Shire of Mulgrave (Queensland)
The Shire of Mulgrave was a local government area surrounding the City of Cairns in the Far North region of Queensland. The shire, administered from Cairns, covered an area of 1,718.3 square kilometres, existed as a local government entity from 1879 until 1995, when it was dissolved and amalgamated into the City of Cairns. The Cairns Division was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 with a population of 34. On 3 June 1880, part of the Cairns Division was separated to create the Douglas Division. On 3 September 1881, the Tinaroo Division was created on 3 September 1881 under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 out of parts of the Cairns and Woothakata Divisions. Following a petition by local residents, on 28 May 1885, the Borough of Cairns was established under the Local Government Act 1878, being excised from the Cairns Division. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, the Cairns Division became the Shire of Cairns on 31 March 1903.
Based in the town of Gordonvale, called Mulgrave, its offices were located at Cairns Esplanade, Cairns. On 20 December 1919, the Shire absorbed territory from the abolished Shire of Barron, divided between the Shires of Cairns and Shire of Woothakata. On 16 November 1940, the Shire of Cairns was renamed Shire of Mulgrave; the character of the Shire changed over time, by the time of the 1991 census, 88% of the Shire's population resided within Cairns's metropolitan area. On 21 November 1991, the Electoral and Administrative Review Commission, created two years earlier, produced its second report, recommended that local government boundaries in the Cairns area be rationalised, that the Shire of Mulgrave be abolished and absorbed into the City of Cairns; the Local Government Regulation 1994 was gazetted on 16 December 1994. On 22 March 1995, the Shire became part of the new City of Cairns; the Mulgrave Shire Council Chambers were listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 6 January 1999. As of 2016, it is used as the Tropical North Visitor Information Centre.
The Shire of Mulgrave included the following settlements: 1 - shared with Cassowary Coast Region2 - not to be confused with White Rock in City of Ipswich3 - shared with shared with Cassowary Coast Region and Tablelands Region The chairmen of the Cairns Division were: 1 Richard Kingsford left to become Mayor of the newly formed Borough of Cairns in 1885. Chairmen of the Shire of Cairns were: The chairmen of the Shire of Mulgrave were: In addition to the chairmen, other notable people associated with the shire include: Bunny Adair, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Cook, a Mulgrave Shire councillor from 1939 to 1946 Local Government Regulation 1994
Shire of Cook
The Shire of Cook is a local government area in Far North Queensland, Australia. The Shire covers most of the eastern and central parts of Cape York Peninsula, the most northerly section of the Australian mainland, it covers an area of 106,188.4 square kilometres, has existed as a local government entity since 1919. The Daintree and Hann Divisions were created on 11 November 1879 as two of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, they became the Shires of Daintree and Hann on 31 March 1903. On 16 January 1919, they merged to form the Shire of Cook; the Borough of Cooktown was proclaimed as a separate municipality on 3 April 1876 under the Municipal Institutions Act 1864. On 24 August 1932, the Town of Cooktown was absorbed back into Cook Shire. Prior to 2005, a number of Aboriginal communities administered under Deed of Grant in Trust by community councils were part of the Shire's area, but they were formally excised and given a new status as Aboriginal Shires.
This formed part of the Meeting Challenges, Making Choices strategy developed in response to the Cape York Justice Study undertaken by Justice Fitzgerald QC in November 2001. The Local Government Reform process in July 2007 concluded that amalgamation of the Shire would not result in any benefits to service delivery and management for the area, noting that it was the largest local government by area and had no community of interest with any neighbouring areas; the council was, reduced from seven to six councillors with an additional elected mayor. The Shire of Cook includes the following settlements: 1 – shared with the Shire of Douglas 2 – shared with the Aboriginal Shire of Hope Vale 3 – shared with the Aboriginal Shire of Lockhart River 4 – shared with the Aboriginal Shire of Mapoon And a number of islands in the Coral Sea, including: Raine Island Lizard Island The Cook Shire Council operate public libraries at Bloomfield and Cooktown. 1901–1904: John Hargreaves 1927: H. L. Lee 2008–: Peter Scott The population of the Shire of Cook, along with Torres and Mornington, have been singled out by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, who conduct the quinquennial census, as difficult to measure accurately.
