Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children
The University of North Carolina TEACCH Autism Program creates and disseminates community-based services, training programs, research for individuals of all ages and skill levels with Autism Spectrum Disorder, in order to enhance the quality of life for the individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and their families across the lifespan. The TEACCH approach was developed at the University of North Carolina, originating in a child research project begun in 1964 by Eric Schopler and Robert Reichler; the results of this pilot study indicated that the children involved made good progress, state finance supported the formation of Division TEACCH. Founded in 1971 by Eric Schopler at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, TEACCH provides training and services geared to helping autistic children and their families cope with the condition. Gary B. Mesibov, a professor and researcher on UNC's TEACCH program since about 1979, was director of the program from 1992 to 2010. With over 40 years of experience of working with autistic people, TEACCH methodology continues to evolve, refining its approach.
It is a "pioneering" program for assisting with autism spectrum disorder education and service delivery for children and adults. The TEACCH philosophy recognises autism as a lifelong condition and does not aim to cure but to respond to autism as a culture. Core tenets of the TEACCH philosophy include an understanding of the effects of autism on individuals; the emphasis on individualization means that TEACCH does not distinguish between people with high skill levels and those with learning disabilities. Strategies used are designed to address the difficulties faced by all people with autism, be adaptable to whatever style and degree of support is required. TEACCH methodology is rooted in behavior therapy, more combining cognitive elements, guided by theories suggesting that behavior typical of people with autism results from underlying problems in perception and understanding; the strategies put forward by TEACCH do not work on the behavior directly, but on its underlying reasons, such as lack of understanding of what the person is expected to do or what will happen to them next, sensory under- or over-stimulation.
By addressing communication deficits, the person will be supported to express their needs and feelings by means other than challenging behavior. Working from the premise that people with autism are predominantly visual learners, intervention strategies are based around physical and visual structure, work systems and task organisation. Individualised systems aim to address difficulties with communication, generalisation, sensory processing and relating to others. Whereas some interventions focus on addressing areas of weakness, the TEACCH approach works with existing strengths and emerging skill areas. Most of the literature is of North American origin; the adoption of the TEACCH approach has been slower elsewhere. In 1993, Jones et al. stated that there was insufficient use of the TEACCH approach in the UK to include it in their study of interventions. In 2003 it was reported that Gary B. Mesibov and Eric Schopler describe TEACCH as the United Kingdom's most common intervention used with children with autism.
In Europe and the United States it is a common intervention. TEACCH runs conferences in North Carolina and organizes programs throughout the US and in the UK. TEACCH has been running for several decades and a range of studies indicates that it is an effective intervention for autism, although the studies did not meet all the criteria to qualify TEACCH unreservedly as evidence based practice. Concerns have been raised about the influence on intervention outcomes from staff member skills and experience. Apart from two outcome studies most findings relate to the use of TEACCH with people with additional learning disability, the focus of most studies is with children; the TEACCH structured teaching approach can be regarded as combining a range of prosthetic devices to support the individual with autism to manage their life as independently as possible. Schopler et al. identified studies of differing methods of using structured teaching in non-TEACCH educational programmes with children with a range of diagnoses.
All of these studies are reported as supporting the efficacy of structured teaching. Schopler, Brehm and Reichler compared four children with autism in structured and unstructured teaching situations, they found that two of the children learned more in structured situations, these being those children at earlier developmental stages. These results are supported by a larger comparative study in a range of three settings with varying levels of structure; however the presence of a higher initial mean IQ level in the structured group compared to the comparison groups may have been influential. Schopler et al. examined parent reports of the effectiveness of structured teaching within the TEACCH programme. Questionnaires from 348 families completed between 1966 and 1977 were analysed. 96% of the families with older children reported that their children were still living in the local community. This compared to between 26% and 61% of adolescents with autism in contemporaneous follow-up studies in other settings.
In a study comparing the behavior of children with autism in the period between referral to a psychiatrist and diagnosis with their behavior during a similar time period after structured teaching had been implemented by parents, Short reported a significant reduction in inappropriate behaviors. Ozonoff and Cathcart studied two groups of
Occupational therapy is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities. It is an allied health profession performed by occupational therapists and Occupational Therapy Assistants. OTs work with people with mental health problems, injuries, or impairments; the American Occupational Therapy Association defines an occupational therapist as someone who "helps people across the lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities. Common occupational therapy interventions include helping children with disabilities to participate in school and social situations, injury rehabilitation, providing supports for older adults experiencing physical and cognitive changes."Typically, occupational therapists are university-educated professionals and must pass a licensing exam to practice. Occupational therapists work with professionals in physical therapy, speech therapy, nursing, social work, clinical psychology, medicine.
