India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. As of 2018, it is the country's largest political party in terms of representation in the national parliament and state assemblies, it is the world's largest party in terms of primary membership. BJP is a right-wing party, its policy has reflected Hindu nationalist positions, it has close organisational links to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The BJP's origin lies in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, formed in 1951 by Syama Prasad Mukherjee. After the State of Emergency in 1977, the Jana Sangh merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party. After three years in power, the Janata party dissolved in 1980 with the members of the erstwhile Jana Sangh reconvening to form the BJP. Although unsuccessful, winning only two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. Following victories in several state elections and better performances in national elections, the BJP became the largest party in the parliament in 1996.
After the 1998 general election, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee formed a government that lasted for a year. Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vajpayee, lasted for a full term in office. In the 2004 general election, the NDA suffered an unexpected defeat, for the next ten years the BJP was the principal opposition party. Long time Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi led it to a landslide victory in the 2014 general election. Since that election, Modi has led the NDA government as Prime Minister and as of February 2019, the alliance governs 18 states; the official ideology of the BJP is "integral humanism", first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya in 1965. The party expresses a commitment to Hindutva, its policy has reflected Hindu nationalist positions; the BJP advocates a foreign policy centred on nationalist principles. Its key issues have included the abrogation of the special status to Jammu and Kashmir, the building of a Ram temple in Ayodhya and the implementation of a uniform civil code.
However, the 1998–2004 NDA government did not pursue any of these controversial issues. It instead focused on a liberal economic policy prioritising globalisation and economic growth over social welfare; the BJP's origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, popularly known as the Jana Sangh, founded by Syama Prasad Mukherjee in 1951 in response to the politics of the dominant Congress party. It was founded in collaboration with the Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, was regarded as the political arm of the RSS; the Jana Sangh's aims included the protection of India's "Hindu" cultural identity, in addition to countering what it perceived to be the appeasement of Muslim people and the country of Pakistan by the Congress party and then-Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The RSS loaned several of its leading pracharaks, or full-time workers, to the Jana Sangh to get the new party off the ground. Prominent among these was Deendayal Upadhyaya, appointed General Secretary.
The Jana Sangh won only three Lok Sabha seats in the first general elections in 1952. It maintained a minor presence in parliament until 1967; the Jana Sangh's first major campaign, begun in early 1953, centred on a demand for the complete integration of Jammu and Kashmir into India. Mookerjee was arrested in May 1953 for violating orders from the state government restraining him from entering Kashmir, he died of a heart attack the following month in jail. Mauli Chandra Sharma was elected to succeed Mookerjee. Upadhyay remained the General Secretary until 1967, worked to build a committed grassroots organisation in the image of the RSS; the party minimised engagement with the public, focusing instead on building its network of propagandists. Upadhyaya articulated the philosophy of integral humanism, which formed the official doctrine of the party. Younger leaders, such as Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani became involved with the leadership in this period, with Vajpayee succeeding Upadhyaya as president in 1968.
The major themes on the party's agenda during this period were legislating a uniform civil code, banning cow slaughter and abolishing the special status given to Jammu and Kashmir. After assembly elections across the country in 1967, the party entered into a coalition with several other parties, including the Swatantra Party and the socialists, it formed governments in various states across the Hindi heartland, including Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It was the first time. In 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi imposed a state of emergency; the Jana Sangh took part in the widespread protests, with thousands of its members being imprisoned along with other agitators across the country. In 1977, the emergency was withdrawn and general elections were held; the Jana Sangh merged with parties from across the political spectrum, including the Socialist Party, the Congress and the Bharatiya Lok Dal to form the Janata Party, with its main agenda being defeating Indi
Khalsa refers to both a special group of initiated Sikhs, as well as a community that considers Sikhism as its faith. The Khalsa tradition was initiated in 1699 by the last living Guru of Guru Gobind Singh, its formation was a key event in the history of Sikhism. The founding of Khalsa is celebrated by Sikhs during the festival of Vaisakhi. Guru Gobind Singh started the Khalsa tradition after his father had been beheaded for resisting the religious persecution of non-Muslims during the rule of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Guru Gobind Singh created and initiated the Khalsa as a warrior with a duty to protect the innocent from any form of religious persecution; the Khalsa redefined the Sikh tradition from the start. It rules of conduct for the Khalsa warriors, it created a new institution for the temporal leadership of the Sikhs, replacing the masands system maintained by the earlier Gurus of Sikhism. Additionally, the Khalsa provided a religious vision for the Sikh community. Upon initiation, a Khalsa Sikh was given the titles of Kaur.
The rules of life, included behavioral code, a dress code. In contrast to the Khalsa Sikh, a Sahajdhari Sikh is one who reveres the teachings of the Sikh gurus, but has not undergone the initiation. Sahajdhari Sikhs do not accept some or all elements of the dress and behavioral codes of the Khalsa Sikhs; the Khalsa has been predominantly a male institution in Sikh history, with Khalsa authority with the male leaders. In the contemporary era, it has become open to women but its authority remains with Sikh men. "Khalsa", according to McLeod, is derived from the Arabic or Persian word "Khalisa" which means "to be pure, to be clear, to be free from". Sikhism emerged in the northwestern part of Indian subcontinent. During the Mughal Empire rule, according to professor Eleanor Nesbitt, khalsa meant the land, possessed directly by the emperor, different from jagir land granted to lords in exchange for a promise of loyalty and annual tribute to the emperor. Prior to Guru Gobind Singh, the religious organization was organized through the agents.
The masands would collect revenue from rural regions for the Sikh cause, much like jagirs would for the Islamic emperor. The khalsa, in Sikhism, came to mean pure loyalty to the Guru, not to the intermediary masands who were becoming corrupt, states Nesbitt; the Sikhs faced religious persecution during the Mughal Empire rule. Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth Guru, was arrested and executed by Emperor Jahangir in 1606; the following Guru, Guru Hargobind formally militarised the Sikhs and emphasised the complementary nature of the temporal power and spiritual power. In 1675, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of the Sikhs and the father of Guru Gobind Singh was executed by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb for resisting religious persecution of non-Muslims, for refusing to convert to Islam. In 1699, the tenth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh asked Sikhs to gather at Anandpur Sahib on 30 March 1699, the day of Vaisakhi. Guru Gobind Singh addressed the congregation from the entryway of a tent pitched on a hill.
He drew his sword, according to the Sikh tradition, asked for a volunteer from those who gathered, someone willing to sacrifice his head. One came forward; the Guru with a bloody sword. He asked for another volunteer, repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru returned with all five volunteers, all safe, he called them the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition. These five volunteers were: Daya Ram, Dharam Das, Himmat Rai, Mohkam Chand, Sahib Chand. Guru Gobind Singh mixed water and sugar into an iron bowl, stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit, he administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul of a Khalsa – a warrior community. The Guru gave them a new surname "Singh". After the first five Khalsa had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa.
This made the Guru the sixth Khalsa, his name changed from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh. He introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. For example, Aurangzeb had imposed taxes on non-Muslims that were collected from the Sikhs as well, for example the jizya, pilgrim tax and Bhaddar tax – the last being a tax to be paid by anyone following the Hindu ritual of shaving the head after the death of a loved one and cremation. Guru Gobind Singh declared that Khalsa do not need to continue this practice, because Bhaddar is not dharam, but a bharam. Not shaving the head meant not having to pay the taxes by Sikhs who lived in Delhi and other parts of the Mughal Empire. However, the new code of conduct led to internal disagreements between Sikhs in the 18th century between the Nanakpanthi and the Khalsa. Guru Gobind Singh had deep respect for the Khalsa, stated that there is no difference between the True Guru and the sangat. Before his founding of the Khalsa, the Sikh movement had used the Sanskrit word Sisya, but the favored term thereaft
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, normal, or desirable supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics, or tradition. Hierarchy and inequality may be viewed as natural results of traditional social differences or the competition in market economies; the term right-wing can refer to "the conservative or reactionary section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were first used during the French Revolution and referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament: those who sat to the right of the chair of the parliamentary president were broadly supportive of the institutions of the monarchist Old Regime; the original Right in France was formed as a reaction against the "Left" and comprised those politicians supporting hierarchy and clericalism. The use of the expression la droite became prominent in France after the restoration of the monarchy in 1815, when it was applied to the Ultra-royalists.
The people of English-speaking countries did not apply the terms "right" and "left" to their own politics until the 20th century. Although the right-wing originated with traditional conservatives and reactionaries, the term extreme right-wing has been applied to movements including fascism and racial supremacy. From the 1830s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from nobility and aristocracy towards capitalism; this general economic shift toward capitalism affected centre-right movements such as the British Conservative Party, which responded by becoming supportive of capitalism. In the United States, the Right includes both social conservatives. In Europe, economic conservatives are considered liberal and the Right includes nationalists, nativist opposition to immigration, religious conservatives, a significant presence of right-wing movements with anti-capitalist sentiments including conservatives and fascists who opposed what they saw as the selfishness and excessive materialism inherent in contemporary capitalism.
The political term right-wing was first used during the French Revolution, when liberal deputies of the Third Estate sat to the left of the president's chair, a custom that began in the Estates General of 1789. The nobility, members of the Second Estate sat to the right. In the successive legislative assemblies, monarchists who supported the Old Regime were referred to as rightists because they sat on the right side. A major figure on the right was Joseph de Maistre, who argued for an authoritarian form of conservatism. Throughout the 19th century, the main line dividing Left and Right in France was between supporters of the republic and supporters of the monarchy. On the right, the Legitimists and Ultra-royalists held counter-revolutionary views, while the Orléanists hoped to create a constitutional monarchy under their preferred branch of the royal family, a brief reality after the 1830 July Revolution; the centre-right Gaullists in post-World War II France advocated considerable social spending on education and infrastructure development as well as extensive economic regulation, but limited the wealth redistribution measures characteristic of social democracy.
In British politics, the terms "right" and "left" came into common use for the first time in the late 1930s in debates over the Spanish Civil War. The Right has gone through five distinct historical stages: the reactionary right sought a return to aristocracy and established religion; the meaning of right-wing "varies across societies, historical epochs, political systems and ideologies". According to The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, in liberal democracies, the political right opposes socialism and social democracy. Right-wing parties include conservatives, Christian democrats, classical liberals, nationalists and on the far-right. Roger Eatwell and Neal O'Sullivan divide the right into five types: reactionary, radical and new. Chip Berlet argues that each of these "styles of thought" are "responses to the left", including liberalism and socialism, which have arisen since the 1789 French Revolution; the reactionary right looks toward the past and is "aristocratic and authoritarian".
The moderate right, typified by the writings of Edmund Burke, is tolerant of change, provided it is gradual and accepts some aspects of liberalism, including the rule of law and capitalism, although it sees radical laissez-faire and individualism as harmful to society. The moderate right promotes nationalism and social welfare policies. Radical right is a term developed after World War II to describe groups and ideologies such as McCarthyism, the John Birch Society and the Republikaner Party. Eatwell stresses that this use has "major typological problems" and that the term "has been applied to democratic developments"; the radical right includes various other subtypes. Eatwell argues that the extreme right' has four traits: "1) anti-democracy; the New Right consists of the liberal conservatives, who stress small government, free markets and individual initiative. Other authors make a distinction between the cent
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Membership of Rajya Sabha is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of 250 members and current laws have provision for 245 members. Most of the members of the House are indirectly elected by the members of States and union territories of India state and territorial legislatures using single transferable votes through Open Ballot, while the President can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature and social services. Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with a third of the members up for election every two years; the Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, unlike the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament, is not subject to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha can be prorogued by the President; the Rajya Sabha has equal footing in all areas of legislation with the Lok Sabha, except in the area of supply, where the Lok Sabha has overriding powers. In the case of conflicting legislation, a joint sitting of the two houses can be held.
However, since the Lok Sabha has twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha, the former would hold the greater power. Joint sittings of the Houses of Parliament of India are rare, in the history of the Republic, only three such joint-sessions have been held; the Vice President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, who presides over its sessions. The Deputy Chairman, elected from amongst the house's members, takes care of the day-to-day matters of the house in the absence of the Chairman; the Rajya Sabha held its first sitting on 13 May 1952. The salary and other benefits for a member of Rajya Sabha are same as for a member of Lok Sabha. Rajya Sabha members are elected by state legislatures rather than directly through the electorate by single transferable vote method. From 18 July 2018, Rajya Sabha MPs can speak in 22 Indian languages in House as the Upper House has facility for simultaneous interpretation in all the 22 official languages of India. Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for membership of Parliament.
A member of the Rajya Sabha must: Be a citizen of India. Make and subscribe before some person authorized in that behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule to the Constitution. Be at least 30 years old. Be elected by the Legislative Assembly of States and Union territories by means of Single transferable vote through Proportional representation. Not be a proclaimed criminal. Not be a subject of insolvent, i.e. he/she should not be in debt that he/she is not capable of repaying in a current manner and should have the ability to meet his/her financial expenses. Not hold any other office of profit under the Government of India. Not be of unsound mind. Possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament. In addition, twelve members are nominated by the President of India having special knowledge in various areas like arts and science. However, they are not entitled to vote in Presidential elections as per Article 55 of the Constitution.
