The Bunya Mountains are a distinctive set of peaks forming an isolated section of the Great Dividing Range in southern Queensland. The mountain range forms the northern edge of the Darling Downs in the locality called Bunya Mountains near Bell and Dalby; the mountains are south of Kingaroy and just to the south west of Nanango. The range is the remains of a shield volcano, built from numerous basalt lava flows about 23-24 million years ago. In 2009 as part of the Q150 celebrations, the Bunya Mountains was announced as one of the Q150 Icons of Queensland for its role as a "Natural attraction"; the range rises to an average elevation of 975 m. Slopes facing the north east are part of the Burnett River catchment, those on the south east make up part of the Brisbane River catchment, while those facing the south west belong to the Condamine River catchment and the Murray-Darling River system; the mountains are covered with ancient conifer rainforest that co-exists with a number of other unique natural features -'balds' which are open grasslands including some that contain rare grass species and sclerophyll forests.
Parts of the forest were once logged for various timbers including red cedar, bunya pine and hoop pine. However, most of the peaks are uncleared and covered in forest as the range was too steep for early timber clearers; the mountains are home to the largest natural Bunya pine forest in the world. The Bunya Mountains and neighbouring areas were the focus of major gatherings of Indigenous Australians from South East and Central Queensland to north east New South Wales; the gatherings occurred during the seasons when the bountiful nuts of the bunya pine ripened, from December through to March, during'bumper crops' which appeared to occur about every three or four years. These were evidently widest-attended Indigenous gatherings in Australia. Climbers would use a strong vine around their waist and the tree, which can be up to 1.5 m in width and up to 50 m tall, to reach the nuts. Members of the guest tribes were not allowed to collect nuts from the tree. Apart from feasting on bunya nuts, participants engaged in a variety of intertribal activities: games and sports, trade, knowledge exchange, the arrangement of marriages and the settling of disputes.
1902 was the final known gathering on the range. Indigenous groups such as the Wakka Wakka, Kabi Kabi, Gooreng Gooreng, Quandamooka, Barrangum and Willi Willi traditional owners have continued cultural and spiritual connections to the Bunya Mountains to this day, a number of strategies including the use of traditional ecological knowledge have been incorporated into the current management practices of the national park and conservation reserves with the Bunya Murri Ranger project operating in the mountains. Much of the area is protected as the Bunya Mountains National Park, the state's second oldest National Park, being established in 1908. There are many picnic spots, walking tracks, lookouts and a few camping grounds on the range, as well as a variety of cottage and group accommodation facilities for families and school camp groups. Along the walking tracks, which lead to lookouts that offer views of the surrounding countryside, flora such as ferns and staghorns, as well as the unique Bunya Pine, can be seen.
Waterfalls add to the scenic beauty. In the small patches of cleared land that are used by tourists, colourful birds such as Australian king parrots and rosellas can be seen. Fauna such as wallabies, scrub turkeys, koalas and possums may be seen; the unique Bunya pine is known for its Bunya nuts which were a favoured food of local Australian Aboriginals. The mountains have a highland subtropical climate, cooler and wetter than the surrounding plains. Heavy winter frosts and light snow occur on the highest peaks, while in summer, the mountains experience frequent heavy storms which contributes to the lush rainforest. List of mountains in Australia List of volcanoes in Australia Media related to Bunya Mountains at Wikimedia Commons
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
South Burnett Region
The South Burnett Region is a local government area in the South Burnett district of Queensland, Australia. This Local Government was created in March 2008 as a result of the report of the Local Government Reform Commission released in July 2007. Prior to the 2008 amalgamation, the South Burnett Region, located in the southern catchment of the Burnett River, existed as four distinct local government areas: the Shire of Kingaroy; the report recommended the new local government area should not be divided into wards and should elect six councilors and a mayor however the Interim Steering Committee applied to the State Government for four wards based on the old shire boundaries. As the total population is just a few hundred short of the level set in the report for eight councilors and a mayor, application for this was made; the South Burnett Region covers an area 8,399 square kilometres, containing an estimated resident population of 33,040 and has an estimated operating budget of A$42 m. The Aboriginal community of Cherbourg has been excluded from the amalgamated area and continues to have its own local government.