The earliest evidence of using occupations as a method of therapy can be found in ancient times. In c. 100 BCE, Greek physician Asclepiades treated patients with a mental illness humanely using therapeutic baths, massage and music. The Roman Celsus prescribed music, travel and exercise to his patients. However, by medieval times the use of these interventions with people with mental illness was rare, if not nonexistent. In 18th-century Europe, revolutionaries such as Philippe Pinel and Johann Christian Reil reformed the hospital system. Instead of the use of metal chains and restraints, their institutions used rigorous work and leisure activities in the late 18th century; this was the Moral Treatment era, developed in Europe during the Age of Enlightenment, where the roots of occupational therapy lie. Although it was thriving in Europe, interest in the reform movement fluctuated in the United States throughout the 19th century, it re-emerged in the early decades of the 20th century as Occupational Therapy.
The Arts and Crafts movement that took place between 1860 and 1910 impacted occupational therapy. In the US, a industrialized country, the arts and crafts societies emerged against the monotony and lost autonomy of factory work. Arts and crafts were used as a way of promoting learning through doing, provided a creative outlet, served as a way to avoid boredom during long hospital stays. Eleanor Clarke Slagle is considered to be the “mother” of occupational therapy. Slagle, one of the founding members of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy, proposed habit training as a primary occupational therapy model of treatment. Based on the philosophy that engagement in meaningful routines shape a person's wellbeing, habit training focused on creating structure and balance between work and leisure. Although habit training was developed to treat individuals with mental health conditions, its basic tenets are apparent in modern treatment models that are utilized across a wide scope of client populations.
In 1915 Slagle opened the first occupational therapy training program, the Henry B. Favill School of Occupations, at Hull House in Chicago. Slagle went on to serve as secretary. In 1954, AOTA created the Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lectureship Award in her honor; each year, this award recognizes a member of AOTA “who has who has creatively contributed to the development of the body of knowledge of the profession through research, and/or clinical practice.” The health profession of occupational therapy was conceived in the early 1910s as a reflection of the Progressive Era. Early professionals merged valued ideals, such as having a strong work ethic and the importance of crafting with one's own hands with scientific and medical principles; the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy, now called the American Occupational Therapy Association, was founded in 1917 and the profession of Occupational Therapy was named in 1921. William Rush Dunton, one of the founders of NSPOT and visionary figure in the first decades of the profession struggled with "the cumbersomeness of the term occupational therapy", as it lacked the "exactness of meaning, possessed by scientific terms".
Other titles such as "work-cure","ergo therapy", "creative occupations" were discussed as substitutes, but none possessed the broad meaning that the practice of occupational therapy demanded in order to capture the many forms of treatment that existed from the beginning. The emergence of occupational therapy challenged the views of mainstream scientific medicine. Instead of focusing purely on the medical model, occupational therapists argued that a complex combination of social and biological reasons cause dysfunction. Principles and techniques were borrowed from many disciplines—including but not limited to physical therapy, psychiatry, self-help and social work—to enrich the profession's scope. Between 1900 and 1930, the founders developed supporting theories. By the early 1930s, AOTA had established educational guidelines and accreditation procedures; the early twentieth century was a time in which the rising incidence of disability related to industrial accidents, World War I, mental illness brought about an increasing social awareness of the issues involved.
The entry of the United States into World War I was a crucial event in the history of the profession. Up until this time, occupational therapy had been concerned primaril
A hug machine known as a hug box, a squeeze machine, or a squeeze box, is a deep-pressure device designed to calm hypersensitive persons individuals with autism spectrum disorders. The therapeutic, stress-relieving device was invented by Temple Grandin while she was attending college. Autism disorders have profound effects upon both social interactions and sensitivity to sensory stimulation in persons with such conditions making it uncomfortable or impractical for them to turn to other human beings for comfort. Grandin addressed this by designing the hug machine for sensory relief; the hug machine consists of two hinged side-boards, each four by three feet with thick soft padding, which form a V-shape, with a complex control box at one end and heavy-duty tubes leading to an air compressor. The user squats, between the side-boards, for as long or short a period as desired. Using pressure exerted by the air compressor and controlled by the user, the side-boards apply deep pressure stimulation evenly across the lateral parts of the body.