The Constitution of India places some restrictions on the Rajya Sabha which makes the Lok Sabha more powerful in certain areas. The definition of a money bill is given in article 110 of constitution of India. A money bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha by a minister and only on recommendation of President of India; when the Lok Sabha passes a money bill the Lok Sabha sends money bill to the Rajya Sabha for 14 days during which it can make recommendations. If Rajya Sabha fails to return the money bill in 14 days to the Lok Sabha, that bill is deemed to have passed by both the Houses. If the Lok Sabha rejects any of the amendments proposed by the Rajya Sabha, the bill is deemed to have been passed by both Houses of Parliament of India in the form the Lok Sabha passes it; this is because the Lok Sabha has largest number of representatives of peoples of India and so the Lok Sabha, the lower house is more powerful in comparison with Rajya Sabha, the upper house. Hence, Rajya Sabha can only give recommendations for a money bill but Rajya Sabha cannot amend a money bill this is to ensure that Rajya Sabha must not add any non money matters in money bill.
Lok Sabha can reject all the recommendations of Rajya Sabha or can accept some or all of the recommendations. Decisions of the speaker of the Lok Sabha are final. There is no joint sitting of both the houses with respect to money bills, because all final decisions are taken by the Lok Sabha. Article 108 provides for a joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament in certain cases. A joint sitting can be convened by the President of India when one house has either rejected a bill passed by the other house, has not taken any action on a bill transmitted to it by the other house for six months, or has disagreed to the amendments proposed by the Lok Sabha on a bill passed by it. Considering that the numerical strength of Lok Sabha is more than twice that of Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha tends to have a greater influence in a joint sitting of Parliament. A joint session is chaired by the Speaker of Lok Sabha; because the joint session is convened by the President on advice of the government, which has a majority in Lok Sabha, the joint session is convened to get bills passed through a Rajya Sabha in which the government has a minority.
Joint sessions of Parliament are a rarity, have been convened three times in last 71 years, for the purpose of passage of a specific legislative act, the latest time being in 2002: 1961: Dowry Prohibition Act, 1958 1978: Banking Services Commissio
Elections in India
India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which defines the power distribution between the union, or central and the states. The President of India is the ceremonial head of state, elected indirectly for a five-year term by an electoral college comprising members of national and state legislatures; the Prime Minister of India exercises most executive power. Appointed by the president, the prime minister is by convention supported by the party or political alliance having a majority of seats in the Lok Sabha or lower house of parliament; the Election Commission of India is an autonomous entity prescribed in the Constitution of India. It is the federal authority responsible for administering all the electoral processes of India and ensuring they are free and fair. Elections are conducted according to parliamentary legislation; these include the Representation of the People Act, 1950, which deals with the preparation and revision of electoral rolls, the Representation of the People Act, 1957 which deals, in detail, with all aspects of the conduct of elections and post-election disputes.
The Supreme Court of India has held that where the enacted laws are silent or make insufficient provision to deal with a given situation in the conduct of elections, the Election Commission has the residuary powers under the Constitution to act in an appropriate manner. From 1947 to 16 October 1989, there was one Chief Election Commissioner. From 1989 to 1 January 1990, there were two commissioners. In 1990 of January, two chief commissioners were abolished and election commission acted as a single-member body. Again by The Election Commissioner Amendment Act, 1993 made the Election Commission a multi-member body. On 1 October 1993, a further two commissioners were appointed. Decisions are made by majority vote. Elections in the Republic of India include elections for: Members of the Parliament in Lok Sabha, Members of State Legislative Assembly, Members of the Parliament in Rajya Sabha, for Members in local panchayat or city corporation council. Members of Lok Sabha or the lower house of India's Parliament are elected directly by voting, from a set of candidates who stands in their respective constituencies.
Every adult citizen of India can vote only in their constituency. Candidates who win the Lok Sabha elections are called'Member of Parliament' and hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi, on matters relating to creation of new laws, removing or improving the existing laws that affect all citizens of India. This is the important election that takes place once in 5 years to elect 543 members for the Parliament. A party needs. If a party doesn't have 272 MPs on its own it can form the government. Leader of the party/alliance takes oath as the Prime Minister. Members of State Legislative Assembly, is elected directly by voting, from a set of candidates who stands in their respective constituencies; every adult citizen of India can vote only in their constituency. Candidates who win the State Legislative Assemblies elections are called'Member of Legislative Assembly' and hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the Governor.
The house meets in the respective state, on matters relating to creation of new laws, removing or improving the existing laws that affect all citizens living in that state. Total strength of each assembly depends on each State based on size and population. Similar to Lok sabha elections, leader of the majority party/alliance takes oath as Chief Minister of the State. Members of Rajya Sabha or the upper house of India's Parliament. Candidates are not elected directly by the citizens, but by those candidates who have won the Lok Sabha elections or who were nominated by the President of India at his discretion. Members of the Parliament in Rajya Sabha gets a tenure of six years but one third of the members change every two years. Rajya Sabha acts as a second level review body; the Legislative proposals are brought before either house of the Parliament in the form of a bill. A bill is the draft of a legislative proposal, when passed by both houses of Parliament and assented to by the President, becomes an Act of Parliament.
