal Fusiliers, Anne Louisa Burke nee O'Hara. Robert O'Hara was one of seven children. Burke entered the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich in May 1835. In December 1836 he went to Belgium to further his education. In 1841, at the age of twenty he entered the Austrian army and in August 1842 was promoted to Second Lieutenant in the Prince Regent's 7th Reuss Regiment of the Hungarian Hussars.
He spent most of his time in the Imperial Austrian Army posted to northern Italy and in April 1847 was promoted to 1st Lieutenant. Towards the end of 1847 he suffered health problems and went to Recoaro spa in northern Italy Gräfenberg and Aachen before resigning from the Austrian army in June 1848 after charges against him relating to debts and absence without leave were dropped. After returning to Ireland in 1848, he joined the Irish Constabulary, he did his cadet training at Phoenix Park Depot in Dublin between November 1849 and January 1850, was promoted to 3rd Class Sub-Inspector and stationed in County Kildare. At the end of 1850 he transferred to the Mounted Police in Dublin. Burke migrated to Australia in 1853, he left Queenstown, County Cork on 24 November 1852 on the S. S. Rodney, carrying 342 convicts, he promptly sailed for Melbourne. On 1 April 1853 he joined the established Victoria police force, he worked as Acting Inspector under the Chief Commissioner William Henry Fancourt Mitchell in the Parish of Jika Jika in the northern suburbs of Melbourne, but on 1 November 1853 he was appointed a magistrate, promoted to Police Inspector, was posted to Carlsruhe.
On 31 December 1853 he was promoted to District Inspector of the Ovens District and early in 1854 he moved to Beechworth to relieve Inspector John Giles Price. After the death of his brother, James Thomas, in the Crimean War, Burke decided to enlist, he left Australia on the S. S. Marco Polo on 25 March 1856 for England, but, by the time he arrived in Liverpool in June, peace had been declared and the war ended. Burke re-boarded the Marco Polo and returned to Victoria, arriving in Melbourne on 2 December 1856, he resumed his posting at Beechworth and from there attended the "Buckland Valley" riots near Bright against the Chinese gold miners in 1857. In November 1858 he was transferred to Castlemaine as Police Superintendent on £550 p.a. plus a groom and quarters at Broadoaks on Gingell Street. After the South Australian explorer, John McDouall Stuart had reached the centre of Australia, the South Australian parliament offered a reward of £2,000 for the promotion of an expedition to cross the continent from south to north following Stuart's route.
He partnered with another explorer who wanted to discover things about Australia. In June 1860, Burke was appointed to lead the Victorian Exploring Expedition with William John Wills, his third-in-command, as surveyor and astronomical observer; the expedition left Melbourne on Monday, 20 August 1860 with a total of 19 men, 27 camels and 23 horses. They reached Menindee on 23 September 1860 where several people resigned, including the second-in-command, George James Landells and the medical officer, Dr. Hermann Beckler. Cooper Creek, 400 miles further on, was reached on 11 November 1860 by the advance group, the remainder being intended to catch up. After a break, Burke decided to make a dash to the Gulf of Carpentaria, leaving on 16 December 1860. William Brahe was left in charge of the remaining party; the small team of Burke, William Wills, John King and Charley Gray reached the mangroves on the estuary of the Flinders River, near where the town of Normanton now stands, on 9 February 1861. Flooding rains and swamps meant.
Weakened by starvation and exposure, progress on the return journey was slow and hampered by the tropical monsoon downpours of the wet season. Gray died four days; the other three rested for a day. They reached the rendezvous point on 21 April 1861, 9 hours after the rest of the party had given up waiting and left, leaving a note and some food, as they had not been relieved by the party supposed to be returning from Menindee, they attempted to reach Mount Hopeless, the furthest outpost of pastoral settlement in South Australia, closer than Menindee, but failed and returned to Cooper Creek. While waiting for rescue Wills died of exhaustion and starvation. Soon after, Burke died, at a place now called Burke's Water
Queensland State Archives
The Queensland State Archives is the lead agency for public recordkeeping in Queensland, Australia. It is the custodian of the largest and most significant documentary heritage collection about Queensland. Established in 1959, Queensland State Archives promotes the implementation of appropriate recordkeeping principles and practices across public authorities and regulates the retention and disposal of public records. Queensland State Archives develops recordkeeping policy and provides advice to public authorities on the management of public records and facilitates access to information about government for the people of Queensland. Under sections 24 and 25 of the Public Records Act 2002, Queensland State Archives has a range of functions and powers including the ability to: Issue standards regulating the creation, disposal and preservation of government records Conduct research and provide advice to public authorities about the making and preserving of public records Issue policies and guidelines to achieve compliance with the legislative policy frameworks for best practice records management Ensure the archival collection is accessible to government and the people of Queensland Identify and preserve public records of permanent value as the State’s archives Provide climate-controlled storage facilities for permanent archival records.
