The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, classified as an interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends 2,000 kilometres down the Australian northeast coast, it is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, in the northeast by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea, thereby including the Gulf of Papua, it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, in the northwest, it connects with the Arafura Sea through the Torres Strait; the sea is characterised with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the world's largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.
All previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs and islets east of it are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory. In addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows: On the North. The South coast of New Guinea from the entrance to the Bensbach River to Gadogadoa Island near its Southeastern extreme, down this meridian to the 100 fathom line and thence along the Southern edges of Uluma Reef and those extending to the Eastward as far as the Southeast point of Lawik Reef off Tagula Island, thence a line to the Southern extreme of Rennell Island and from its Eastern point to Cape Surville, the Eastern extreme of San Cristobal Island, Solomons.
On the Northeast. From the Northernmost island of the Duff Islands, through these islands to their Southeastern extreme, thence a line to Méré Lava, Vanuatu Islands and down the Eastern coasts of the islands of this Group to Anatom Island in such a way that all the islands of these Groups, the straits separating them, are included in the Coral Sea. On the Southeast. A line from the Southeastern extreme of Anatom Island to Nokanhoui off the Southeast extreme of New Caledonia, thence through the East point of Middleton Reef to the Eastern extreme of Elizabeth Reef and down this meridian to Latitude 30° South. On the South; the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. On the West; the Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South. The Coral Sea basin was formed between 58 million and 48 million years ago when the Queensland continental shelf was uplifted, forming the Great Dividing Range, continental blocks subsided at the same time; the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering.
The geological formation processes are still proceeding, as evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea. On 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami; the epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara, at a depth of 10 kilometres. It was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude greater; the resulting tsunami destroyed more than 900 homes. The sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations, they include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and includes 2,900 individual reefs and 1000 islands. The Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro, it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea.
This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a flow band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is weakest around August; the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation, its annual discharge can vary more than 10 times between the two succeeding years. In particular, in the period 1920–1999, the average flow rate near the delta was below 1000 m3/s in 1923, 1931, 1939, 1969, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1993 and 1995; this irregul
Lakeland is a town and locality in the Shire of Cook, Australia. In the 2011 census, Lakeland had a population of 227 people. Lakeland is a small farming centre on the Cape York Peninsula, it is at the junction of the main Peninsula Developmental Road, the Mulligan Highway. It contains a hotel, a cafe, roadhouse and a hardware store; the main products are cattle. The village is named for William Lakeland, one of the earliest prospectors of Cape York Peninsula. Lakeland has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Mareeba Mining District: Nuggety Gully Water Race and Chinese Camp Trezise, P. J. 1969. Quinkan Country: Adventures in Search of Aboriginal Cave Paintings in Cape York. A. H. & A. W. Reed, Sydney. Trezise, Percy. 1973. Last Days of a Wilderness. William Collins Ltd. Brisbane. ISBN 0-00-211434-8. Trezise, P. J. 1993. Dream Road: A Journey of Discovery. Allen & Unwin, St. Leonards, Sydney. Premier's Department. 1989. Cape York Peninsula Resource Analysis. Cairns.. ISBN 0-7242-6200-8 Roth, W. E. 1897. The Queensland Aborigines.
3 Vols. Reprint: Facsimile Edition, Hesperian Press, Victoria Park, W. A. 1984. ISBN 0-85905-054-8 Ryan and Burwell, eds. 2000. Wildlife of Tropical North Queensland: Cooktown to Mackay. Queensland Museum, Brisbane. ISBN 0-85905-045-9. Scarth-Johnson, Vera. 2000. National Treasures: Flowering plants of Cooktown and Northern Australia. Vera Scarth-Johnson Gallery Association, Cooktown. ISBN 0-646-39726-5. Sutton, Peter. Languages of Cape York: Papers presented to a Symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.. ISBN 0-85575-046-4 Wynter, Jo and Hill, John. 1991. Cape York Peninsula: Pathways to Community Economic Development; the Final Report of The Community Economic Development Projects Cook Shire. Cook Shire Council. Media related to Lakeland, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Cooktown is a town and locality in the Shire of Cook, Australia. Cooktown is located about 2,000 kilometres north of Brisbane and 328 kilometres north of Cairns, by road. Cooktown is about 857 kilometres south of Cape York by road. At the time of the 2016 census, Cooktown had a population of 2,631. Cooktown is at the mouth of the Endeavour River, on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland where James Cook beached his ship, the Endeavour, for repairs in 1770. Both the town and Mount Cook which rises up behind the town were named after James Cook. Cooktown is one of the few large towns in the Cape York Peninsula and was founded on 25 October 1873 as a supply port for the goldfields along the Palmer River, it was called "Cook's Town" until 1 June 1874. In the local Guugu Yimithirr language the name for the region is Gangaar Aboriginal pronunciation:, which means " Rock Crystals." Quartz crystals were used in various Aboriginal ceremonies across the continent and are found in the vicinity. The site of modern Cooktown was the meeting place of two vastly different cultures when, in June 1770, the local Aboriginal Guugu Yimithirr tribe cautiously watched the crippled sailing ship – His Majesty's Bark Endeavour – limp up the coast seeking a safe harbour after sustaining serious damage to its wooden hull on the Endeavour Reef, south of Cooktown.
