Parliament of Queensland
The Parliament of Queensland is the legislature of Queensland, Australia. According to the state's constitution, the Parliament consists of the Queen and the Legislative Assembly, it is the only unicameral state parliament in the country. The upper chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly sits in Parliament House in Brisbane. All laws applicable in Queensland are authorised by the Parliament of Queensland, with the exception of specific legislation defined in the Constitution of Australia, criminal law applying under the Australia Act 1986 as well as older laws passed by New South Wales and the United Kingdom because the state having been was a colony. Following the outcome of the 2015 election, successful amendments to the electoral act in early 2016 include: adding an additional four parliamentary seats from 89 to 93, changing from optional preferential voting to full-preferential voting, moving from unfixed three-year terms to fixed four-year terms.
The Parliament was founded 22 May 1860, less than a year after the Colony of Queensland was created in June 1859. It was convened at military and convict barracks converted for the purpose located on Queen Street, Brisbane. Immigration was an important issue for the early Parliament. Population growth was encouraged with new settlers enticed by land ownership; the official flag of Queensland was adopted in 1867. In 1915, Queensland became the first state to make voting compulsory at state elections. Since 1 April 2003, live audio broadcasts have streamed through the internet from the Parliament while it is in session. In June 2007, the Parliament started broadcasting video of parliamentary proceedings. Nine in-house television cameras are used to record sessions; the first female Speaker, Fiona Simpson was elected on 15 May 2012. The Assembly has 93 Members of Parliament; these are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by the Full Preferential Voting system, with elections held once every three years.
In April 2016, legislation was passed to increase the number of seats in the parliament by four to a total of 93. An amendment was passed to abolish optional preferential voting. A referendum held the previous month was passed, supporting a bill to establish fixed four-year terms; the role of the monarch in Parliament is to give royal assent to legislation. This function is in practice exercised by the Governor of Queensland, who conventionally will never refuse assent to a bill that has passed the Legislative Assembly; the party or coalition with the most seats in the house is invited by the Governor to form a government. The leader of that party subsequently becomes Premier of Queensland. In the Liberal National Party, the Premier selects members of their party to act as Ministers. In the Labor Party, the Ministers are elected by partyroom ballot, with the Leader assigning ministerial portfolios to each one. Once all winning candidates have been declared, the Governor of Queensland proclaims a date for the start of the new Parliament.
It is the role of the Clerk of the Parliament to call members to attendance. According to the Constitution of Queensland Act 2001, members of Parliament must swear an oath or affirmation to the Sovereign as well as an oath of office before signing a Roll of Members; the Clerk of the Parliament has the power to swear in members. Sworn-in representatives are required to elect a Speaker to preside over the House's business. Before this occurs the Clerk may point to the next member who may speak. Once elected the Speaker is presented to the Governor at Government House; the ceremonial opening of the new Parliament is marked by a speech by the Governor. Traditionally the speech is written by the new government and it may outline current activities, budget details and proposed lists of legislation which are intended to be introduced. A day in Parliament begins with housekeeping matters, including prayers and the tabling of any documents. An opportunity is given to Ministers to make statements. During a period of no more than an hour, known as question time, any member may pose a question to a Minister.
As of February 2019, the composition of Parliament is: 47 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. Next Queensland state election Parliaments of the Australian states and territories Legislative Assembly of Queensland List of members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly Palaszczuk Ministry Official website
Mourilyan is a town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. It was established around the Mourilyan sugar mill which provided much of the employment in the area until it was destroyed by Cyclone Larry on 20 March 2006. At the 2016 census, Mourilyan had a population of 571 people; the town is located 8 kilometres south of Innisfail on the Bruce Highway. Construction of the Mourilyan sugar mill began in 1882. Excavation of the site was undertaken by Kanakas, with assistance from Chinese and Anglo-Saxon labourers. After its completion in 1884, the mill had a processing capacity of 14 tonnes of sugar per 12-hour shift. In 1913, the Colonial Sugar Refining Company began purchasing sugar refined at the mill. Mourilyan remained a small settlement, growing only slowly since. Mourilyan Post Office opened by September 1910. Mourilyan is prone to tropical cyclones. In 1986, Cyclone Winifred caused substantial damage to the area. Cyclone Larry caused substantial damage to many households in the area, destroyed the town's main source of employment.