Recordkeeping in Queensland is not just a modern or new activity. As early as November 1861, an extract from the Brisbane Courier refers to provision of storage for valuable historical documents relating to the early history of the settlement. In 1917 the Royal Historical Society of Queensland called for a "proper system of dealing with the archives of Queensland". In 1932 the Governor of Queensland, Sir Leslie Wilson wrote to the Premier of Queensland, William Forgan Smith regarding a Central Record Office expressing his concern at the inadequate storage and subsequent destruction of many valuable public records. In 1939, Sir Raphael Cilento commented; when the Queensland Government passed the Libraries Act of 1943, Part IV of the Act dealt with public records. However, there was a provision in Part IV to postpone its implementation and archival legislation was not implemented for another 15 years. In 1953 the Government claimed that "it has not been possible to implement this portion of the Act owing to difficulties which have arisen, chief of, a lack of suitable space in which to store and display these documents."While some records were transferred to the State Library of Queensland for preservation, it was not until 31 July 1958 that Part IV of The Libraries Act 1943–1949 was proclaimed and became effective.
In 1959, Robert Sharman was appointed as the first Archivist within the State Library, Queensland State Archives commenced its activities. The Act placed archival authority in the hands of the State Librarian and made the Library Board of Queensland responsible for the destruction of records; the official position of State Archivist was not created until more than 20 years in September 1981. By the late 1970s and early 1980s a surge in genealogical and family history research created a heavy demand for reference services and access to records; the Queensland State Archives Public Search Room was expanded to accommodate more clients and a modern storage warehouse in Acacia Ridge was acquired in 1983. The State Archivist of the day, Paul Wilson focused on Queensland State Archives' role in the management of semi-current records, including the preparation of a wide range of retention and disposal schedules. In 1986 Queensland State Archives was accorded the status of a Division of the State Library of Queensland and developed a proposal for a new purpose-built facility.
The Libraries and Archives Act 1988 defined the role and functions of Queensland State Archives and gave additional protection to public records through an increase in the powers of the State Archivist. It expanded the definition of public records to include computerised records; the Queensland Government introduced the Public Records Act 2002 in July 2002. It replaced Part 7 of the Libraries and Archives Act 1988 and the Libraries and Archives Regulations 1990 with a new statute devoted to the management of public records; the Act provided a contemporary framework for the management of public records and marked a changing role for Queensland State Archives. Queensland State Archives is established under section 21 of the Public Records Act 2002 as the State's archives and records management authority. With the introduction of the Act, Queensland State Archives became the lead agency for State and local government recordkeeping in Queensland; the Act and its accompanying Recordkeeping Information Standards enable Queensland State Archives to develop and implement a comprehensive recordkeeping policy framework to ensure a consistent approach to the creation, disposal, storage and retrieval of government information.
