England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Shiremoor is a large village in the Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside. It is located 3.5 miles inland of Whitley Bay and 3 miles north of The Tyne Tunnel. A mile or so north of Shiremoor, the extensive built-up areas of North Tyneside change abruptly into green belt stretching north into south east Northumberland, it has a population of 4,782. Shiremoor is not a centre of population but many housing estates were built there in the 20th and 21st centuries. Shiremoor was first built as a colliery village to accommodate the miners of the local pits. Shiremoor comprises numerous estates, they include the oldest two estates of Old Shiremoor. As well as Park Estate, Leeches Estate, Shiremoor. In the early 2000s a new area was built, known as Northumberland Park. Although built as a separate village, estate agents refer to it as being a part of Shiremoor. Earsdon View is the newest estate; the original name, Tynemouthshire Moor, refers to the common of the manor of Tynemouth. The area grew as a result of the coal industry, developed to house miners from the local pits.
As the coal industry in the area declined, Shiremoor became a commuter area and more serves as a commercial centre. Shiremoor colliery was linked to the North Eastern Railway by the Tyne Railway; every year the local people hold a "treat" for the children of Shiremoor and surrounding villages. This tradition has been held every year since, it was started by a group of men from the local pit and today is run by a committee of local people. The "treat field" was located along Algenon Drive. However, due to new developments being built it was relocated in the early 21st century to Earsdon road, near the Grey Horse pub; the Treat itself comprises many events. There is an art competition, a dance display, many sports competitions, including football and hockey. There is always a tea tent. Today there is a fun fair held alongside the Treat; each year the children of the local schools receive a free "Treat Ticket". The ticket gets them a souvenir; the local schools meet outside their school and "march" to the treat.
This is led by a band, the school banner. Many local people join in the march as it is seen as much a local tradition. There is a Primary School located in Shiremoor, described by Ofsted as an outstanding school, it provides for children aged 4–11, including a nursery for 3+. It is 52 places in the nursery. In 2011 it was designated as a teaching school. North Tyneside Council's Pupil Referral Unit is located in Shiremoor, it is called Moorbridge and was opened in 2010. It caters for KS3 and KS4 children with Behavioural and Social difficulties with up to 60 places. There is a Resource Centre in on Earsdon Road which comprises a Doctors Surgery, Pharmacy and a Library; the doctors houses 3 practises. There is a One to One Centre located in the old Doctors building, on Brenkley Avenue, they offer Sexual Health services to the local community. There is one dentist in Shiremoor, located on Lesbury Avenue, near the Metro station. There is a St. Johns day centre in Shiremoor; the Church of England parish church of Shiremoor is located on Brenkley Avenue.
There is a Salvation Army church located on Lesbury Avenue. The Catholic Parish for the area is Our Lady Star of the Sea. In recent years Shiremoor has been subjected to substantial residential development alongside the A19 corridor; the new Northumberland Park Metro Station is the centre of a new residential area between Shiremoor and West Allotment. There is extensive work being carried out on a new residential area, Earsdon View, alongside the A19 corridor. Between Shiremoor and Earsdon. An adventure playground is located on Brenkley Avenue, nearby to St Mark's Church and Shiremoor Primary School. Two major retail outlets employ local residents. There are a number of smaller'local shops these include a chip shop, Chinese takeaway, Post Office, a Spar and numerous family owned corner shops. Other businesses include a national car hire company. Small businesses include cafe, private nursery, florists and hairdressers. Cobalt Business Park, the largest office park in the UK, is located between Shiremoor and West Allotment.
Within the business park there are numerous different businesses including the North Tyneside Council headquarters, an Orange Call Centre, Santander customer Services, Job Centre Plus, NHS, Hewlett Packard, Just Learning Nursery, Village Hotel and many more. Patrick King was the first person to be awarded the George Medal, for rescuing a blind woman during an air raid in World War II. Evening Chronicle chief sports writer Lee Ryder went to school in the small coastal village at Shiremoor First School and Shiremoor Middle School. Bryan Hewison was spent his formative years in Shiremoor. Bryan gained a scholarship to the Royal Ballet, he had a long and successful career at La Scala, Milan dancing as Soloist for the Theatre Ballet Company. Jackie Robinson, professional footballer, was died in Shiremoor, he played for Sheffield Sunderland. Played for England 1937–1939, until the second world war. Scored twice against the German national team in 1938, in front of Hitler, when the English team were ordered to do the Nazi salute.
Shiremoor Pharmacy Website North Tyneside Council's Shiremoor page St. Mark's Church Shiremoor Website Home page for Shiremoor Treat
South Shields Metro station
South Shields Metro station is the main Tyne and Wear Metro station for South Shields, England. In 2008-9 the station was used by over 1 million passengers; the station is located on a bridge above King Street, the main shopping street in South Shields Town Centre. The Metro station is located about 200 metres down the line from the former South Shields railway station, which it replaced; the station includes a sandwich bar at ground level. The station can be accessed via the main concourse by either lift or stairs from King Street or Keppel Street Bus Station; the station can be accessed via the Mile End Road concourse by ramp. The original two-platform railway station closed on 1 June 1981, when the line was closed for conversion to Metro standards. However, the Grade II-listed station building survived for many years, housing a newsagent and a barber, but has since been demolished; the Metro line continues beyond the station and through the site of the BR station to some engineering sidings.
The new Metro station was opened on 24 March 1984 and completed the initial Tyne and Wear Metro system. It was the terminus of the Green line, but is now the terminus of the Yellow line. In June 2015, plans were unveiled for a new transport interchange to be built, featuring a new Metro station and enclosed bus station; this development would replace the existing Metro station, the adjacent Keppel Street Bus Station. Building work started in 2018 and is expected to be completed in the summer of 2019; the opening date has not yet been announced. Train times and station information for South Shields Metro station from Nexus
World Geodetic System
The World Geodetic System is a standard for use in cartography and satellite navigation including GPS. This standard includes the definition of the coordinate system's fundamental and derived constants, the ellipsoidal Earth Gravitational Model, a description of the associated World Magnetic Model, a current list of local datum transformations; the latest revision is WGS 84, established in 1984 and last revised in 2004. Earlier schemes included WGS 72, WGS 66, WGS 60. WGS 84 is the reference coordinate system used by the Global Positioning System; the coordinate origin of WGS 84 is meant to be located at the Earth's center of mass. The WGS 84 meridian of zero longitude is the IERS Reference Meridian, 5.3 arc seconds or 102 metres east of the Greenwich meridian at the latitude of the Royal Observatory. The WGS 84 datum surface is an oblate spheroid with equatorial radius a = 6378137 m at the equator and flattening f = 1/298.257223563. The polar semi-minor axis b equals a × = 6356752.3142 m. WGS 84 uses the Earth Gravitational Model 2008.
This geoid defines the nominal sea level surface by means of a spherical harmonics series of degree 360. The deviations of the EGM96 geoid from the WGS 84 reference ellipsoid range from about −105 m to about +85 m. EGM96 differs from the original WGS 84 geoid, referred to as EGM84. WGS 84 uses the World Magnetic Model 2015v2; the new version of WMM 2015 became necessary due to extraordinarily large and erratic movements of the north magnetic pole. The next regular update will occur in late 2019. Efforts to supplement the various national surveying systems began in the 19th century with F. R. Helmert's famous book Mathematische und Physikalische Theorien der Physikalischen Geodäsie. Austria and Germany founded the Zentralbüro für die Internationale Erdmessung, a series of global ellipsoids of the Earth were derived. A unified geodetic system for the whole world became essential in the 1950s for several reasons: International space science and the beginning of astronautics; the lack of inter-continental geodetic information.
The inability of the large geodetic systems, such as European Datum, North American Datum, Tokyo Datum, to provide a worldwide geo-data basis Need for global maps for navigation and geography. Western Cold War preparedness necessitated a standardised, NATO-wide geospatial reference system, in accordance with the NATO Standardisation AgreementIn the late 1950s, the United States Department of Defense, together with scientists of other institutions and countries, began to develop the needed world system to which geodetic data could be referred and compatibility established between the coordinates of separated sites of interest. Efforts of the U. S. Army and Air Force were combined leading to the DoD World Geodetic System 1960; the term datum as used here refers to a smooth surface somewhat arbitrarily defined as zero elevation, consistent with a set of surveyor's measures of distances between various stations, differences in elevation, all reduced to a grid of latitudes and elevations. Heritage surveying methods found elevation differences from a local horizontal determined by the spirit level, plumb line, or an equivalent device that depends on the local gravity field.
As a result, the elevations in the data are referenced to the geoid, a surface, not found using satellite geodesy. The latter observational method is more suitable for global mapping. Therefore, a motivation, a substantial problem in the WGS and similar work is to patch together data that were not only made separately, for different regions, but to re-reference the elevations to an ellipsoid model rather than to the geoid. In accomplishing WGS 60, a combination of available surface gravity data, astro-geodetic data and results from HIRAN and Canadian SHORAN surveys were used to define a best-fitting ellipsoid and an earth-centered orientation for each of selected datum; the sole contribution of satellite data to the development of WGS 60 was a value for the ellipsoid flattening, obtained from the nodal motion of a satellite. Prior to WGS 60, the U. S. Army and U. S. Air Force had each developed a world system by using different approaches to the gravimetric datum orientation method. To determine their gravimetric orientation parameters, the Air Force used the mean of the differences between the gravimetric and astro-geodetic deflections and geoid heights at selected stations in the areas of the major datums.
The Army performed an adjustment to minimize the difference between astro-geodetic and gravimetric geoids. By matching the relative astro-geodetic geoids of the selected datums with an earth-centered gravimetric geoid, the selected datums were reduced to an earth-centered orientation. Since the Army and Air Force systems agreed remarkably well for the NAD, ED and TD areas, they were consolidated and became WGS 60. Improvements to the global system included the Astrogeoid of Irene Fischer and the astronautic Mercury datum. In January 1966, a World Geodetic System Committee composed of representatives from the United States Army and Air Force was charged with developing an improved WGS, needed to satisfy mapping and geodetic requirements. Additional surface gravity observa
Backworth railway station
Backworth railway station served part of Newcastle in the English county of Northumberland part of Tyne and Wear. The station opened as Hotspur, replacing another Backworth station on the line to Morpeth, opened as Holywell. Opened by the North Eastern Railway joining the London and North Eastern Railway, the station passed to the North Eastern Region of British Railways on nationalisation in 1948; the line had been electrified by the North Eastern Railway in 1904 to fight competition from the newly built electric tramways, but was de-electrified in the 1960s. The station was closed by the British Railways Board to enable the construction of the Tyne and Wear Metro, but was not re-opened as part of that system. Shiremoor was the nearest metro station to the site until the 2005 opening of Northumberland Park. Tyne and Wear Metro now serves Northumberland Park, located a short distance to the west. R. V. J. Butt; the Directory of Railway Stations. Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 1-85260-508-1 The halt is pictured on page 23.
A. Jowett. Jowett's Nationalised Railway Atlas. Atlantic Publishing. ISBN 0-906899-99-0 Backworth on navigable 1946 O. S. map "RAILSCOT Blyth and Tyne Railway"
Tyne and Wear Metro
The Tyne and Wear Metro, referred to locally as the Metro, is a rapid transit and light rail system in North East England, serving Newcastle upon Tyne, South Tyneside, North Tyneside and Sunderland in Tyne and Wear. It has been described as the first modern light rail system in the United Kingdom; the initial network opened between 1980 and 1984, using converted former railway lines, linked with new tunnel infrastructure. Extensions to the original network were opened in 1991 and 2002. In 2017/18 over 36 million passenger journeys were made on the network, which spans 77.5 kilometres and has two lines with a total of 60 stations, nine of which are underground. It is the second-largest of the four metro systems in the United Kingdom, after the London Underground; the system is operated by the local transport authority Nexus. Between 2010 and 2017 it was operated under contract by DB Regio Tyne & Wear Limited, a subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains. On 1 April 2017, this contract ended, Nexus took over direct operation of the system for a planned period of two years.
The present system uses much former railway infrastructure constructed between 1834 and 1882, with one of the oldest parts being the Newcastle & North Shields Railway which opened in 1839. In 1904, in response to tramway competition, taking away passengers, the North Eastern Railway started electrifying parts of their local railway network north of the River Tyne with a 600 V DC third-rail system, forming one of the earliest suburban electric networks, known as the Tyneside Electrics. In 1938, the line south of the Tyne between Newcastle and South Shields was electrified. In the 1960s under British Rail, the decision was made to de-electrify the Tyneside Electric network, convert it to diesel operation due to falling passenger numbers, the cost of renewing end of life electrical infrastructure and rolling stock; the Newcastle-South Shields line was de-electrified in 1963, the north Tyneside routes were de-electrified in 1967. This was viewed as a backward step, as the diesel trains were slower than the electric trains they replaced.
In the early 1970s, the poor local transport system was identified as one of the main factors holding back the region's economy, in 1971 a study was commissioned by the created Tyneside Passenger Transport Authority into how the transport system could be improved. This new system was intended to be the core of a new integrated transport network, with buses acting as feeders to purpose-built transport interchanges; the plans were approved by the Tyneside Metropolitan Railway Bill, passed by Parliament in July 1973. Around 70% of the funding for the scheme came from a central government grant, with the remainder coming from local sources. Three railway lines, totalling 26 miles were to be converted into Metro lines as part of the initial system; the converted railway lines were to be connected by around six miles of new infrastructure, built both to separate the Metro from the existing rail network, to create the new underground routes under Newcastle and Gateshead. Around four miles of the new infrastructure was in tunnels, while the remainder was either at ground level or elevated.
The elevated sections included the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge. Construction work began in October 1974, it was intended to be opened in stages between 1979 and 1981, however the first part of the original network opened in August 1980, the remainder opened in stages until March 1984. The final cost of the project in 1984 prices was £265 million; some extensions to the original system have since been built. A short 3.5 km extension from Bank Foot to Newcastle Airport was opened in 1991, using a further part of the former Ponteland branch. In 2002 an 18.5 km extension was opened from Pelaw to South Hylton via Sunderland. Costing £100 million, this extension used part of the existing Durham Coast Line to Sunderland, but did not take it over. Three intermediate stations on the route were rebuilt, three new ones were added. Within Sunderland, 4.5 km of a former freight line, abandoned in 1984 was reused for the route between Sunderland station and South Hylton, becoming the second Metro segment to be built on a disused line.
The opening dates of the services and stations are as follows: The Tyne and Wear Metro was the first railway in the UK to operate using the metric system
Northumberland Park Metro station
Northumberland Park Metro station is a station on the Tyne and Wear Metro Yellow Line. It serves the Northumberland Park housing development, is situated between Palmersville and Shiremoor, close to where the single-track freight-only Network Rail line diverges northwards towards Ashington; the station has proved popular with over 320,000 passengers using the station in the 2008-9 period. The Metro station began operating on 11 December 2005 and was opened on 13 December 2005 by Prof Tony Ridley, the first Director General of Nexus; the station is purpose built for Metro and is the first new station to be built since the Sunderland extension in 2002. It is located west of the site of the Backworth railway station, which closed on 13 June 1977 and was demolished prior to the construction of the Metro. Backworth was the only station on the North Tyneside Loop not included in the system, apart from Heaton station; the station is served by bus route 19 which links Northumberland Park with the Cobalt & Silverlink Business Parks, Royal Quays and the Shields Ferry.
There is a multi-storey car park adjacent. The station is a bus interchange. In the 1990s local councils were considering the feasibility of restoring passenger services linking Ashington and Blyth with Newcastle Central; the proposal would not include reopening the branch to Blyth, but by building a new station at Newsham. In 1998 the Railway Development Society endorsed the proposal. Denis Murphy, the Labour MP for Wansbeck, expressed support in the House of Commons in an adjournment debate in April 1999 and again in a debate in January 2007. Denis Murphy. "Ashington and Tyne Railway". Parliamentary Debates. United Kingdom: House of Commons. Col. 135WH–139WH. In 2009 the Association of Train Operating Companies published a £34 million proposal to restore passenger services from Newcastle Central to Ashington along the freight-only line that runs alongside the Metro lines through Northumberland Park. Northumberland County Council is developing plans aimed at reopening this line to passenger services.
In June 2013 NCC announced that they had commissioned Network Rail to complete a GRIP 1 study to examine the best options for the scheme. The GRIP 1 study was received by NCC in March 2014 and in June 2015 they initiated a more detailed GRIP 2 Feasibility Study at a cost of £850,000; the GRIP 2 study, which NCC received in October 2016, confirmed that the reintroduction of a frequent seven-day a week passenger service between Newcastle and Ashington was feasible and could provide economic benefits of £70 million with more than 380,000 people using the line each year by 2034. The study suggested that a new heavy rail platform should be constructed opposite the existing Metro platforms at Northumberland Park so as to allow easy interchange between the proposed Newcastle to Ashington/ Woodhorn commuter rail service and the existing Metro Yellow Line. If funding for the £191 million scheme can be raised, it has been suggested that detailed design work could begin in October 2018 with construction commencing four months and the first passenger services introduced in 2021.
After receiving the GRIP 2 study, NCC announced that they were preceding with a GRIP 3 Study from Network Rail. Train times and station information for Northumberland Park Metro station from Nexus Route 19 website