The Guugu Yimithirr people saw the Endeavour beach in the calm waters near the mouth of their river, which they called "Wahalumbaal". The captain of the Endeavour, Lieutenant James Cook, wrote: "... it was happy for us that a place of refuge was at hand. The British crew spent seven weeks on the site of present-day Cooktown, repairing their ship, replenishing food and water supplies, caring for their sick; the extraordinary scientist, Joseph Banks, Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander, who accompanied Cook on the expedition, collected and documented over 200 new species of plants. The young artist Sydney Parkinson illustrated the specimens and he was the first British artist to portray Aboriginal people from direct observation. After some weeks, Joseph Banks met and spoke with the local people, recording about 50 Guugu Yimithirr words, including the name of the intriguing animal the natives called gangurru. Cook recorded the local name as "Kangooroo, or Kanguru"; the first recorded sighting of kangaroos by Europeans was on Grassy Hill, which rises above the place where the ship was beached.
Cook climbed this hill to work out a safe passage for the Endeavour to sail through the surrounding reefs, after it was repaired. "The visit on the 19th of July 1770 ended in a skirmish after Cook refused to share the turtles he kept on the Endeavour with the local inhabitants. They set fire to the grass around Cook's camp twice, killing a suckling pig. After Cook wounded one of the men with a musket, they ran away. Cook and some others followed them and caught up with them on a rocky bar near Furneaux Street, now known as Reconciliation Rocks. A “little old man” appeared from the group of Indigenous Australians and they were reconciled; this was an important historic event as it is believed that this is the first recorded reconciliation between Europeans and Indigenous Australians ever."Cook named the river the "Endeavour" after his ship, and, as they sailed north, he hoisted the flag known as the "Queen Anne Jack" and claimed possession of the whole eastern coast of Australia for Britain. He named Cape York Peninsula after the then-Duke of Albany.
"In 1886 the people of Cooktown were anxious to recover the brass guns of the Endeavour which were thrown overboard, in order to place them as a memento in their town. The next recorded European expedition to the area was nearly 50 years when another botanist, Allan Cunningham, accompanying Captain Phillip Parker King, visited the remarkable region in 1819-20, he collected numerous botanical specimens for the British Museum and Kew Gardens. In 1872, William Hann discovered gold in southwest of Cooktown, his findings were reported to James Venture Mulligan who led an expedition to the Palmer River in 1873. Mulligan's expedition found quantities of alluvial gold and thus began the gold rush, to bring prospectors to the Endeavour River from all over the world; the Queensland government responded to Mulligan's reports, soon a party was dispatched to advise whether the Endeavour River would be a suitable site for a port. Shortly after, a new township was established at the site of the present town, on the southern bank of the river and Cooktown Post Office opened on 1 January 1874.
The Palmer goldfields and its centre, were growing quickly. The recorded output of gold from 1873 to 1890 was over half a million ounces. Cooktown was the port through which this gold was exported and supplies for the goldfields brought in. Word of the gold spread, Cooktown was soon thriving, as prospectors arrived from around the world. Population estimates vary but there were around 7,000 people in the area and about 4,000 permanent residents in the town by 1880. At that time, Cooktown boasted a large number of hotels and guest houses. There were 47 licensed pubs within the town boundaries in 1874 although this nu
Lockhart River, Queensland
Lockhart River is a town in the Aboriginal Shire of Lockhart River and a locality split between the Aboriginal Shire of Lockhart River and the Shire of Cook, in Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 census, Lockhart River had a population of 542, which increased to 642 at the 2011 Census. Lockhart River takes its name from the river located 14 kilometres south of the community; the river was named by explorer Robert Logan Jack in January 1880, after a close friend, Hugh Lockhart. Non-indigenous people first arrived in 1848, when the explorer Edmund Kennedy set up a base camp near the mouth of the Pascoe River at Weymouth Bay. Kennedy left eight men at the camp but by the time they were located by the supply ship, only two remained alive, the other six having died from disease and starvation. By the 1870s, fishermen with luggers looking for trepang, pearl shell and trochus were in the coastal areas. Miners in search of tin and gold, along with timber cutters, were in the hills around Gordon Creek and the country inland around the Wenlock River.
Beginning in 1924, Aboriginal people gathered and were collected from eastern regions of Cape York and placed at the Anglican Church Mission at Orchid Point near the Lockhart River, a centre for the sandalwood trade. Six months the Mission was relocated to Bare Hill, south of Cape Direction. After the Second World War broke out, the European superintendent went on furlough in 1942, the Aboriginal people were told to go to several bush camps and fend for themselves. After 4 to 6 months, the mission was re-established but with lack of funding. A better period followed in the 1950s under superintendent John Warby. A Cooperative Society operated during this time in the trochus shell industry. New housing was built and separate group villages were brought together into one on the coastal side. During World War II, Lockhart River Airport was constructed as a large American bomber base with three airstrips operating; the US bombers flew to Papua New Guinea and were met by their fighter escorts based at Bamaga and Horn Island further north.
Many thousands of troops, both US and Australian, passed through as part of their jungle training before being shipped to southeast Asia, many sorties from the base were flown against Japanese forces during the critical Battle of the Coral Sea, 4–8 May 1942. Portland Roads community, 40 kilometres north of Lockhart River, was the supply port for the war effort with a large jetty; this jetty has since been removed. Many old bunkers and rusting 44 gallon drums can still be found in bush areas. Iron Range Post Office opened on 5 November 1936, closed in 1942, reopened in 1950 and was renamed Lockhart River in 1978. In 1967, the Anglican Church handed over the mission to the Queensland Government who tried to relocate the people to Bamaga. Most of the people refused to go. In 1968-9, the people were relocated from the traditional area of the Uutaalnganu people on the coast to a new site in Kuuku Ya'u country further north and inland from Quintell Beach; this move and the assimilation policy of the new government administration resulted in much discontent and friction.
The Lockhart River Community was given'Deed of Grant in Trust' title to the lands in 1987. Locally elected councillors now provide administration for the Lockhart River DOGIT. On 7 May 2005, a Fairchild Aircraft Inc. SA227-DC Metro 23 aircraft, registered VH-TFU, with two pilots and 13 passengers, was being operated by Transair on an instrument flight rules regular public transport service from Bamaga to Cairns, with an intermediate stop at Lockhart River, Queensland. At 1143:39 Eastern Standard Time, the aircraft impacted terrain in the Iron Range National Park on the north-western slope of South Pap, a timbered ridge 11 kilometres north-west of the Lockhart River aerodrome. At the time of the accident, the crew was conducting an area navigation global navigation satellite system nonprecision approach to runway 12; the aircraft was destroyed by an intense, fuel-fed, post-impact fire. There were no survivors. On 11 April 2014, the former locality of Lockhart was split into new localities: Iron Range and Lockhart River.
Lockhart River is a coastal Aboriginal community situated on the eastern coast of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, Australia. The population consists of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, whose ancestors were forcibly moved to the area beginning in 1924; the locality includes a number of islands off the east coast: Chapman Island, Lloyd Island, Rocky Island, Sherrard Island and Sunter Island It is 800 kilometres north by road from Cairns and 2,550 kilometres by road north of Brisbane. Lockhart River is the northernmost town on the east coast of Australia; the community is located 2 kilometres inland from Quintell Beach and is within the Iron Range National Park. The urban area has a tropical monsoon climate the rural part to the south borders on tropical savanna climate, in any case with notable differences of precipitation according to the season. With wet, hot summers and dry, winters warm to cool. A mix of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders live in the community; the population is 650 -- 700, with most being Torres Strait Islanders.