The Constitution of India however places some restrictions on the Rajya Sabha which makes the Lok Sabha more powerful in certain areas. For example, It puts the condition. Members of Rajya Sabha headed by the Vice President further debate on bills sent by Lok Sabha and can approve, reject or send the bill back to the Lok Sabha for further debate and discussion on the matter and to suggest better changes in the drafted bill. Members of Rajya Sabha can only make recommendations to the Lok Sabha for money bills within 14 days. If Rajya Sabha fails to return the money bill in 14 days to the Lok Sabha, that bill is deemed to have passed by both the Houses. If the Lok Sabha rejects any of the amendments proposed by the Rajya Sabha, the bill is deemed to have been passed by both Houses of Parliament of India in the form the Lok Sabha passes it; this is because the Lok Sabha has largest number of representatives that are directly elected by the people of India, making the lower house is more powerful in comparison with Rajya Sabha.
Decisions of the speaker of the Lok Sa
Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is a broadly based political party in India. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. From the late 19th century, after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement. Congress led India to independence from Great Britain, powerfully influenced other anti-colonial nationalist movements in the British Empire. Congress is a secular party whose social democratic platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. Congress' social policy is based upon the Gandhian principle of Sarvodaya—the lifting up of all sections of society—which involves the improvement of the lives of economically underprivileged and marginalised people; the party endorses social democracy—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice and secularism—asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings. Its constitution states democractic socialism to be its ideal.
After India's independence in 1947, Congress formed the central government of India, many regional state governments. Congress became India's dominant political party. There have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, the most recent Manmohan Singh. Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, political parties in India, along with the right-wing, Hindu nationalist, Bharatiya Janata Party. In the 2014 general election, Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member Lok Sabha. From 2004 to 2014, United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of Congress with several regional parties, formed the Indian government led by Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister as the head of the coalition government; the leader of the party during the period, Sonia Gandhi has served the longest term as the president of the party. As of December 2018, the party is in power in six legislative assemblies: Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and the union territory of Puducherry.
The Indian National Congress conducted its first session in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885 at the initiative of retired Civil Service officer Allan Octavian Hume. In 1883, Hume had outlined his idea for a body representing Indian interests in an open letter to graduates of the University of Calcutta, its aim was to obtain a greater share in government for educated Indians, to create a platform for civic and political dialogue between them and the British Raj. Hume took the initiative, in March 1885 a notice convening the first meeting of the Indian National Union to be held in Poona the following December was issued. Due to a cholera outbreak there, it was moved to Bombay. Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of Congress. Notable representatives included Scottish ICS officer William Wedderburn, Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozeshah Mehta of the Bombay Presidency Association, Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, social reformer and newspaper editor Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Justice K. T. Telang, N. G. Chandavarkar, Dinshaw Wacha, Behramji Malabari and activist Gooty Kesava Pillai, P. Rangaiah Naidu of the Madras Mahajana Sabha.
This small elite group, unrepresentative of the Indian masses at the time, functioned more as a stage for elite Indian ambitions than a political party for the first decade of its existence. At the beginning of the 20th century, Congress' demands became more radical in the face of constant opposition from the British government, the party decided to advocate in favour of the independence movement because it would allow a new political system in which Congress could be a major party. By 1905, a division opened between the moderates led by Gokhale, who downplayed public agitation, the new extremists who advocated agitation, regarded the pursuit of social reform as a distraction from nationalism. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who tried to mobilise Hindu Indians by appealing to an explicitly Hindu political identity displayed in the annual public Ganapati festivals he inaugurated in western India, was prominent among the extremists. Congress included a number of prominent political figures. Dadabhai Naoroji, a member of the sister Indian National Association, was elected president of the party in 1886 and was the first Indian Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons.
Congress included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Mohammed Ali Jinnah. Jinnah was a member of the moderate group in the Congress, favouring Hindu–Muslim unity in achieving self-government, he became the leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. Congress was transformed into a mass movement by Surendranath Banerjee during the partition of Bengal in 1905, the resultant Swadeshi movement. Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915. With the help of the moderate group led by Ghokhale, Gandhi became president of Congress. After the First World War, the party became associated with Gandhi, who remained its unofficial spiritual leader and icon, he formed an alliance wit