The machine and its development are depicted in the biopic Temple Grandin. As a young child, Grandin realized she would seek out deep pressure stimulation, but she felt over-stimulated when someone hugged or held her; the idea for the hug machine came to her during a visit to her aunt's Arizona ranch, where she noted the way cattle were confined in a squeeze chute for inoculation, how some of the cattle calmed down after pressure was administered. She realized that the deep pressure from the chute had a calming effect on the cattle, she decided that something similar might well settle down her own hypersensitivity. Grandin's device met with disapproval as psychologists at her college sought to confiscate her prototype hug machine, her science teacher, encouraged her to determine the reason it helped resolve the anxiety and sensory issues. Several therapy programs in the United States now use hug machines achieving general calming effects among both children and adults with autism. A 1995 study on the efficacy of Grandin's device, conducted by the Center for the Study of Autism, working with Willamette University in Salem, involved ten children with autism and found a reduction in tension and anxiety.
Other studies, including one by Dr. Margaret Creedon, have yielded similar results. A small pilot study published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy reported that the machine produced a significant reduction in tension, but only a small decrease in anxiety. Grandin continued to use her own hug box on a regular basis to provide the deep pressure necessary to relieve symptoms of her anxiety. "I concentrate on how I can do it," she has said. Grandin has written a paper on her hug machine and the effects of deep pressure stimulation, published in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. In a February 2010 Time magazine interview, Grandin stated that she no longer uses a hug machine: "It broke two years ago, I never got around to fixing it. I'm into hugging people now." For several years in the 1990s, urban interventionist/artist Wendy Jacob worked with Grandin in developing furniture that squeezes or'hugs' users, inspired by Grandin's hug machine. Dr. Temple Grandin's Webpage: Livestock Behaviour, Design of Facilities and Humane Slaughter Description and schematic details of the squeeze machine Hug Machine Building Directions
Vitamin B12 known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin, involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, in the maturation of developing red blood cells in the bone marrow. Vitamin B12 is one of eight B vitamins, it consists of a class of chemically related compounds. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt positioned in the center of a corrin ring; the only organisms to produce vitamin B12 are certain bacteria, archaea. Some of these bacteria are found in the soil around the grasses; because there are no common vegetable sources of the vitamin, vegans must use a supplement or fortified foods for B12 intake or risk serious health consequences. Otherwise, most omnivorous people in developed countries obtain enough vitamin B12 from consuming animal products including meat, milk and fish. Staple foods those that form part of a vegan diet, are fortified by having the vitamin added to them.
Vitamin B12 supplements are available in single multivitamin tablets. The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in developed countries is impaired absorption due to a loss of gastric intrinsic factor, which must be bound to food-source B12 in order for absorption to occur. Another group affected are those on long term antacid therapy, using proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers or other antacids; this condition may be characterised by limb neuropathy or a blood disorder called pernicious anemia, a type of megaloblastic anemia. Folate levels in the individual may affect the course of pathological changes and symptomatology. Deficiency is more after age 60, increases in incidence with advancing age. Dietary deficiency is rare in developed countries due to access to dietary meat and fortified foods, but children in some regions of developing countries are at particular risk due to increased requirements during growth coupled with lack of access to dietary B12. Other causes of vitamin B12 deficiency are much less frequent.
B12 is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. The structure of B12 is based on a corrin ring, similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme; the central metal ion is cobalt. Four of the six coordination sites are provided by the corrin ring, a fifth by a dimethylbenzimidazole group; the sixth coordination site, the reactive center, is variable, being a cyano group, a hydroxyl group, a methyl group or a 5′-deoxyadenosyl group (here the C5′ atom of the deoxyribose forms the covalent bond with cobalt to yield the four vitamers of B12. The covalent C-Co bond is one of the first examples of carbon-metal bonds to be discovered in biology; the hydrogenases and, by necessity, enzymes associated with cobalt utilization, involve metal-carbon bonds. Vitamin B12 is a generic descriptor name referring to a collection of cobalt and corrin ring molecules which are defined by their particular vitamin function in the body. All of the substrate cobalt-corrin molecules from which B12 is made must be synthesized by bacteria.