The South Burnett Region includes the following settlements: The South Burnett Regional Council operate public libraries at Blackbutt, Murgon, Nanango and Wondai. On 15 March 2008, the first mayor elected to the South Burnett Region was David Ian Carter; the first councillors elected to the South Burnett Region were as follows: Division 1: Barry Green Division 2: Debra Palmer Division 3: Damien Tessmann Division 4: Keith Campbell Division 5: Kathy Duff Division 6: Cheryl Dalton In the elections held on 28 April 2012, Wayne Kratzmann was elected mayor. The councillors elected were: Division 1: Barry Green Division 2: Debra Palmer Division 3: Damien Tessman Division 4: Keith Campbell Division 5: Kathy Duff Division 6: Cheryl Dalton In the elections held on 19 March 2016, Keith Campbell was elected mayor; the councillors elected were: Division 1: Roz Frohloff Division 2: Gavin Jones Division 3: Danita Potter Division 4: Terry Fleischfresser Division 5: Kathy Duff Division 6: Ros Heit South Burnett Regional Council Interactive Map of the South Burnett Region Retrieved 18 April 2008
The South Burnett is a peanut growing and wine-producing area on the Great Dividing Range, north of the Darling Downs, in Queensland. It is with the basin of the Burnett River; the area is within South Burnett Region and Gympie Region. Towns located within this region with a population of more than 1,000 include Kingaroy, Murgon and Nanango. Towns with a population under 1,000 people include Kilkivan, Proston, Kumbia, Hivesville, Wooroolin, Crawford, Mount Mowbullan, Booie, Benarkin and Wheatlands; the D'Aguilar Highway leads south east, while the Bunya Highway enters the region from the south west. The Wide Bay Highway connects to Gympie and the Bruce Highway towards the coast and the Burnett Highway continues north of the region; the Brisbane Valley railway line reached Blackbutt in 1905. The line was closed in the 1980s; the South Burnett Wine Region is another attraction, with Verdelho grown due to the warm climate and rich soils. With around ten wineries, it is a new wine region. Grapes were first planted in the area in 1898.
Industrial production began in 1993. Most of the wineries are located close in the Moffatdale area north of Murgon. There are none in the west of the region. Shiraz and Chardonnay are the most prevalent varieties with production halved between red and white wines. One of the best known attractions in the area is the peanut-growing district centered on Kingaroy. 12 km from Murgon is the Bjelke-Petersen Dam. Other dams in the region include Boondooma Dam. Tarong Power Station and the Tarong National Park are both in the south of the Burnett; the Bunya Mountains, protected within the Bunya Mountains National Park, which contains the largest natural bunya pine forest in the world, are a popular natural attraction in the south of the region. At Kinbombi Falls there are picnic and camping facilities next to a large waterfall and rocky creek. Rock-wallabies can be seen on local cliffs around twilight hours. Garnet gem fields are found just west of Proston. Regions of Queensland Wide Bay–Burnett South Burnett CTC – Large community-based organisation located in the South Burnett South Burnett Wine – South Burnett Wine Industry Association portal South Burnett Online – Popular South Burnett focused community portal South Burnett Regional Council – Regional Local Government Site
Queensland State Archives
The Queensland State Archives is the lead agency for public recordkeeping in Queensland, Australia. It is the custodian of the largest and most significant documentary heritage collection about Queensland. Established in 1959, Queensland State Archives promotes the implementation of appropriate recordkeeping principles and practices across public authorities and regulates the retention and disposal of public records. Queensland State Archives develops recordkeeping policy and provides advice to public authorities on the management of public records and facilitates access to information about government for the people of Queensland. Under sections 24 and 25 of the Public Records Act 2002, Queensland State Archives has a range of functions and powers including the ability to: Issue standards regulating the creation, disposal and preservation of government records Conduct research and provide advice to public authorities about the making and preserving of public records Issue policies and guidelines to achieve compliance with the legislative policy frameworks for best practice records management Ensure the archival collection is accessible to government and the people of Queensland Identify and preserve public records of permanent value as the State’s archives Provide climate-controlled storage facilities for permanent archival records.
Recordkeeping in Queensland is not just a modern or new activity. As early as November 1861, an extract from the Brisbane Courier refers to provision of storage for valuable historical documents relating to the early history of the settlement. In 1917 the Royal Historical Society of Queensland called for a "proper system of dealing with the archives of Queensland". In 1932 the Governor of Queensland, Sir Leslie Wilson wrote to the Premier of Queensland, William Forgan Smith regarding a Central Record Office expressing his concern at the inadequate storage and subsequent destruction of many valuable public records. In 1939, Sir Raphael Cilento commented; when the Queensland Government passed the Libraries Act of 1943, Part IV of the Act dealt with public records. However, there was a provision in Part IV to postpone its implementation and archival legislation was not implemented for another 15 years. In 1953 the Government claimed that "it has not been possible to implement this portion of the Act owing to difficulties which have arisen, chief of, a lack of suitable space in which to store and display these documents."While some records were transferred to the State Library of Queensland for preservation, it was not until 31 July 1958 that Part IV of The Libraries Act 1943–1949 was proclaimed and became effective.