A major effort by the Australian Defence Force helped restore Mourilyan Primary School to functioning capacity. Insurance payouts have helped to repair commercial properties. At the 2006 census, Mourilyan had a population of 424. Mourilyan's main attraction is the Australian Sugar Industry Museum, which contains several relics from North Queensland's extensive sugar farming history, it serves as a gateway to Mourilyan Harbour, Etty Bay and Paronella Park. Mourilyan State School opened on 29 January 1908 and as of July 2017, educates 167 students from Prep to Year 6. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Mourilyan Town map, 1979
Far North Queensland
Far North Queensland is the northernmost part of the state of Queensland, Australia. Centered on the city of Cairns, the region stretches north to the Torres Strait, west to the Gulf Country; the region has Australia's only international border, with the independent nation of Papua New Guinea. The region is home to three World Heritage Sites, the Great Barrier Reef, the Wet Tropics of Queensland and Riversleigh, Australia's largest fossil mammal site. Far North Queensland lays claim to over 70 national parks, including Mount Bartle Frere; the Far North region is the only region of Australia, home to both the Aboriginal Australians and the Torres Strait Islanders. Far North Queensland supports a significant agricultural sector, a number of significant mines and is home to Queensland's largest wind farm, the Windy Hill Wind Farm. Various government departments and agencies have different definitions for the region; the Queensland Government department of Trade and Investment Queensland defines the region as an area comprising the following 25 local government areas.
The main population and administrative centre of the region is the city of Cairns. Other key population centres include Cooktown, the Atherton Tableland, Weipa and the Torres Strait Islands; the region consists of many Aboriginal and farming groups. The northeastern point of Highway 1 passes through the region in the city of Cairns and connects the southern-running Bruce Highway to the western-running Savannah Way. Highway 1 circumnavigates the continent at a length of 14,500 kilometres and is the second-longest national highway in the world after the Pan-American Highway. Despite being Highway 1, not all sections of the Savannah Way are designated as a federally funded National Highway and certain sections remain unsealed. Significant industries include tourism, cattle grazing and mining of both sand and bauxite. Agricultural products generate between $600 and $700 million a year. Sugar cane, tropical fruits including bananas, papaya and coffee are grown in Far North Queensland; the region is home to the world's biggest silica mine at Cape Flattery.
The mine was established in 1967 and was damaged by Cyclone Ita in 2014. Rio Tinto Alcan operates a bauxite mine on the western coast of Cape York Peninsula near Weipa which contains one of the largest bauxite deposits in the world. In recent years, Far North Queensland has become known for its artistic and creative offerings, with the Cairns Indigenous Art Fair, Cairns Festival both held annually. Active arts organisation include the Tanks Arts Centre, Cairns Civic Theatre, Cairns Art Gallery; the region supports a large tourism industry and is considered a premier tourist destination in Australia. Nearly one third of international visitors to the state come to the region. Attractions include the Great Barrier Reef, Daintree Rainforest and other Queensland tropical rain forests within the Wet Tropics of Queensland heritage area, the Atherton Tableland, Hinchinbrook Island and other resort islands such as Dunk Island and Green Island. Major attractions around and in Cairns include The Reef Hotel Casino, Kuranda Scenic Railway, Barron Falls and the Skyrail Rainforest Cableway.
Towns and localities attracting large numbers of tourists include Cape Tribulation, Port Douglas, Mission Beach and Cardwell. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates the region's population at 280,638 in 2014; the region contains 25.6% of the state's Indigenous population, or 28,909 people, making up 11.8% of the region's population. Far North Queensland is the location of the first amber fossils to be found in Australia; the four-million-year-old fossils were found on a beach in Cape York Peninsula but were washed ashore after drifting with the currents for about 200 km. In the 1860s, Richard Daintree discovered gold and copper deposits along several rivers which led early prospectors to the area; the region suffered Queensland's worst maritime disaster on 4 March 1899 when the Mahina Cyclone destroyed all 100 ships moored in Princess Charlotte Bay. The entire North Queensland pearling fleet was in the bay at the time of the cyclone. 100 Aboriginals assisting survivors and 307 men from the pearling fleet were drowned.