Reasons for this include cultural and language barriers and geographical spread of the population, who are located in isolated communities. As such, all figures are to be lower than the actual population on the census date. Additionally, prior to 1971, Aboriginal people who form a majority of the population were not counted in census statistics; until 1 July 2002, the Australian Bureau of Statistics included the Island and DOGIT councils within the Shire of Cook statistical local area. Information for the reduced Shire back to 1996 has been provided on the ABS website through the Time Series Profile. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Cook Shire
Daintree is a settlement in North Queensland 111 kilometres north of Cairns and 56 kilometres from Port Douglas, Queensland. The McDowell Ranges are near the town, it takes its name from Richard Daintree, a pioneering geologist of British origin in North Queensland in the 1860s. It is within the local government area of Shire of Douglas. At the 2006 census and the surrounding area had a population of 78. Daintree Village was first settled in the late 1870s and early 1880s by timber workers seeking Toona Australis known as Red Cedar in the nearby Daintree Rainforest. There were sizeable stocks of "Red Cedar" near the Daintree River. Loggers moved stock down the river to the coast for transport using lashed rafts. Dairy farms were established allowing a butter factory to be opened in 1924. Beef farming became a significant local employer; as elsewhere in Queensland, tourism has become an important employer. Daintree Village became famous for early morning tours on the Daintree River and became popular with visiting birdwatchers.
These dawn river trips became a catalyst for the many B&B's that sprung up starting in 1993 and became an important employer of local families. Red Mill House, Daintree Village was the first B&B in the Douglas Shire in 1993 and paved the way for many others to follow. Queensland's Wet Tropics became world heritage listed in 1986. Daintree is part of the wet tropics and the most famous national park close to the tourism hub of Port Douglas. Daintree State School caters for students from Prep to year 6; the school opened on 1 July 1924. 2015. The AGE newspaper article was written in 2004 and lists various businesses, some of which, no longer exist. Age article on Daintree township
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, used for sugar production. It has stout, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes; the plant is two to six metres tall. All sugar cane species can interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat and sorghum, many forage crops. Sucrose and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol. Sugarcane is the world's largest crop by production quantity, with 1.9 billion tonnes produced in 2016, Brazil accounting for 41% of the world total. In 2012, the Food and Agriculture Organization estimated it was cultivated on about 26 million hectares, in more than 90 countries.
The global demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. Cane accounts for 79% of sugar produced. Sugarcane predominantly grows in the subtropical regions. Other than sugar, products derived from sugarcane include falernum, rum, cachaça, ethanol. In some regions, people use sugarcane reeds to make pens, mats and thatch; the young, unexpanded inflorescence of Saccharum edule is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted, prepared in various ways in Southeast Asia, including Fiji and certain island communities of Indonesia. Sugarcane was an ancient crop of the Papuan people, it was introduced to Polynesia, Island Melanesia, Madagascar in prehistoric times via Austronesian sailors. It was introduced to southern China and India by Austronesian traders at around 1200 to 1000 BC; the Persians, followed by the Greeks, encountered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. They adopted and spread sugarcane agriculture. Merchants began to trade in sugar from India, considered a luxury and an expensive spice.
In the 18th century AD, sugarcane plantations began in Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific island nations and the need for laborers became a major driver of large human migrations, both the voluntary in indentured servants. And the involuntary migrations, in the form of slave labor. Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems three to four m high and about 5 cm in diameter; the stems grow into cane stalk. A mature stalk is composed of 11–16% fiber, 12–16% soluble sugars, 2–3% nonsugars, 63–73% water. A sugarcane crop is sensitive to the climate, soil type, fertilizers, disease control and the harvest period; the average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare per year. However, this figure can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is used as livestock fodder. There are two centers of domestication for sugarcane: one for Saccharum officinarum by Papuans in New Guinea and another for Saccharum sinense by Austronesians in Taiwan and southern China.
Papuans and Austronesians primarily used sugarcane as food for domesticated pigs. The spread of both S. officinarum and S. sinense is linked to the migrations of the Austronesian peoples. Saccharum barberi was only cultivated in India after the introduction of S. officinarum. Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in New Guinea and the islands east of the Wallace Line by Papuans, where it is the modern center of diversity. Beginning at around 6,000 BP they were selectively bred from the native Saccharum robustum. From New Guinea it spread westwards to Island Southeast Asia after contact with Austronesians, where it hybridized with Saccharum spontaneum; the second domestication center is mainland southern China and Taiwan where S. sinense was a primary cultigen of the Austronesian peoples. Words for sugarcane exist in the Proto-Austronesian languages in Taiwan, reconstructed as *təbuS or **CebuS, which became *tebuh in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, it was one of the original major crops of the Austronesian peoples from at least 5,500 BP.
Introduction of the sweeter S. officinarum may have replaced it throughout its cultivated range in Island Southeast Asia. From Island Southeast Asia, S. officinarum was spread eastward into Polynesia and Micronesia by Austronesian voyagers as a canoe plant by around 3,500 BP. It was spread westward and northward by around 3,000 BP to China and India by Austronesian traders, where it further hybridized with Saccharum sinense and Saccharum barberi. From there it spread further into the Mediterranean; the earliest known production of crystalline sugar began in northern India. The exact date of the first cane sugar production is unclear; the earliest evidence of sugar production comes from ancient Pali texts. Around the 8th century and Arab traders introduced sugar from medieval India to the other parts of the Abbasid Caliphate in the Mediterranean, Egypt, North Africa, Andalusia. By the 10th century, sources state, it was among the early crops brought to the Americas by the Spanish Andalu
Wonga Beach, Queensland
Wonga Beach is a small rural residential town, north of Cairns in Queensland Australia. Wonga Beach is a beachside town situated between the small residential towns of Rocky Point and the Daintree township, it is 17 kilometres north of the town of Mossman. In 1985 a large volcanic eruption beneath the Coral Sea released thousands of Pumice stones to the ocean surface which were blown along north Queensland's shore by the trade winds. Birdwatchers visit Wonga Beach to see three uncommon bird species: Gould's bronze cuckoo, double-eyed fig-parrot and the beach stone-curlew; the last species is confused with the ubiquitous bush stone-curlew noted for its wailing calls at night. Wonga Beach has 746 as of the 2011 census. Wonga Beach has a small number of services spread throughout the area. In addition to automotive fuels, the service station incorporates a small convenience store with an ATM; the site was run as a British Petroleum and before that Mobil but changed to Caltex in 2007. Nearby there are a post box, telephone booth and a display of model cassowaries.
In 2011 three shops were added to the complex. A pharmacy opened, the other shops are available to rent; the Caltex service station is the only fuel outlet in the Daintree Valley and opens early and closes at 8:30pm. The Wonga Beach state school is one of the few primary schools in the Mossman area with an enrolment of 115 students, has been operating since 1999; the previous school was based at Rocky Point, about 4 kilometres south, the old school buildings have been sold as housing, one of, relocated to Wonga Beach. The first Wonga Beach State School opened on the 23 February 1939; the school is known as a SunSmart school. The school has a large area of swampland, the maintenance of, made a school project, with an'eco-maze' being developed in the site. School buses run twice daily from New Wonga to Old Wonga on to Mossman; these buses are not available to the public. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Wonga Beach
The Cairns Region is a local government area in Far North Queensland, Australia, centred on the regional centre of Cairns. It was established in 2008 by the amalgamation of the Shire of Douglas. However, following public protest and a referendum in 2013, on 1 January 2014, the Shire of Douglas was separated from the Cairns Region and re-established as a local government authority; the Cairns Regional Council has an estimated operating budget of A$300 million. Prior to the 2008 amalgamation, the new Cairns Region consisted the entire area of three previous local government areas: the City of Cairns; the City, which for most of its existence covered only the central business district and inner suburbs of Cairns, had its beginning in the Borough of Cairns, proclaimed on 28 May 1885 under the Local Government Act 1878. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, it became a Town on 31 March 1903 and was proclaimed a City on 12 October 1923; the Shire of Mulgrave had its origins in the Cairns Division, one of Queensland's 74 divisions created under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 on 11 November 1879.