After this synthesis is complete, the human body has the ability to convert any form of B12 to an active form, by means of enzymatically removing certain prosthetic chemical groups from the cobalt atom and replacing them with others. The four vitamers of B12 are all red-colored crystals and water solutions, due to the color of the cobalt-corrin complex. Cyanocobalamin is one form of B12 because it can be metabolized in the body to an active coenzyme form; the cyanocobalamin form of B12 does not occur in nature but is a byproduct of the fact that other forms of B12 are avid binders of cyanide which they pick up in the process of activated charcoal purification of the vitamin after it is made by bacteria in the commercial process. Since the cyanocobalamin form of B12 is easy to crystallize and is not sensitive to air-oxidation, it is used as a form of B12 for food additives and in many common multivitamins. Pure cyanocobalamin possesses the deep pink color associated with most octahedral cobalt complexes and the crystals are well formed and grown up to millimeter size.
Hydroxocobalamin is another vitamer of B12 encountered in pharmacology, but is not present in the human body. Hydroxocobalamin is sometimes denoted B12a; this is the form of B12 produced by bacteria, and, converted to cyanocobalmin in the commercial charcoal filtration step of production. Hydroxocobalamin has an avid affinity for cyanide ions and has been used as an antidote to cyanide poisoning, it is supplied in water solution for injection. Hydroxocobalamin is thought to be converted to the active enzymic forms of B12 more than cyanocobalamin, since it is little more expensive than cyanocobalamin, has longer retention times in the body, has been used for vitamin replacement in situations where added reassurance of activity is desired. Intramuscular administration of hydroxocobalamin is the preferred treatment for pediatric patients with intrinsic cobalamin metabolic diseases, for vitamin B12 deficient patients with tobacco amblyopia.
Worshipful Company of Information Technologists
The Worshipful Company of Information Technologists known as the Information Technologists' Company, is one of the livery companies of the City of London. The company was granted livery status by the Court of Aldermen on 7 January 1992, becoming the 100th livery company, it received its Royal Charter on 17 June 2010 from Prince Edward. The company has over 800 members – all or senior practitioners in the information technology industry; the Information Technologists' Company is unusual for a'modern' livery company in that it has its own hall. The hall is located on Bartholomew Close, near to Barbican tube station, was bought thanks to the generosity of Dame Stephanie Shirley and others. Prominent members of the company include Tim Berners-Lee, Vint Cerf, Sherry Coutu, Bill Gates, Tom Ilube, Mike Lynch, Ken Olisa, David Wootton, Dame Stephanie Shirley CH and several past Presidents of BCS, The Chartered Institute for IT, including Dame Stephanie; the company ranks 100th in the order of precedence for the City livery companies.
Its motto is Cito, meaning'swiftly' in Latin, a word which incorporates the initials of the Company of Information Technologists. The company is a member of the Financial Services Group of Livery Companies, the other eleven members of which are the Chartered Accountants, Arbitrators, International Bankers, Chartered Secretaries and Administrators, Solicitors, Management Consultants, Tax Advisers, World Traders; the company has a significant charitable and educational programme which uses the expertise and networks of its members, it is involved in a range of activities to promote the information technology profession. In 2012 their clerk Mike Jenkins described the company's purpose as "trade, charity and fellowship"; the company has a number of panels. It is unique amongst Livery Companies in having an Ethical and Spiritual Development Panel, which considers such topics as the ethical and spiritual implications of the Internet – running colloquia on that topic in the House of Lords as far back as 1997.
Getting the maximum benefit from IT is now a pre-requisite, not just for commercial organisations but for the charity sector. The company works with a wide range of non-profit organisations with the aim of helping them to gain the maximum benefit from their IT. Members give their expertise to provide pro-bono IT advice. In addition, iT4Communities is the national IT volunteering programme, introducing volunteer IT professionals to charities needing IT help and support. IT4C was set up by the Worshipful Company in 2002 and since has registered over 5,000 volunteers and more than 2,500 charities. IT4C has delivered over £3 million worth of support to the charity sector thanks to the work of the dedicated volunteer IT professionals. For hundreds of years, livery companies have supported schools in London and across the United Kingdom; the Worshipful Company of Information Technologists has a partnership with Lilian Baylis Technology School in Lambeth. Previous projects include HOLNET, now incorporated into the London Grid for Learning.