Its pressure was measured at 914 hPa with a recorded tidal surge of 13 m, the highest in Australia. The 1918 Mackay cyclone hit the Queensland coast in January of that year. In March 1997, Cyclone Justin resulted in the deaths of seven people. In early 2000, Cyclone Steve caused major flooding between Mareeba. Cyclone Larry crossed the Queensland coast near Innisfail in March 2006; the storm damaged 10,000 homes. 80% of Australia's banana crop was destroyed. Cyclone Monica was the most intense cyclone on record in terms of wind speed to cross the Australian coast, it impacted the Northern Territory and Far North Queensland in April 2006. In January 2011, Cyclone Yasi passed over Tully and resulted in an estimated $3.6 billion worth of damage, making it the costliest cyclone to hit Australia. The name Tropical North Queensland is sometimes used to refer to the region. However, the phrase is ambiguous and may be used to name a wider area including parts of North Queensland, or Mackay. Proposal for a new state of North
Cassowary Coast Region
The Cassowary Coast Region is a local government area in the Far North Queensland region of Queensland, south of Cairns and centred on the towns of Innisfail and Tully. It was created in 2008 from a merger of the Shire of Johnstone; the Regional Council, which administers the Region, has an estimated operating budget of A$64 million. Prior to the 2008 amalgamation, the Cassowary Coast Region consisted of the entire area of two previous local government areas: the Shire of Cardwell and the Shire of JohnstoneThe Hinchinbrook Division was created on 11 November 1879 as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. On 28 October 1881, the Johnstone Division split away from it. On 18 January 1884, the Cardwell Division split away. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, both Cardwell and Johnstone became shires on 31 March 1903. In July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that Cardwell and Johnstone merge. Cardwell was in particular opposed because Johnstone was rated as "financially distressed" and its council had just been sacked by the state government.
On 15 March 2008, the two shires formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect six councillors and a mayor to the Regional Council. 2008 - 2016: Bill Shannon 2016 -: John Kremastos Although the commission recommended the council be undivided with six councillors and a mayor, the gazetted form was that of six divisions each electing a single councillor, plus a mayor. Those elected on April 2016 were: Mayor: John Kremastos Division 1 councillor: Glenn Raleigh Division 2 councillor: Rick Taylor Division 3 councillor: Wayne Kimberley Division 4 councillor: Mark Nolan Division 5 councillor: Jeff Baines Division 6 councillor: Ben Heath The Cassowary Coast Region includes the following settlements: 1 - shared with Cairns Region2 - shared with Tablelands Region3 - shared with Cairns Region and Tablelands Region The Cassowary Coast Regional Council operate public libraries in Cardwell, Tully and Wongaling Beach; the populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008.
The next census, due in 2011, will be the first for the new Region. As part of preparing the Cassowary Coast Planning Scheme 2014, the council consulted with the region's heritage groups to compile a list of local heritage places. 2008 Election results – Mayoral 2008 Election results – Councillors University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Cassowary Coast Regional Council "Cassowary Coast Regional Council: Local Heritage Places". Cassowary Coast Regional Council. May 2013. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014
Wooroonooran is a locality split among the Cairns Region, the Cassowary Coast Region, the Tablelands Region in Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Wooroonooran had no population; the locality is within the Wooroonooran National Park, although the national park extends beyond the boundaries of the locality. As a consequence, the land is undeveloped apart from a limited number of walking tracks and visitor amenities; the land is mountainous containing numerous peaks, including Mount Bartle Frere, numerous waterfalls, including the Josephine Falls and Fishery Falls. The locality is irregularly shaped and is approx 59 km from its northernmost point to its southernmost point and approx 38 km from its easternmost point to its westernmost point. Due to the vast size of this locality, it has numerous adjacent localities including Gordonvale, Fishery Falls, Bellenden Ker, Mirriwinni, Bartle Frere, Woopen Creek, Nerada, East Palmerston, Middlebrook, Ellinja, Millaa Millaa, Glen Allyn, Butchers Creek and Goldsborough.
