Central Queensland is an ambiguous geographical division of Queensland that centres on the eastern coast, around the Tropic of Capricorn. Its major regional centre is Rockhampton; the region extends from the Capricorn Coast west to the Central Highlands at Emerald, north to the Mackay Regional Council southern boundary, south to Gladstone. The region is known as Capricornia, it is one of Australia's main coal exporting regions. At the 2011 Australian Census the region recorded a total population from the six local government areas of 233,931. Economically, Central Queensland is an important centre of primary industries for food and fibre production. Central Queensland includes the Bowen Basin, rich in high quality coking coal, the Port of Gladstone produces 40% of the state's export earnings, the Fitzroy River is the second-largest river system in Australia and commands significant water resources such as Fairbairn Dam. Gladstone has a significant aluminium smelter. Rockhampton is claimed to be the beef capital of Australia, a title, disputed by Casino in New South Wales.
Beef production in the region speargrass land types. There are three abattoirs in the region; every three years, Rockhampton holds the national Beef Australia exposition to celebrate the cattle industry as well as to facilitate trade opportunities for Australian beef producers. Central Queensland is one of exporters of black coal. Ludwig Leichhardt was the first European to discover coal deposits in the region in 1845. In the 2011-2012 financial year the region produced 40% of the state's total coal production. Coal is extracted from the Bowen Basin and transported to port facilities at Port of Gladstone via the Blackwater railway system or to both Hay Point and Abbot Point via the Goonyella railway line. Coal mining is expanding west into the Galilee Basin and requires an extension of the Goonyella line to transport coal to port. Many mines in the region those within the Fitzroy River basin, were impacted by flooding during the 2010–11 Queensland floods. Gold, limestone, coal seam gas and gemstones are mined.
Sapphires were discovered here in 1875. Gold was discovered in the Mount Morgan region around 1865. Mount Morgan Mine has since gone on to become one of Australia's richest mines. Purpose built mining towns in Central Queensland include Dysart, Moranbah, Mount Morgan and Moura. Three mining disaster have occurred at Moura since 1975. In 2004, an orchard on Evergreen farm was the site of the first detection of citrus canker in Central Queensland. A significant part of the citrus growing industry was devastated when a total of 6,000 acres of crop had to be destroyed so the disease would not spread across the country. In 2005 several fresh outbreaks were reported so the eradication expanded to include private backyard trees; the outbreak's cause has not been explained despite a federal inquiry. In 2009 authorities from the Government of Queensland declared the eradication program complete; the region contain 33 national parks. Great Keppel Island has been an island tourist attraction since the 1960s.
It and several other islands in the area are surrounded by coral reefs. In the west of the region is Queensland's central highlands and the Carnarvon Gorge, protected within the Carnarvon National Park. Carnarvon Gorge features white sandstone cliffs, steep-sided gorges a diverse range of significant plant and animal species and many walking tracks. Kroombit Tops National Park provides habitat for the endemic Kroombit tinker frog. Deepwater National Park is good place for turtle watching. From November to March three species of turtle lay their eggs on beaches protected within the park. For this purpose the area of Central Queensland was restricted to the areas encircled by the Dawson Highway between Gladstone and Springsure. Major cities in the region are Emerald and Rockhampton; some communities on the Capricorn Coast include Byfield, Great Keppel Island, Emu Park and Cawarral. Central Queensland University has a campus at Emerald and Rockhampton; the "Central Highlands Regional Council" operates the following library branches: Emerald Library The Gemfields library Blackwater Library Dingo Library Duaringa Library Capella Library Tieri Library Springsure Library Rolleston Library Bauhinia Library Central West Queensland Regions of Queensland Central Queensland Territorial Separation League Media related to Central Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Shire of Fitzroy
The Shire of Fitzroy was a local government area located in the Capricornia region of Central Queensland, Australia, to the immediate west and south of the regional city of Rockhampton. The shire, administered from the town of Gracemere, covered an area of 5,898.7 square kilometres, existed as a local government entity from 1899 until 2008, when it amalgamated with several other councils to become the Rockhampton Region. It is named for the Fitzroy River. On 11 November 1879, the Gogango Division was established as one of 74 divisions around Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879. On 6 April 1899, the section of Gogango south of the Fitzroy River split away to form the Fitzroy Division. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Fitzroy Division became the Shire of Fitzroy on 31 March 1903. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Fitzroy merged with the City of Rockhampton and the Shires of Mount Morgan and Livingstone to form the Rockhampton Region.