The Douglas Division was created on 3 June 1880. They became the Shire of Cairns and the Shire of Douglas on 31 March 1903. On 20 December 1919, it grew to include some territory from the abolished Shire of Barron, on 16 November 1940, the shire was renamed Mulgrave. On 21 November 1991, the Electoral and Administrative Review Commission, created two years earlier, produced its second report, recommended that local government boundaries in the Cairns area be rationalised, that the Shire be dissolved and amalgamated with the City of Cairns; the Local Government Regulation 1994 was gazetted on 16 December 1994. On 22 March 1995, the Shire became part of the new City of Cairns. In July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that Cairns amalgamate with the Shire of Douglas, that the new Cairns Regional Council be undivided with 10 councillors and a mayor. On 15 March 2008, the City and Shire formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect councillors and a mayor to the Regional Council.
In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Douglas from the Cairns Region. On 9 March 2013, the citizens of the former Douglas shire voted in a referendum to de-amalgamate; the shire was re-established on 1 January 2014. The Region is divided into 10 divisions, each of whom elects one councillor to the Cairns Regional Council. At present, Division 10 contains all of the former Shire of Douglas, whilst Division 1 covers the southern districts which were part of the Shire of Mulgrave prior to 1995; the Cairns Region includes the following settlements: 1 - shared with Cassowary Coast Region2 - shared with Cassowary Coast Region and Tablelands Region The Cairns Regional Council operate public libraries at Babinda, Cairns City, Edmonton, Manunda and Stratford. The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008; the next census, due in 2016, will be the second for the Region. 2008–2012: Val Schier 2012–: Bob Manning The council members elected in 2016 were: Cairns Regional Council
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, classified as an interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends 2,000 kilometres down the Australian northeast coast, it is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, in the northeast by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea, thereby including the Gulf of Papua, it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, in the northwest, it connects with the Arafura Sea through the Torres Strait; the sea is characterised with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the world's largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.
All previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs and islets east of it are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory. In addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows: On the North. The South coast of New Guinea from the entrance to the Bensbach River to Gadogadoa Island near its Southeastern extreme, down this meridian to the 100 fathom line and thence along the Southern edges of Uluma Reef and those extending to the Eastward as far as the Southeast point of Lawik Reef off Tagula Island, thence a line to the Southern extreme of Rennell Island and from its Eastern point to Cape Surville, the Eastern extreme of San Cristobal Island, Solomons.
On the Northeast. From the Northernmost island of the Duff Islands, through these islands to their Southeastern extreme, thence a line to Méré Lava, Vanuatu Islands and down the Eastern coasts of the islands of this Group to Anatom Island in such a way that all the islands of these Groups, the straits separating them, are included in the Coral Sea. On the Southeast. A line from the Southeastern extreme of Anatom Island to Nokanhoui off the Southeast extreme of New Caledonia, thence through the East point of Middleton Reef to the Eastern extreme of Elizabeth Reef and down this meridian to Latitude 30° South. On the South; the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. On the West; the Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South. The Coral Sea basin was formed between 58 million and 48 million years ago when the Queensland continental shelf was uplifted, forming the Great Dividing Range, continental blocks subsided at the same time; the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering.
The geological formation processes are still proceeding, as evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea. On 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami; the epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara, at a depth of 10 kilometres. It was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude greater; the resulting tsunami destroyed more than 900 homes. The sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations, they include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and includes 2,900 individual reefs and 1000 islands. The Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro, it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea.
This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a flow band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is weakest around August; the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation, its annual discharge can vary more than 10 times between the two succeeding years. In particular, in the period 1920–1999, the average flow rate near the delta was below 1000 m3/s in 1923, 1931, 1939, 1969, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1993 and 1995; this irregul