Public authorities are required to make'complete and accurate records' in accordance with the Public Records Act 2002. To help public authorities to achieve this Queensland State Archives developed in 2002, Information Standard 40: Recordkeeping (IS40; this Information Standard aims to foster recordkeeping best practice across the Queensland public sector. The objective of recordkeeping best practice is to establish it as a systematic part of the essential business activities of all public authorities so that records are identified and retained in accessible and usable formats that preserve the evidential integrity of those records for as long as they are required. With the a
Morning Glory cloud
The Morning Glory cloud is a rare meteorological phenomenon consisting of a low-level atmospheric solitary wave and associated cloud observed in different locations around the world. The wave occurs as an amplitude-ordered series of waves forming bands of roll clouds; the southern part of the Gulf of Carpentaria in Northern Australia is the only known location where it can be predicted and observed on a more or less regular basis due to the configuration of land and sea in the area. Morning Glory clouds can be observed from Burketown from late September to early November; the town attracts glider pilots intent on riding this phenomenon. There are only a handful of well formed spectacular clouds during this period at Burketown. During the 2012 season there were only four to be seen from there, but quite a few ragged unspectacular cloud lines were seen, they start to break up before arriving at Burketown or pass to the north and only stay well formed over water. In an aircraft there is a better chance of sighting the cloud.
A Morning Glory cloud is a roll cloud, or arcus cloud, that can be up to 1,000 kilometres long,1 to 2 kilometres high only 100 to 200 metres above the ground. The cloud travels at the rate of 10 to 20 metres per second. Sometimes there is only one cloud, sometimes there are up to ten consecutive roll clouds. Three distinct types of Morning Glory clouds have been identified; the Morning Glory is accompanied by sudden wind squalls, intense low-level wind shear, a rapid increase in the vertical displacement of air parcels, a sharp pressure jump at the surface. Cloud is continuously formed at the leading edge while being eroded at the trailing edge. Showers or thunderstorms may develop in its wake. In the front of the cloud, there is strong vertical motion that transports air up through the cloud and creates the rolling appearance, while the air in the middle and rear of the cloud becomes turbulent and sinks; the cloud dissipates over land where the air is drier. The cloud can be described as a solitary wave or a soliton or an undular bore, a wave that has a single crest and moves without changing speed or shape.
As such, it is the world's biggest wave. The wave may occur without the appearance of any clouds. Unusual cloud formations have been noticed here since ancient times; the local Garrawa Aboriginal people called. Royal Australian Air Force pilots first reported this phenomenon in 1942; the Morning Glory cloud of the Gulf of Carpentaria has been studied by multiple teams of scientists since the early 1970s. The first studies were published by Reg H. Clarke. Multiple studies have followed since proposing diverse mathematical models explaining the complex movements of air masses in the region; the Morning Glory cloud is not understood because its rarity means it has little significance in terms of rainfall or climate. Regardless of the complexity behind the nature of this atmospheric phenomenon, some conclusions have been made about its causes. Through research, one of the main causes of most Morning Glory occurrences is the mesoscale circulations associated with sea breezes that develop over the peninsula and the gulf.
On the large scale, Morning Glories are associated with frontal systems crossing central Australia and high pressure in northern Australia. Locals have noted that the Morning Glory is to occur when the humidity in the area is high, which provides moisture for the cloud to form, when strong sea breezes have blown the preceding day; the following is a summary of the conditions that cause the Morning Glory cloud to form in the Gulf of Carpentaria. First, Cape York, the peninsula that lies to the east of the gulf, is large enough that sea breezes develop on both sides. During the day, the breeze from the Coral Sea coast blows in from the east and the breeze from the gulf blows in from the west; the two breezes meet in the middle of the peninsula, forcing the air to rise there and form a line of clouds over the spine of the peninsula. When night comes, the air cools and descends and at the same time a surface inversion forms over the gulf; the densities in this stable layer are different below the inversion.
The air descending from the peninsula to the east goes underneath the inversion layer and this generates a series of waves or rolling cylinders which travel across the gulf. These cylinders of air roll along the underside of the inversion layer, so that the air rises at the front of the wave and sinks at the rear. In the early morning, the air is saturated enough so that the rising air in the front produces a cloud, which forms the leading edge of the cylinder, evaporates in the back, hence forming the Morning Glory cloud; the cloud lasts. There are other ways in which Morning Glory clouds form in rarer cases in other parts of the world, but these are far less understood. Local weather lore in the area suggests that when the fridges frost over and the café tables' corners curl upwards at the Burketown Pub, there is enough moisture in the air for the clouds to form. All winds cease at ground level as the cloud passes over. Although the Morning Glory clouds over the southern part of the Gulf of Carpentaria are the most frequent and predictable, similar phenomena have been observed elsewhere, e.g. over central United States, in the English Channel, Berlin, eastern Russia, other maritime regions of Australia.
There was one distinct and well formed roll cloud observed spanning from horizon to horizon (east to
State Library of Queensland
The State Library of Queensland is the main reference and research library provided to the people of the State of Queensland, Australia, by the state government. Its legislative basis is provided by the Queensland Libraries Act 1988, it contains a significant portion of Queensland's documentary heritage, major reference and research collections, is an advocate of and partner with public libraries across Queensland. The library is at Kurilpa Point, within the Queensland Cultural Centre on the Brisbane River at South Bank; the Brisbane Public Library was established by the government of the Colony of Queensland in 1896, was renamed the Public Library of Queensland in 1898. The library was opened to the public in 1902. In 1934, the Oxley Memorial Library, named for the explorer John Oxley, opened as a centre for research and study relating to Queensland; the Libraries Act of 1943 established the Library Board of Queensland to manage the Public Library of Queensland. In March 1947, James L. Stapleton was appointed Queensland's first State Librarian.
Stapleton advocated for a new building for the library and that library services should be free to the public. He remains the longest-serving CEO, has been followed by five others: Sydney Lawrence Ryan from 1970 to 1988, Des Stephens from 1988 to 2001, Lea Giles-Peters from 2001 to 2011, Janette Wright, from 2012-2015 and from 2016, Vicki McDonald. In 1971, the "Public Library" became the "State Library." The following year, the Public Library Service was established to liaise with Queensland local authorities regarding their public libraries. A few years the Country Lending Service was established to provide book exchange and other services to public libraries in Queensland's smaller local government areas. Under the new name of Rural Libraries Queensland, the service is still going strong today, administered by the State Library's Public and Indigenous Library Services program. In 2003, the State Library began a new mission of establishing Indigenous Knowledge Centres in the Cape York and Torres Strait areas.
There is now a network of 22 IKCs in remote and regional communities: across Cape York, the islands of the Torres Strait, Central Queensland and at Cherbourg in South East Queensland. The State Library's current strategic vision is to enrich the lives of Queenslanders through creatively engaging people with information and community. In early 2011, the library donated 50,000 pictures to Wikimedia Commons; the library holds general collections, including books and magazines, audiovisual items, family history, music, ephemera and electronic resources. There are research collections and services – including the John Oxley Library and the Australian Library of Art, which includes the James Hardie Library of Australian Fine Arts; the library is home to two UNESCO Memory of the World significant collections, Labour Party Manifesto and the Margaret Lawrie collection of Torres Strait Islands material. The library holds a collection of Queensland election-related material, including websites, posters and how-to-vote cards.
Access to collections, including access to 50,000 Copyright-free Queensland images through Wikimedia Commons Provides books and other resource material to public libraries throughout Queensland. Specialist services to public libraries in a number of areas, including services to young people and multicultural communities. Public programs and exhibitions, including exhibition loans to schools and other community organisations. Outreach programs in reference, information literacy, Internet training and digitisation throughout Queensland for public library staff and the general community. Library services to Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders including the establishment of Indigenous Knowledge Centres in Cape York and Torres Strait regions and increasing the employment and training opportunities for Indigenous peoples in the library industry. A digital culture centre called The Edge, for young people. A free coworking space, the Business Studio, supports startups and small business; the library has hosted a number of prominent exhibitions, including Plantation Voices Home: A Suburban Obsession Islands: hidden histories from Queensland Islands Hot Modernism Free guided tours of the building are available.