Media related to Wooroonooran, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Wet Tropics of Queensland
The Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Site consists of 8,940 km² of Australian wet tropical forests growing along the north-east Queensland portion of the Great Dividing Range. The Wet Tropics of Queensland meets all four of the criteria for natural heritage for selection as a World Heritage Site. World Heritage status was declared in 1988, on 21 May 2007 the Wet Tropics were added to the Australian National Heritage List; the tropical forests have the highest concentration of primitive flowering plant families in the world. Only Madagascar and New Caledonia, due to their historical isolation, have humid, tropical regions with a comparable level of endemism; the Wet Tropics rainforests are recognised internationally for their ancient ancestry and many unique plants and animals. Many plant and animal species in the Wet Tropics are found nowhere else in the world; the Wet Tropics has the oldest continuously surviving tropical rainforests on earth On 9 November 2012, the Australian Government acknowledged the Indigenous heritage of the area as being nationally significant.
The Aboriginal Rainforest People of the Wet Tropics of Queensland have lived continuously in the rainforest environment for at least 5000 years, this is the only place in Australia where Aboriginal people have permanently inhabited a tropical rainforest environment. The Wet Tropics of Queensland stretches in part from Townsville to Cooktown, running in close parallel to the Great Barrier Reef; the terrain is rugged. The Great Dividing Range and a number of small coastal ranges, tablelands, foothills and an escarpment dominate the landscape; the heritage site contains the northern section of the Queensland tropical rain forests including the Daintree Rainforest. 16 different structural types of rainforest have been identified. The World Heritage area includes Wallaman Falls. In total it spans 13 major river systems including the Annan, Daintree, Mulgrave, Johnstone, Herbert, Mitchell and Palmer River. Copperlode Falls Dam, Koombooloomba Dam and Paluma Dam are found within the World Heritage Area.
15% of the area is protected as national park. Among the national parks included within the Wet Tropics are: Barron Gorge National Park Black Mountain National Park Cedar Bay National Park Daintree National Park Edmund Kennedy National Park Girringun National Park Kirrama National Park Kuranda National Park Macalister Range National Park Wooroonooran National Parkand over 700 protected areas including owned land; the Wet Tropics Management Authority was established in 1983. The agency employed 20 staff in 2012 as a unit within the Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, it is headed by a board of directors responsible to the Wet Tropics Ministerial Council which contains both Queensland and Federal Government representatives. The site contains many unique features such as over 390 rare plant species, which includes 74 species that are threatened. There are at least 85 species that are endemic to the area, 13 different types of rainforest and 29 species of mangrove, more than anywhere else in the country.
Of the 19 families of primitive flowering plants worldwide, 12 are found in the Wet Tropics including two families found nowhere else. This includes at least 50 individual species which are endemic to the area.90 species of orchids have been noted. The large rare trees Stockwellia or Vic Stockwell's Puzzle Stockwellia quadrifida grow only in restricted areas of "well developed upland rain forest" in the Wet Tropics, they continue living today as descendants of, similar to, the ancient Gondwanan fossil species considered one of the Eucalypts' fossil ancestors, which diversified into so many different species forms of all the Eucalypt plants today. 65% of Australia's fern species are protected here, including all seven of the ancient fern species. 370 species of bird have been recorded in the area. 11 species of those are found nowhere else. The endangered southern cassowary and rare spotted-tailed quoll are some of the many threatened species, while the musky rat-kangaroo is one of 50 animal species that are unique to this area.
The musky rat-kangaroo is significant because it represents an early stage in the evolution of kangaroos. Other rare animals include brush-tailed bettong. 107 mammal species have been identified. Australia's rarest mammal, the tube nosed insectivorous murina florious bat, is found here. One quarter of Australia's rodent species are found within the Wet Tropics.113 species of reptiles including 24 endemic species are found in the area and there are 51 amphibian species, of which 22 are endemic. One reason for the high level of endemism is that the geomorphology is diverse, resulting in habitat islands where distinct subspecies have evolved; some species are endemic to groups of mountains. Rainfall in the area varies with elevation and orientation of the coastline being the major influences. Rainfall averages from 1,200 millimeters to over 8,000 mm annually; the highest mountains along the escarpment between Cairns and Tully receive the highest rainfall owing to orographic factors. Mount Bellenden Ker is the wettest recording station in the area with other high peaks and eastern slopes favouring high rainfall.