In 2011, together with the Worshipful Company of Mercers, they opened Hammersmith Academy, a new academy school specialising in IT. With members coming from all sectors of the IT field, the company can provide a neutral meeting ground for discussion of issues that are central to both the profession and the City of London, it runs a Journeyman Scheme which supports young IT professionals in the early stages of their career. The company is affiliated with the Royal Corps of the Joint Forces Cyber Group, it is affiliated with 46F Squadron, Air Training Corps, Beckenham and Penge Sea Cadets. Worshipful Company of Information Technologists website Facebook page of the Worshipful Company of Information Technologists Twitter account of the Worshipful Company of Information Technologists
Facilitated communication, supported typing or hand over hand, is a discredited technique that attempts to facilitate communication by people with severe educational and communication disabilities. The facilitator holds or touches the disabled person's arm or hand during this process and attempts to help them move to type on a special keyboard. In addition to providing physical support needed for typing or pointing, the facilitator provides verbal prompts and moral support. There is widespread agreement within the scientific community and multiple disability advocacy organizations that FC does not work, that the facilitator is in fact the source of most or all messages obtained through FC, by guiding the arm of the patient towards answers they expect to see or that form intelligible language. Alternatively, the facilitator may hold the alphabet board and move it to the disabled person's finger. Studies asking about things the facilitator cannot know have confirmed this, showing that a facilitator is unable to ‘help’ the patient sign out the answer to a question where they do not know what the answer should be.
In addition, numerous cases have been reported by investigators in which disabled persons were assumed by facilitators to be signing a coherent message while their eyes were closed, or they were looking away from or showing no particular interest in the letter board. Some promoters of the technique have countered that FC cannot be disproven by testing, since a testing environment might feel confrontational and alienating to the subject; because the scientific consensus is that FC is a pseudoscience which causes great risk and emotional distress to people with communication disabilities, their families, their caregivers, the technique is now rejected outside a few fringe groups and organizations, including Syracuse University in the United States. In 2015 Sweden banned the use of FC in special needs schools. Facilitated communication is promoted as a means to assist people with severe communication disabilities in pointing to letters on an alphabet board, keyboard or other device so that they can communicate independently.
It appears in the literature as "supported typing", "progressive kinesthetic feedback", "written output communication enhancement". It is somewhat related to the Rapid Prompting Method known as "informative pointing", which has no evidence of efficacy; the person with disabilities, not able to rely on speech to communicate, is referred to as the communication partner. The caregiver, educator or other provider offering physical support to the person with disabilities is called the facilitator; the facilitator holds or touches the communication partner's elbow, hand, sleeve or other parts of the body while the communication partner points to letters of the alphabet printed on a piece of paper or laminated cardboard, letters on an alphabet board, keyboard or mobile communication device such as an iPad. The Canon Communicator, a small, lightweight device that printed a tape of letters when activated, was popular with early FC users. However, two companies, Crestwood Co. of Glendale and Abovo Co. of Chicopee, would be charged by the Federal Trade Commission for making "false and unsubstantiated claims" that the device could enable people with autism and other disabilities to communicate using FC.
The companies stopped mentioning FC in their advertising campaigns. Proponents of FC claim. Although this claim is unsubstantiated, proponents argue that physical support and touch are necessary components of communicating through FC. Candidates for FC "lack confidence in their abilities" and physical support, helps them overcome this obstacle to communication; the role of the facilitator is depicted by proponents as integral to helping the person with disabilities point to letters, reducing or eliminating uncontrollable arm movements, avoiding mistakes in typing, controlling the initiation of movement, speaking words aloud. As well as physical support in typing, the facilitator provides moral support. Along with human touch, the facilitator's belief in their communication partner's ability to communicate is seen to be a key component of the technique. Former facilitator Janyce Boynton, who came to reject the technique after taking part in double-blind trials reported that she received training from University of Maine that took for granted that the process worked, that the complexity of facilitation made it hard to realise that messages were coming from her expectations and not from her patients: "When you're facilitating, you're so distracted by other things.