30 are contract workers, including teachers, police, shop employees, council administration, council workshop and plumbers. The Lockhart River'local' population consists of five different clan groups: the Wuthathi from the north of the Olive River.
Dixie is a locality in the Shire of Cook, Australia. The locality contains the source of both Alice River; the Dixie pastoral station is within the locality. It was purchased by the Queensland Government in August 2012. Part of the land will be made into a conservation area to protect the habitat of the endangered golden-shouldered parrot
Laura is a small town and locality in Cook Shire, Cape York Peninsula in northern Queensland, Australia. It is on the only road north towards the tip of the peninsula, is the centre for the largest collection of prehistoric rock art in the world, it forms the northern apex of the "Scenic Triangle" between Cooktown and Laura. In the 2011 census, Laura had a population of 80 people; some of the world's most extensive and ancient rock painting galleries surround the tiny town of Laura, some of which are available for public viewing. Laura has an Interpretive Centre from which information on the rock art and local Aboriginal culture is available and tours can be arranged. Laura is only a few kilometres from the southern entrance to Lakefield National Park. Aboriginal people have made their home in the Laura River valley for at least 50,000 years. In the wet season, they would camp under rock shelters on the high ground; this is. The area was on the borders of Kokojawa lands; some of the earliest pastoral leases on Cape York Peninsula were taken up in the Laura district.
However, the town of Laura did not develop until the discovery of gold on the Palmer River. The town takes its name from the Laura River, which in turn was named in 1873 by explorer and surveyor Archibald Campbell Macmillan after his wife Laura Bower. In 1873 gold was discovered on the Palmer River. Travellers coming from Cooktown to the Palmer Goldfields would cross the Laura River at Laura; this was a violent period, as local aboriginal clans waged a war of resistance against encroachment on and usurpation of their lands. A Native Mounted Police camp was established near the Lower Laura crossing to protect travellers. During the gold boom a railway line was planned between the Palmer gold fields. By 1888 the line had been built to Laura. Laura Post Office opened on 8 October 1888. An impressive bridge over the Laura River was opened, to great fanfare, in 1891. However, since the Palmer gold fields were in decline, a new Queensland government decided to abandon the project. Only one train crossed the bridge - the train that ran on the day that it opened.
The rail line contributed to the growth of Laura. It was used by peninsula cattle properties; the Cooktown to Laura Railway closed in 1961. It was during the 1960s that Quinkan rock art galleries were reported by Percy Trezise, an airline pilot who surveyed the area from the air for sites and walked in to rediscover them. At the 2006 census and the surrounding area had a population of 225. Laura State School opened in March 1889 and caters for students from Prep to Year six. Laura has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Laura to Maytown: Laura to Maytown Coach Road Pike, Glenville. 1979. Queen of the North: A Pictorial History of Cooktown and Cape York Peninsula. G. Pike. ISBN 0-9598960-5-8. Trezise, P. J. 1969. Quinkan Country: Adventures in Search of Aboriginal Cave Paintings in Cape York. A. H. & A. W. Reed, Sydney. Trezise, P. J. 1993. Dream Road: A Journey of Discovery. Allen & Unwin, St. Leonards, Sydney. Premier's Department. 1989. Cape York Peninsula Resource Analysis. Cairns.. ISBN 0-7242-7008-6 Roth, W.
E. 1897. The Queensland Aborigines. 3 Vols. Reprint: Facsimile Edition, Hesperian Press, Victoria Park, W. A. 1984. ISBN 0-85905-054-8 Ryan and Burwell, eds. 2000. Wildlife of Tropical North Queensland: Cooktown to Mackay. Queensland Museum, Brisbane. ISBN 0-85905-045-9. Scarth-Johnson, Vera. 2000. National Treasures: Flowering plants of Cooktown and Northern Australia. Vera Scarth-Johnson Gallery Association, Cooktown. ISBN 0-646-39726-5. Sutton, Peter. Languages of Cape York: Papers presented to a Symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.. ISBN 0-85575-046-4 Wynter, Jo and Hill, John. 1991. Cape York Peninsula: Pathways to Community Economic Development; the Final Report of The Community Economic Development Projects Cook Shire. Cook Shire Council. Laura: A shared history of a river and a town. Cook Shire pamphlet. Quinkan and Regional Cultural Centre