At the time of amalgamation, the Shire of Fitzroy was the only local government area in Queensland without a library service. The Shire of Fitzroy included the following settlements: Gracemere Alton Downs Bajool Bouldercombe Bushley Dalma Garnant Glenroy Gogango Kabra Kalapa Marmor Midgee Morinish Morinish South Nine Mile Pink Lily Port Alma Ridgelands Stanwell Westwood Wycarbah 1927: J. W. O'Shanesy University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Fitzroy Shire
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, classified as an interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends 2,000 kilometres down the Australian northeast coast, it is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, in the northeast by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea, thereby including the Gulf of Papua, it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, in the northwest, it connects with the Arafura Sea through the Torres Strait; the sea is characterised with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the world's largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.
All previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs and islets east of it are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory. In addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows: On the North. The South coast of New Guinea from the entrance to the Bensbach River to Gadogadoa Island near its Southeastern extreme, down this meridian to the 100 fathom line and thence along the Southern edges of Uluma Reef and those extending to the Eastward as far as the Southeast point of Lawik Reef off Tagula Island, thence a line to the Southern extreme of Rennell Island and from its Eastern point to Cape Surville, the Eastern extreme of San Cristobal Island, Solomons.
On the Northeast. From the Northernmost island of the Duff Islands, through these islands to their Southeastern extreme, thence a line to Méré Lava, Vanuatu Islands and down the Eastern coasts of the islands of this Group to Anatom Island in such a way that all the islands of these Groups, the straits separating them, are included in the Coral Sea. On the Southeast. A line from the Southeastern extreme of Anatom Island to Nokanhoui off the Southeast extreme of New Caledonia, thence through the East point of Middleton Reef to the Eastern extreme of Elizabeth Reef and down this meridian to Latitude 30° South. On the South; the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. On the West; the Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South. The Coral Sea basin was formed between 58 million and 48 million years ago when the Queensland continental shelf was uplifted, forming the Great Dividing Range, continental blocks subsided at the same time; the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering.
The geological formation processes are still proceeding, as evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea. On 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami; the epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara, at a depth of 10 kilometres. It was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude greater; the resulting tsunami destroyed more than 900 homes. The sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations, they include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and includes 2,900 individual reefs and 1000 islands. The Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro, it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea.
This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a flow band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is weakest around August; the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation, its annual discharge can vary more than 10 times between the two succeeding years. In particular, in the period 1920–1999, the average flow rate near the delta was below 1000 m3/s in 1923, 1931, 1939, 1969, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1993 and 1995; this irregul
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
Fitzroy River (Queensland)
The Fitzroy River is a river located in Central Queensland, Australia. Its catchment covers an area of 142,665 square kilometres, making it the largest river catchment flowing to the eastern coast of Australia. Formed by the confluence of the Mackenzie and Dawson rivers that drain the Expedition Range and the Carnarvon Range the Fitzroy River rises near Duaringa and flows north by east northward near the Goodedulla National Park; the river flows in an easterly direction near the Lake Learmouth State Forest and parallel with the Bruce Highway through the settlement of Yaamba, before turning south to Rockhampton where the river is crossed by the Bruce Highway. After flowing through Rockhampton, the river flows south by east past the Berserker Range past Humbug Point to the south of the Flat Top Range and discharging into Keppel Bay in the Coral Sea near the MacKenzie Island Conservation Park. From source to mouth, the Fitzroy River is joined by thirty-six tributaries including the Mackenzie River – with its tributaries the Nogoa River, Comet River, Isaac River and its tributary Connors River.