In 1959, Robert Sharman was appointed as the first Archivist within the State Library, Queensland State Archives commenced its activities. The Act placed archival authority in the hands of the State Librarian and made the Library Board of Queensland responsible for the destruction of records; the official position of State Archivist was not created until more than 20 years in September 1981. By the late 1970s and early 1980s a surge in genealogical and family history research created a heavy demand for reference services and access to records; the Queensland State Archives Public Search Room was expanded to accommodate more clients and a modern storage warehouse in Acacia Ridge was acquired in 1983. The State Archivist of the day, Paul Wilson focused on Queensland State Archives' role in the management of semi-current records, including the preparation of a wide range of retention and disposal schedules. In 1986 Queensland State Archives was accorded the status of a Division of the State Library of Queensland and developed a proposal for a new purpose-built facility.
The Libraries and Archives Act 1988 defined the role and functions of Queensland State Archives and gave additional protection to public records through an increase in the powers of the State Archivist. It expanded the definition of public records to include computerised records; the Queensland Government introduced the Public Records Act 2002 in July 2002. It replaced Part 7 of the Libraries and Archives Act 1988 and the Libraries and Archives Regulations 1990 with a new statute devoted to the management of public records; the Act provided a contemporary framework for the management of public records and marked a changing role for Queensland State Archives. Queensland State Archives is established under section 21 of the Public Records Act 2002 as the State's archives and records management authority. With the introduction of the Act, Queensland State Archives became the lead agency for State and local government recordkeeping in Queensland; the Act and its accompanying Recordkeeping Information Standards enable Queensland State Archives to develop and implement a comprehensive recordkeeping policy framework to ensure a consistent approach to the creation, disposal, storage and retrieval of government information.
Public authorities are required to make'complete and accurate records' in accordance with the Public Records Act 2002. To help public authorities to achieve this Queensland State Archives developed in 2002, Information Standard 40: Recordkeeping (IS40; this Information Standard aims to foster recordkeeping best practice across the Queensland public sector. The objective of recordkeeping best practice is to establish it as a systematic part of the essential business activities of all public authorities so that records are identified and retained in accessible and usable formats that preserve the evidential integrity of those records for as long as they are required. With the a
Shire of Esk
The Shire of Esk was a local government area in South East Queensland, located about 90 kilometres west - northwest of Brisbane. It stretched from the Lockyer Valley north and west to the Great Dividing Range and up the valley of the Brisbane River. Esk covered an area of 3,936.2 square kilometres, existed from 1879 until its merger with the Shire of Kilcoy to form the Somerset Region on 15 March 2008. The Durundur Division was incorporated on 11 November 1879 under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 with a population of 1428, its name was changed to Esk Division on 2 June 1880 by proclamation. On 18 January 1884, there was an adjustment of boundaries between Highfields Division's subdivisions Nos. 1 and 2 and Esk Division. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Esk became a Shire on 31 March 1903; the council consisted of an elected mayor and ten councillors, was not subdivided. In 1980, the Council of the Shire of Esk adopted the head of the red deer as its logo, honouring a gift from Queen Victoria in September 1873 to the district.
In 1984 the official logo was adopted. The Weeping Bottlebrush was adopted as the shire's floral emblem on 10 August 1994. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, the Shire of Esk merged with the Shire of Kilcoy to form the Somerset Region; the Shire of Esk included the following settlements: March 1880 - December 1885: Frederick Lord January 1886 - March 1888: James Henry McConnel March 1888 - February 1889: Frederick Lord February 1889 - February 1891: Thomas Pryde February 1891 - February 1893: Frederick Lord February 1893 - February 1894: George Charles Taylor February 1894 - February 1896: Patrick Clifford February 1896 - February 1899: James Henry McConnel March 1899 - February 1901: Walter Francis March 1901 - January 1902: Henry Plantagenet Somerset February 1902 - February 1905: Walter Francis March 1905 - February 1906: Alexander Smith February 1906 - February 1907: Charles Stuart Lord February 1907 - February 1908: Frederick Seib February 1908 - February 1909: John MacDonald February 1909 - February 1910: Alexander Smith February 1910 - February 1911: Charles George Handley February 1911 - February 1912: Alexander Smith March 1913 - May 1914: James Henry McConnel May 1914 - July 1914: Alexander Smith July 1914 - March 1915: Herbert Prescott Gardner March 1915 - March 1916: Eric Walter McConnel March 1916 - February 1917: Alexander Smith February 1917 - January 1919: George Bishop January 1919 - February 1920: William Roy Butler February 1920 - August 1921: Michael Frederick Thompson August 1921 - April 1930: Alexander Smith April 1930 - August 1940: William Lewis 1940 - July 1952: James Barbour, junior September 1952 - 1961: William Wells 1961 - 1967: Norman Joseph McInnes 1967 - September 1983: Kenneth Edgar Haslindgden October 1983 - c. 1987: Lester Joseph Williams 1991–2004: Jean Bray 2004–2007: Graeme Lehmann.
Confidence and tradition: a history of the Esk Shire. Esk Shire Council. ISBN 978-0-7316-1568-1. Full text available online University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Esk Shire "Esk Shire Council". Archived from the original on 18 February 2008