Most of the rainfall occurs from November to April. Tropical cyclones may impact the area; the expansion of the sugarcane industry in lowland plains poses a significant threat to some endangered ecosystems. Some are fragmented and their natural vegetation is degraded. Invasive pes
Johnstone Shire Hall
Johnstone Shire Hall is a heritage-listed town hall at 70 Rankin Street, Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. It was built from 1935 to 1938 by Van Leeuwen Brothers, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 13 January 1995. The Johnstone Shire Hall was constructed for the Johnstone Shire Council in Innisfail from 1935-8, by the Van Leeuwen brothers to the design of Messrs Hill and Taylor at a cost of about £53,000; the Innisfail area was settled by cedar-cutters, with the first major planting of sugar cane occurring in 1880. The town was laid out at the junction of the South Johnstone and North Johnstone Rivers in 1881, was known as Junction Point; the name of the town was changed to Geraldton in 1883, to Innisfail in 1910. Innisfail was devastated first by a record flood in 1913 by a cyclone in 1918, which destroyed many of the town's timber buildings. Despite these setbacks, the town prospered and opened its third sugar mill in 1916. By the 1920s, the Innisfail sugar industry was producing vast quantities of sugar cane and record yields of sugar.
The prosperity of the town was reflected in the many buildings erected in the 1920s and 1930s, including many concrete buildings such as the first wing of the hospital, the Roman Catholic Church, the Commonwealth Bank and many other commercial premises. Important in the town's development was the opening of the Jubilee Bridge in 1923, linking the town with East Innisfail and Mourilyan, the Daradgee Railway Bridge in 1924; the Johnstone Shire Hall was constructed when the previous building was destroyed by fire in December 1932. This previous building had been used for theatrical productions and therefore the community were anxious to see a replacement constructed promptly; however council disagreements, Queensland Government interference and a change of shire council mean that it was many years before plans for the new Hall were presented and accepted. Messrs Hill and Taylor were commissioned for the design of the building in 1935, they were prominent local architects working in North Queensland between World War I and World War II.
Other public buildings by this firm include the Cairns City Council, Cairns Post Office and Proserpine Hospital and the Barron Valley Hotel. The supervising contractors were the Van Leeuwen brothers, who had arrived in Innisfail from Holland in 1918, they were responsible for most of the major construction work in the town from this date, including the Water Tower, the National Bank, Hotel Grand Central, Queens Hotel, Bank of New South Wales and the Commonwealth Bank. Hill and Taylor and the Van Leeuwen brothers proposed the cost of the building was to be £36,830. However, over the next few years the cost of the building was to rise to over £50,000, to the considerable alarm of the community and the Treasury Department who were funding the venture. A provision of the Treasury's involvement was the use of the unemployed on either day or contract labour, therefore none of the contractors' own staff were employed on the project; the building was ready for occupation in 1938, after five years in temporary accommodation the Johnstone Shire Council were able to operate from their own offices.
The Johnstone Shire Hall is a two storeyed re-inforced concrete building with semi-basement containing shire offices, a hall and two shops. The main facade has a stepped parapet with four banded pilasters defining bays featuring moulded decorative panels representing sugar cane. There is a cantilevered awning over the street with a balcony above, access to the balcony is via French doors; the balcony has a wrought-iron balustrade. The main entrance has three arched doorways through, the ceramic tiled entrance foyer; the upper storey features auditorium, with a stage and fly tower. The hall has an elliptical arched fibrous cement ceiling, supported on piers panelled with walnut and decorated with plaster fluting and volutes; the lighting system is a combination of many copper framed pendant fixtures with opal glass, a system of concealed trough lighting providing indirect illumination. Johnstone Shire Hall was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 13 January 1995 having satisfied the following criteria.
The place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history. The Johnstone Shire Hall is a substantial inter-war building which illustrates the unprecedented era of prosperity accompanying the expansion of the sugar industry in the Burdekin region; the place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places. The Johnstone Shire Hall, constructed 1935-38, is significant as a good and intact example of regional public buildings with Art Deco detailing, featuring locally inspired motifs; the Shire Hall is significant as a building designed by the architectural partnership of Hill and Taylor, prominent local architects in North Queensland between the first and second World Wars. The place is important because of its aesthetic significance; the building is an important element of the Rankin Street streetscape. The place has a strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.
It has significance to the local community as the civic centre of Innisfail. This Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. Peters, J. R..