In 2010, a total of 3730 school students participated in a tour. Rural Libraries Queensland is a collaboration between the State Library of Queensland and 30 of the local government councils to provide library libraries to rural communities; the Brisbane Public Library moved into the Old State Library Building in William Street, Brisbane in 1899. This building had been occupied by the Queensland Museum; the Library shared accommodation in the building with an art gallery. In the late 1950s, an extension, with a distinctive tiled mural on the exterior, was built onto the building to provide more space; the mural was the winning design in a national competition held in 1958. In 1988, the State Library of Queensland moved to a new home within the Queensland Cultural Centre at South Bank, near the Queensland Museum and the original Queensland Art Gallery. In 2004, work began on the Millennium Library Project - a major redevelopment of the existing State Library building. After three years of extensive redevelopment, the South Bank building
Aboriginal Shire of Doomadgee
The Aboriginal Shire of Doomadgee is a special local government area in North West Queensland, Australia. It is managed under a Deed of Grant in Trust under the Local Government Act 2004; the area was set up as a Mission in 1931 by the Christian Brethren to house Gangalidda Aboriginal people who had ended up living on the fringes of the Burketown township. On the coast, a cyclone in 1936 destroyed the settlement, the decision was made to move the settlement to Nicholson River. In 1987, under the Community Services Act 1984, a Deed of Grant in Trust was given to the Doomadgee community over both the former and current mission. Like other DOGIT communities of the time, Doomadgee had a Community Council elected by Aboriginal people living in the community. In 2010 the Doomadgee Aboriginal Shire Council was established under the Local Government Act 2009; the majority of residents are Gangalidda or Waanyi people, but smaller populations of Gadawa, Lardil and Garawa are resident within Doomadgee. 2008-2016 Frederick O'Keefe 2016- Edric Walden Doomadgee, Queensland
City of Mount Isa
The City of Mount Isa is a local government area in north west Queensland. The City covers the urban locality of Mount Isa, the administrative centre, surrounding area, sharing a boundary with the Northern Territory to the west. Mount Isa is a reasonably affluent district; the largest industry in the City is the Mount Isa Mines, a source of lead, copper and zinc. Cattle grazing and tourism are other industries of note. On 10 February 1914, the Shire of Barclay Tableland, based in Camooweal, was incorporated on an area managed by the shires of Burke and Cloncurry. On 14 August 1919 the spelling was changed and it became known as Shire of Barkly Tableland; as a consequence of the growth of Mount Isa as a mining and population centre within the shire, an Order in Council dated 15 December 1962 renamed the shire to Shire of Mount Isa, effective 1 July 1963, its administration centre relocated to Mount Isa. At the same time it gained part of the Shire of Cloncurry. On 30 May 1968, the shire was proclaimed as a City due to the area reaching a population of 18,000.
The City of Mount Isa includes the following settlements: Mount Isa Barkly Camooweal Gunpowder Lawn Hill The Mount Isa City Council operate a public library at Mount Isa City. 1927: John Thomson Campbell 2008 – 2012: John Molony 2012 – 2016:Tony McGrady 2016 –: Joyce McCulloch Sister cities of Mount Isa include: Bankstown, New South Wales
The Leichhardt River is a river in north west Queensland, Australia. The source of the river is in the Selwyn Range under Rifle Creek Hill and fed by Rifle Creek 25 kilometres south of the mining town Mount Isa, it runs in a northerly direction parallel with the Diamantina Developmental Road until it reaches Mount Isa and crosses the Barkly Highway. It continues in a north easterly direction across the Gulf Country passing through Lake Moondarra past Glenroy Station through Lake Julius, it bears east north again parallel with the Burke Developmental Road until crossing it near Nardoo. Continuing north past Augustus Downs Station to its mouth at the Gulf of Carpentaria; the river is named after the early explorer of Ludwig Leichhardt. Leichhardt River has a catchment area of 32,878 square kilometres. Primary activities undertaken in the watershed include grazing; the river is ephemeral and in the dry season the upstream reaches retract to a series of waterholes. The drainage basin and river estuary are in a near pristine condition.
The river is dammed near Mount Isa to form Lake Moondarra. Other storage facilities in the catchment include Julius Dam, East Leichhardt Dam and Rifle Creek Dam. Around 50 kilometres upstream from its mouth are the Leichhardt Falls; as well as Mount Isa, the small community of Kajabbi is located on the river. The river has a mean annual discharge of 2,179 gigalitres. In 2009 Xstrata spent $3 million for remediation work involving the removal of 40,000 tonnes of material from the riverbed. Fossil remains have been found along the river's course. In 2011 an unidentified ancient marsupial was discovered by paleontologists. List of rivers of Queensland Media related to Leichhardt River at Wikimedia Commons