You're carrying on conversations, you're asking and answering questions, you're trying to look at the person to see if they're looking at the keyboard... Your brain is so engaged that you lose sight of what's happening with your hand...that's what makes it feel like it's working because the more you practice it, the more the movements feel fluid.”. The FC movement may be traced back to the 1960s in Denmark where it failed to take hold because of lack of scientific evidence. FC experienced a period of rapid growth and popularity in Australia in the 1970—1980s due to the efforts of special educator Rosemary Crossley. Arthur Schawlow, a Nobel laureate whose son was autistic, Douglas Biklen
Dame Vera Stephanie "Steve" Shirley is a British information technology pioneer and philanthropist. Shirley was born as Vera Buchthal to the Jewish Arnold Buchthal, a judge in Dortmund who lost his post to the Nazi regime, a non-Jewish Viennese mother. In July 1939, Shirley arrived at the age of five together with her nine-year-old sister Renate, to Britain as a Kindertransport child refugee, she was placed in the care of foster parents living in the Midlands town of Sutton Coldfield. She was re-united with her biological parents, but said she "never bonded with them". After attending a convent school, she moved to Oswestry, near the Welsh border, where she attended the Oswestry Girls' High School. Mathematics was not taught at the school, so she received permission after assessment to take those lessons at the local boys school, she would recall that, after her Kindertransport and wartime experiences, "in Oswestry I had six wonderful years of peace". After leaving school, Shirley decided not to go to university but sought employment in a mathematics/technical environment.
At the age of 18, she changed her name to Stephanie Brook. In the 1950s, Shirley worked at the Post Office Research Station at Dollis Hill, building computers from scratch and writing code in machine language, she took evening classes for six years to obtain an honours degree in mathematics. In 1959, she moved to designers of the ICT 1301 computer. After marriage to a physicist, Derek Shirley, in 1962, Shirley founded, with a capital of £6, the software company Freelance Programmers. After experiencing sexism in her workplace, she decided to quit, she wanted to create job opportunities for women with dependents, predominantly employed women, with only 3 male programmers in the first 300 staff, until the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 made that practice illegal. She adopted the name "Steve" to help her in the male-dominated business world given that company letters signed using her real name were not responded to, her team's projects included programming Concorde's black box flight recorder. She served as an independent non-executive director for Tandem Computers Inc.
The Atomic Energy Authority and The John Lewis Partnership. Shirley has since focused on her philanthropy. Shirley received her BSc in 1956 and was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1980 Birthday Honours for services to industry. In 1987, she gained the Freedom of the City of London, she was President of the British Computer Society from 1989 to 1990 and Master of the IT livery company 1992/93. In 1985, she was awarded a Recognition of Information Technology Award. In 1999 she received the Mountbatten Medal, she was appointed a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and of Birkbeck College in 2001. She has donated most of her wealth to charity. Beneficiaries include the Worshipful Company of Information Technologists and the Oxford Internet Institute, part of the Oxford University, through the Shirley Foundation, her late son Giles was autistic and she became an early member of the National Autistic Society. She has instigated and funded research in this field, for example through the Autism Research Centre led by Professor Simon Baron-Cohen and via Autistica.
In 2003, Shirley received the Beacon Fellowship Prize for her contribution to countering autism and for her pioneering work in harnessing information technology for the public good. In 1991, Shirley was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Buckingham, since she has been honoured by the University of Cambridge and 29 other UK Universities. In February 2013, she was assessed as one of the 100 most powerful women in the United Kingdom by Woman's Hour on BBC Radio 4. In January 2014, the Science Council named Shirley as one of the "Top 100 practising scientists" in the UK. In 2018 she was made Fellow of the Computer History Museum, became the first woman to win the lifetime achievement award of the Chartered Management Institute'for her stellar contribution to British engineering and technology'; the Shirley Foundation, based in the UK was set up by Shirley in 1986 with a substantial gift to establish a charitable trust fund. Its current mission is facilitation and support of pioneering projects with strategic impact in the field of autism spectrum disorders with particular emphasis on medical research.
The fund has supported many projects through grants and loans including: Autism at Kingwood which supports people with autism spectrum disorders to enjoy full and active lives. She addresses conferences around the world and is in frequent contact with parents and those with autism spectrum disorders, her autistic son Giles died following an epileptic seizure at the age of 35. From May 2009 until May 2010, Shirley served as the UK's Ambassador for Philanthropy, a government appointment aimed at giving philanthropists a "voice". In 2012, Shirley donated the entirety of her