The catchment area of the river occupies an area of 142,665 square kilometres Within the drainage basin an area of 292 square kilometres is composed of estuarine wetlands and an area of 1,548 square kilometres is made up of riverine wetlands. The catchment stretches from the Carnarvon Range in the west to the rivermouth in Keppel Bay, near Rockhampton, it is bounded to the north by the Burdekin River catchment area and to the south by the Burnett River catchment area. The river has a mean annual discharge of 5,900 gigalitres. There are a number important aquifers providing for groundwater extractions in the Fitzroy Basin; the Fitzroy River basin is one of a number that experienced extensive flooding during the 2010–2011 Queensland floods. In 2013, flash flooding in the Mount Morgan and Biloela regions brought major flooding to the lower Dawson River catchment; the Don River and the Dee River rose to new record heights. The Fitzroy River at Rockhampton rose above major flooding to 8.61 metres. The Fitzroy River catchment system has many weirs and dams, used for farming and domestic consumption.
In the Dawson River sub-catchment, the major reservoirs from source to mouth are the Glebe Weir, the Gyranda Weir, the Theodore Weir, the Moura Weir, the Callide Dam, the Kroombit Dam. In the Mackenzie River sub-catchment, the major reservoirs are the Comet Weir, the Fairbairn Dam, the Theresa Creek Dam, the Bedford Weir, the Bingegang Weir, the Tartrus Weir. In the main Fitzroy River sub-catchment the only reservoirs are the Eden Bann Weir and the Fitzroy River Barrage, with the latter capable of holding 61,000 megalitres when full, to provide potable water to Rockhampton city and surrounds; the Fairbairn Dam on the Nogoa River and several weirs downstream on the Mackenzie River provide water for irrigating a wide range of crops including cotton, chickpea and horticulture including citrus, table grapes, supplying water for coal mines and domestic use for the town of Emerald. The traditional owners of the area in the Fitzroy River catchment are the Darumbal people, notably the Baiali and Jetimarala clans.
The river was named by European colonial settlers and pastoralists and William Archer, on 4 May 1853 in honour of Sir Charles FitzRoy, at the time the Governor of the Colony of New South Wales, as Queensland did not become a separate colony until 1859. The famous boatbuilder Colin Archer was the first to sail up the river, with his cutter "Ellida"; the city of Rockhampton is situated on some 40 kilometres from the coast. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the city was a major port, however rocky bars in the river prevented the Fitzroy from being used for navigation any further inland; as ships became larger, the lower reaches became less viable for commercial traffic, today only pleasure craft and small commercial fishing boats use the river. Wharves which once lined the town reach at Rockhampton have now all disintegrated or been removed. Port Alma, in the Fitzroy River delta is now the nearest port to Rockhampton. Predominant industries in the catchment are coal mining and cotton. Glenmore Homestead was built at a property on the northern bank of the river seven kilometres northwest of Rockhampton.
It was settled in 1858, is listed on the Queensland Heritage Register and operates as a tourist attraction today. The Fitzroy River in Rockhampton is utilised for recreation; the Rockhampton Ski Gardens on the Fitzroy River just upstream from the Fitzroy River Barrage is used by sporting groups such as the local water skiing, dragon boat and rowing clubs. In 2018, a $36 million revitalisation of the Fitzroy riverbank in Rockhampton City was opened.. Rockhampton's annual Rocky River Run is held along the Fitzroy River; the annual fishing competition, the Barra Bounty is another event held on the Fitzroy River in Rockhampton. The city celebrates the Fitzroy River each year at the river's own annual festival, the Rockhampton River Festival. In 2018, the Fitzroy River in Rockhampton was incorporated into the Queen's Baton Relay prior to the 2018 Commonwealth Games. After running his leg of the relay, batonbearer Mark Knowles handed the Queen's Baton to fellow batonbearer Craig McCormack, rowed across the river on a dragon boat as part of the relay.
The lower reaches of the river are home to salt water crocodiles. In 2003 a crocodile measuring more than 4 metres long was captured; the most div
Causeway Lake, Queensland
Causeway Lake is a locality on the Capricorn Coast in the Shire of Livingstone, Australia. The locality takes its name from the lake of the same name which lies within the locality, both of which take their name from the causeway which allows the Scenic Highway to cross the lake's narrow entrance to the Coral Sea. There is little development within the locality except for a small residential area on the north-eastern shore of the lake where there is public parkland access to the lake for recreation. Apart from that, most of the locality is undeveloped being taken up with the lakes and the associated palustrine wetland surrounding the numerous creeks which flow into the lake; the northern mouth of the lake is part of the Capricorn Coast National Park. The southern part of the locality is within the Causeway Lake Conservation Park. Media related to Causeway Lake, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli