Fox News is an American pay television news channel. It is owned by the Fox News Group, which itself was owned by News Corporation from 1996–2013, 21st Century Fox from 2013–2019, Fox Corporation since 2019; the channel broadcasts from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide, with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks; the channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched on October 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the US; as of February 2015 94,700,000 US households receive Fox News. Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO. Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations and conservative causes while slandering the Democratic Party and spreading harmful propaganda intended to negatively affect its members' electoral performances.
Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives." In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced he and American industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intended to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC, ABC through the purchase of six television stations owned by Metromedia. In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50% of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. A year 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the third period of the previous year. Subsequently, prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporation's BSkyB subsidiary began Europe's first 24-hour news channel in the United Kingdom in 1989.
With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States, experience gained from Sky News and the turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996, that News Corp. would launch a 24-hour news channel on cable and satellite systems in the United States as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming: "The appetite for news – news that explains to people how it affects them – is expanding enormously". In February 1996, after former U. S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking, Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996. At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines. Interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the guest.
The flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider's fast-paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox featured opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report, The Crier Report and Hannity & Colmes. From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to gain attention. Fox News created the "Fox News Alert", which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred. To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel; this contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming. When Time Warner bought Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting System, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN on its cable systems. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed. Citing its agreement to keep its U.
S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation enlisted the help of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner Cable to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city. During the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of the screen to keep up with the flow of information that day; the ticker has remained, informing viewers about additional news which reporters may not mention on-screen and repeating news mentioned during a broadcast. FNC maintains an archive of most of its programs; this archive includes Fox Movietone newsreels. Licensing for the Fox N
The Berkeley Marina is the westernmost portion of the city of Berkeley, located west of the Eastshore Freeway at the foot of University Avenue on San Francisco Bay. Narrowly speaking, "Berkeley Marina" refers only to the city marina, but in common usage, it applies more to the surrounding area. There are a hotel and a yacht club in the Berkeley Marina. There are several walking and bicycle paths; the area is accessible from the rest of Berkeley by foot or bike over the Berkeley I-80 Bridge at the foot of Addison Street, is traversed near Interstate 80 by a segment of the San Francisco Bay Trail. In addition, it is the western terminus of AC Transit Route 51B on select trips only; the easternmost portion of the Marina, running parallel to I-80/580, is now a part of the Eastshore State Park. The Berkeley Marina was part of the open waters of San Francisco Bay; the original shoreline ran. The area was filled in over the years. In 1909, the City built a municipal wharf at the foot of University Avenue, used for freight.
Starting in 1926, the Golden Gate Ferry Company began construction of the Berkeley Pier. It was built out from the foot of University Avenue about 3.5 miles into the Bay. On June 16, 1927 auto ferry service began. Between the Berkeley Pier and the Hyde Street Pier in San Francisco, a pier shared with the Sausalito ferry. During this period U. S. Route 40 ran from San Pablo Avenue down University Avenue to the Berkeley Pier; the ferry service lasted until about 1937, after the 1936 opening of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Thereafter it became a fishing pier. US 40 was shifted to the Bay Bridge. Storms damaged the end of the pier over the years and it was closed. After World War II ended, it was re-opened in 1946 for fishing. In the 1970s, the city again repaired and upgraded the least damaged length of the Berkeley Pier, it was in use until 2015 for fishing and viewing. Since about the late 1920s, the city municipal dump was located here, the accumulated garbage and construction debris accounts for most of the dry land of the Berkeley Marina.
In the early 1990s much of the former dump was landscaped and converted into a park named "North Waterfront Park". The park was renamed Cesar Chavez Park in 1996 to commemorate the late California labor leader; the actual Berkeley Marina, used by many people who sail on the Bay, was constructed as the Berkeley Yacht Harbor in the late 1930s by the Works Progress Administration in conjunction with its nearby work developing Aquatic Park. During World War II, the Berkeley Yacht Harbor was used by the United States Navy to construct tug boats. From October 1961 until April 1974 a heliport was operated by San Francisco and Oakland Helicopter Airlines on the north side of University Avenue west of I-80 near the marina; this helicopter airline transported passengers to the San Francisco and Oakland international airports. And at one point to downtown San Francisco. SFO Helicopter operated jet turbine powered Sikorsky S-61 and Sikorsky S-62 helicopters into the heliport, no longer in existence. Berkeley Pier César Chávez Park OCSC Sailing Adventure Playground Berkeley, California: the story of the evolution of a hamlet into a city of culture and commerce by William Warren Ferrier, Imprint Berkeley, Calif..
Saturday night special
The phrase "Saturday night special" is a colloquial term used in the United States and Canada, to describe inexpensive, small-caliber handguns of perceived low quality. However, there is no official definition of "Saturday night special" under US or Canadian federal law; some states define "Saturday night specials" or junk guns by means of composition or materials strength. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, they were referred to as suicide specials; the term "Saturday night special" is an informal term that describes an inexpensive gun of perceived lesser quality or, for reasons relating to gun politics. Although the term is used to imply that the only reason for the manufacture of such a gun is for use in crime, studies show that criminals prefer high-quality guns, in the largest caliber they can conceal. Legal definition of a "junk gun" specifies the materials that used in the manufacture of the gun, targeting zinc castings, low melting points, powder metallurgy, other low-cost manufacturing techniques.
Nearly all guns made this way are chambered for low-pressure cartridges, such as.22 Long Rifle.25 ACP, and.32 ACP, which allows these techniques to provide sufficient strength and desirable weight while still keeping a low cost. The low-strength materials and cheap construction result in poor durability and marginal accuracy at longer ranges, but as most of these guns are designed for use in self-defense and durability are not primary design goals; the earliest known use of the term "Saturday night special" in print is in the August 17, 1968 issue of The New York Times. In a front-page article titled Handgun Imports Held Up by U. S, author Fred Graham wrote, "... cheap, small-caliber'Saturday night specials' that are a favorite of holdup men..."The term "Saturday night special" came into wider use with the passing of the Gun Control Act of 1968 because the act banned the importation and manufacture of many inexpensive firearms, including a large number of revolvers made by Röhm Gesellschaft.
With importation banned, Röhm opened a factory in Miami, a number of companies in the United States began production of inexpensive handguns, including Raven Arms, Jennings Firearms, Phoenix Arms, Lorcin Engineering Company, Davis Industries, Arcadia Machine & Tool, Sundance Industries, which collectively came to be known as the "Ring of Fire companies". Gun ownership advocates describe the term as racist in origin arguing that many of the guns banned were purchased and owned by low-income black people. In his book Restricting Handguns: The Liberal Skeptics Speak Out, gun rights advocate Don Kates found racial overtones in the focus on the Saturday night special. Despite the low-cost manufacture of "Saturday night specials", firearms sold in most countries are required to pass certain safety tests a proof test consisting of firing a special high pressure round which far exceeds the European C. I. P. or U. S. SAAMI pressure maximum for the round. While Saturday night specials are perceived as inexpensive, therefore disposable after the commission of a crime, criminal behavior does not always conform to this expectation.
A 1985 study of 1,800 incarcerated felons showed that criminals at the time preferred revolvers and other non-semi-automatic firearms over semi-automatic firearms. A change in preferences towards semi-automatic pistols occurred in the early 1990s, coinciding with the arrival of crack cocaine and rise of violent youth gangs. Nonetheless, three of the top ten types of guns involved in crime in the US are considered to be Saturday night specials. However, the same study showed the most common firearm used in homicides was a large caliber revolver, no revolvers of any kind appear on the top ten list of traced firearms. In 2003, the NAACP filed suit against 45 gun manufacturers for creating what it called a "public nuisance" through the "negligent marketing" of handguns, which included models described as Saturday night specials; the suit alleged that handgun manufacturers and distributors were guilty of marketing guns in a way that encouraged violence in black and Hispanic neighborhoods. The suit was dismissed by US District Judge Jack B.
Weinstein, who ruled that members of the NAACP were not "uniquely harmed" by illegal use of firearms and therefore had no standing to sue. Proponents of gun ownership argue the elimination of inexpensive firearms limits constitutionally protected gun rights for those of lesser means. Roy Innis, former President of Congress of Racial Equality and a member of the National Rifle Association's governing board, said "to make inexpensive guns impossible to get is to say that you're putting a money test on getting a gun. It's racism in its worst form." CORE filed as an amicus curiae in a 1985 suit challenging Maryland's Saturday night special/low-caliber handgun ban. Peter Rossi and James D. Wright authored a study for the National Institute of Justice which suggested the ban on Saturday night specials was ineffective or counterproductive. A Cato Institute Policy analysis by Dave Kopel went further: "The people most to be deterred from acquiring a handgun by exceptionally high prices or by the nonavailability of certain kinds of handguns are not felons intent on arming themselves for criminal purposes, who are more to use stolen weapons, but rather poor people who have decided they need a gun to protect themselves against the felons but who find that the c
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
The Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Broadway Theatre, more known as the Tony Award, recognizes excellence in live Broadway theatre. The awards are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League at an annual ceremony in Manhattan; the awards are given for Broadway productions and performances, an award is given for regional theatre. Several discretionary non-competitive awards are given, including a Special Tony Award, the Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre, the Isabelle Stevenson Award; the awards are named after co-founder of the American Theatre Wing. The rules for the Tony Awards are set forth in the official document "Rules and Regulations of The American Theatre Wing's Tony Awards", which applies for that season only; the Tony Awards are considered the highest U. S. theatre honor, the New York theatre industry's equivalent to the Academy Awards for film, the Emmy Awards for television, the Grammy Awards for music. It forms the fourth spoke in the EGOT, that is, someone who has won all four awards.
The Tony Awards are considered the equivalent of the Laurence Olivier Awards in the United Kingdom and the Molière Awards in France. From 1997 to 2010, the Tony Awards ceremony was held at Radio City Music Hall in New York City in June and broadcast live on CBS television, except in 1999, when it was held at the Gershwin Theatre. In 2011 and 2012, the ceremony was held at the Beacon Theatre. From 2013 to 2015, the 67th, 68th, 69th ceremonies returned to Radio City Music Hall; the 70th Tony Awards was held on June 2016 at the Beacon Theatre. The 71st Tony Awards and 72nd Tony Awards were held at Radio City Music Hall in 2017 and 2018, respectively; as of 2014, there are 26 categories of awards, plus several special awards. Starting with 11 awards in 1947, the names and number of categories have changed over the years; some examples: the category Best Book of a Musical was called "Best Author". The category of Best Costume Design was one of the original awards. For two years, in 1960 and 1961, this category was split into Best Costume Designer and Best Costume Designer.
It went to a single category, but in 2005 it was divided again. For the category of Best Director of a Play, a single category was for directors of plays and musicals prior to 1960. A newly established non-competitive award, The Isabelle Stevenson Award, was given for the first time at the awards ceremony in 2009; the award is for an individual who has made a "substantial contribution of volunteered time and effort on behalf of one or more humanitarian, social service or charitable organizations". The category of Best Special Theatrical Event was retired as of the 2009–2010 season; the categories of Best Sound Design of a Play and Best Sound Design of a Musical were retired as of the 2014–2015 season. On April 24, 2017, the Tony Awards administration committee announced that the Sound Design Award would be reintroduced for the 2017–2018 season; the award was founded in 1947 by a committee of the American Theatre Wing headed by Brock Pemberton. The award is named after Antoinette Perry, nicknamed Tony, an actress, producer and co-founder of the American Theatre Wing, who died in 1946.
As her official biography at the Tony Awards website states, "At Jacob Wilk's suggestion, proposed an award in her honor for distinguished stage acting and technical achievement. At the initial event in 1947, as he handed out an award, he called it a Tony; the name stuck."The first awards ceremony was held on April 6, 1947, at the Waldorf Astoria hotel in New York City. The first prizes were "a scroll, cigarette lighter and articles of jewelry such as 14-carat gold compacts and bracelets for the women, money clips for the men", it was not until the third awards ceremony in 1949 that the first Tony medallion was given to award winners. Awarded by a panel of 868 voters from various areas of the entertainment industry and press. Since 1967, the award ceremony has been broadcast on U. S. national television and includes songs from the nominated musicals, has included video clips of, or presentations about, nominated plays. The American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League jointly administer the awards.
Audience size for the telecast is well below that of the Academy Awards shows, but the program reaches an affluent audience, prized by advertisers. According to a June 2003 article in The New York Times: "What the Tony broadcast does have, say CBS officials, is an all-important demographic: rich and smart. Jack Sussman, CBS's senior vice president in charge of specials, said the Tony show sold all its advertising slots shortly after CBS announced it would present the three hours.'It draws upscale premium viewers who are attractive to upscale premium advertisers,' Mr. Sussman said..." The viewership has declined from the early years of its broadcast history but has settled into between six and eight million viewers for most of the decade of the 2000s. In contrast, the 2009 Oscar telecast had 36.3 million viewers. The Tony Award medallion was designed by art director Herman Rosse and is a mix of brass and a little bronze, with a nickel plating on the outside; the face of the medallion portrays an adaptation of the tragedy masks.
The reverse side had a relief profile of Antoinette Perry. The medallion has been mounted on a black base since 1967. A larger base was introduced in time for the 2010 award ceremony; the n
Wilmington College (Ohio)
Wilmington College is a private career-oriented liberal arts institution established by Quakers in 1870 in Wilmington, United States. The college is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. Wilmington College is known for its Agriculture program, its Athletic Training program, its Education program; as of fall 2015, there were 990 students attending Wilmington's main campus, 213 students at Wilmington's two Cincinnati branches at Blue Ash and Cincinnati State. Wilmington College offers undergraduate major programs in a number of academic and career areas including art, English literature, chemistry, mathematics, psychology, Spanish language and literature, religion, as well as in such areas as education, communications, equine studies, athletic training, social work, more; the college offers a master's degree program in education, with specialties in special education and reading and undergraduate courses at several sites in Cincinnati. The college has a significant number of commuting students.
More than half of the students participate in intercollegiate athletics. Wilmington College students enjoy robust online library resources; the college's Watson Library is a member of the OPAL consortium and the OhioLINK consortium that provides an integrated catalog, e-resources, more than 100 research databases. College Hall: Historic building present at Wilmington College's founding in 1870. Houses classrooms, faculty offices, offices of Admission, Financial Aid, the President's Office, Academic Affairs. Added to National Register of Historic Places in 1972. Bailey Hall: Began as a science building for the college, renovated into student housing. Renovated to become home of the College's science programs once again temporarily during ongoing renovations to Kettering Hall. S. Arthur Watson Library: The College library, named for former College president S. Arthur Watson; the building is home to the college archives, OhioLink, OPAL, study space for students. Kettering Hall: Science building named for Ohio inventor Charles F. Kettering.
Features a rooftop observatory dating back to 1882. Ongoing renovation and expansion of Kettering Hall is occurring and completion is expected in time for the Fall 2016 semester, it will be renamed the "Center for Sciences and Agriculture". Thomas R. Kelly Religious Center: Kelly Religious Center houses the Campus Friends Meeting, The Office of Campus Ministry, faculty offices and the offices of the Wilmington Yearly Meeting. Robinson Communication Center: Houses the Academic Resource Center, computer labs, photography labs and studios, the Communication Arts Department, student publication offices. Oscar F. Boyd Cultural Arts Center: Features David and June Harcum Art Gallery, the WC Theatre Department, 440-seat Hugh Heiland Theatre, Meriam R. Hare Quaker Heritage Center, T. Canby Jones Meetinghouse, two-story academic wing with classrooms and faculty offices. Center for Sport Sciences: The newest building on campus houses the College's nationally recognized Athletic Training program and outdoor practice facilities for all athletic teams, offices for Drayer Physical Therapy Institute, Beacon Orthopedics and Sport Medicine, chiropractic offices.
The Wilmington College Peace Resource Center, established in 1975, plays a major role in furthering the peacemaking and reconciliation elements in the mission statement of the college, in large part through providing peace education materials, both locally and throughout the country. The PRC is known, in particular, for its Hiroshima/Nagasaki Memorial Collection founded on the archives of Barbara Leonard Reynolds, which the college believes is "the world's largest collection of reference materials related to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki." Reynolds' archives are housed in part at the Earle and Akie Reynolds Archive at the University of California, Santa Cruz. The Peace Resource Center is known for its ProjectTRUST camp for middle schoolers and Positive Discipline training for educators; the Center has been active in the Wilmington Community in establishing peer mediation in the local schools. In August 2010, the Peace Resource Center of Wilmington College hosted the National Peace Academy's 2010 Peacebuilding Peacelearning Intensive program on the theme of "Capacitating Community Peacebuilding."
Denver Hall: Historic residence hall for fifty students. Marble Hall: Residence hall built by students led by College president Samuel Marble; the building was dedicated with an Ohio Historical Marker in 2013. Friends Hall: Residence halls in the center of campus for men and women. Austin Pickett Hall: Two large joining buildings housing freshman residence halls. Campus Village: Apartment-style residence buildings College Commons: Townhouse units for upperclassmen The only private institution of higher learning in Ohio to offer a degree in Agriculture, Wilmington College operates more than 1,000 acres of farmland dedicated to research, applied education and financial support to the college; the Wilmington College agricultural student body, through the leadership of collegiate 4H and the Wilmington College Aggies club, has sponsored a livestock judging contests for over 50 years and most an Ohio Farm Bureau Collegiate Chapter. The program has expanded to include the following programs Agricultural Business, Animal Science, Agriculture Communications, Equine Business Management, minor programs of sustainability and equine studies.
Wilmington College recognizes thirteen
East Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)
The eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area referred to as the East Bay, includes cities along the eastern shores of the San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay. The region has grown to include inland communities in Contra Costa Counties. With a population of 2.5 million in 2010, it is the most populous subregion in the Bay Area. Oakland is the third largest in the Bay Area; the city serves as a major transportation hub for the U. S. West Coast, its port is the largest in Northern California. Increased population has led to the growth of large edge cities such as Alameda, Fremont, San Ramon and Walnut Creek. Although initial development in the larger Bay Area focused on San Francisco, the coastal East Bay came to prominence in the middle of the nineteenth century as the part of the Bay Area most accessible by land from the east; the Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869 with its western terminus at the newly constructed Oakland Long Wharf, the new city of Oakland developed into a significant seaport.
Today the Port of Oakland is the Bay Area's largest port and the fifth largest container shipping port in the United States. In 1868, the University of California was formed from the private College of California and a new campus was built in what would become Berkeley; the 1906 San Francisco earthquake saw a large number of refugees flee to the undamaged East Bay, the region continued to grow rapidly. As the East Bay grew, the push to connect it with a more permanent link than ferry service resulted in the completion of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge in 1936; the Bay Area saw further growth in the decades following World War II, with the population doubling between 1940 and 1960, doubling again by 2000. The 1937 completion of the Caldecott Tunnel through the Berkeley Hills fueled growth further east, where there was undeveloped land. Cities in the Diablo Valley, including Concord and Walnut Creek, saw their populations increase tenfold or more between 1950 and 1970; the addition of the BART commuter rail system in 1972 further encouraged development in far-flung regions of the East Bay.
Today, the valleys east of the Berkeley Hills contain large affluent suburban communities such as Walnut Creek, San Ramon and Pleasanton. The East Bay is not a formally defined region, aside from its being described as a region inclusive of Alameda and Contra Costa counties; as development moves eastward, new areas are described as being part of the East Bay. In 1996, BART was extended from its terminus in Concord to a new station in Pittsburg, symbolically incorporating the newly expanded Delta communities of Pittsburg and Antioch as extended regions of the East Bay. Beyond the borders of Alameda County, the large population of Tracy is connected as a bedroom community housing commuters traveling to or through the East Bay. Except for some hills and ridges which exist as parklands or undeveloped land, some farmland in eastern Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, the East Bay is urbanized; the East Bay shoreline is an urban corridor with several cities exceeding 100,000 residents, including Oakland, Fremont and Berkeley.
In the inland valleys on the east side of the Berkeley Hills, the land is developed on the eastern fringe of Contra Costa county and the Tri-Valley area. In the inland valleys, the population density is the cities smaller; the only cities exceeding 100,000 residents in the inland valleys are Concord. East Bay cities include: The East Bay has a free weekly newspaper, the East Bay Express, which has reported on the culture and politics of the East Bay for over 30 years, has influenced the identification of the East Bay as a culturally defined region of the Bay Area; the free East Bay Monthly has been published since 1970. In the early years of the evolution of USA Today, during the early 1980s, they operated regional newspapers, with the region's paper entitled East Bay Today; the Solano Avenue Stroll, the oldest and largest street festival in the greater San Francisco Bay Area, is held every September on the Solano Avenue shopping district in Albany and Berkeley. The East Bay is the birthplace of many musical acts, including Creedence Clearwater Revival, Counting Crows and Today, Digital Underground, Green Day, Operation Ivy, Rancid, Set Your Goals, Tower of Power, The Pointer Sisters, MC Hammer, Tony!
Toni! Tone!, Tupac Shakur, Too Short, Spice 1, en Vogue, Pete Escovedo and Sheila E, Keyshia Cole, Mac Dre. The region is a major center for the development of rock, funk, hip hop and women's music. Bay Area thrash metal has centered on the East Bay, including the bands Exodus and Metallica, among others. Possessed and Death, both considered the first death metal bands, have roots or connections in the East Bay: Possessed formed in El Sobrante, with Death debuting nationally while in Concord. Major music venues include home arena of the Golden State Warriors. Major museums include the Oakland Museum of California, the Lawrence Hall of Science and the Chabot Space and Science Center; the East Bay Regional Parks District operates over fifty parks, many consisting of significant acreage of wildlands, in the East Bay, many directly adjacent to urban centers. Tilden Regional Park, is one of the largest regional parks (2,000 acres (8.1