French playing cards
French playing cards are cards that use the French suits of trèfles, carreaux, cœurs, piques. Each suit contains three face cards. Aside from these aspects, decks can include a wide variety of regional and national patterns which have different deck sizes. In comparison to Spanish, Italian and Swiss playing cards, French cards are the most widespread due to the geopolitical and cultural influence of France and the United Kingdom in the past two centuries. Other reasons for their popularity were the simplicity of the suit insignia, which simplifies mass production, the popularity of whist and contract bridge. Playing cards arrived in Europe from Mamluk Egypt around 1370 and were reported in France in 1377; the French suit insignia was derived from German suits around 1480. Between the transition from the suit of bells to tiles there was a suit of crescents. One of the most distinguishing features of the French cards is the queen. Mamluk cards and their derivatives, the Latin suited and German suited cards, all have three male face cards.
Queens began appearing in Italian tarot decks in the mid-15th century and some German decks replaced two kings with queens. While other decks abandoned the queen in non-tarot decks, the French kept them and dropped the knight as the middle face card. Face card design was influenced by Spanish cards that used to circulate in France. One of the most obvious traits inherited from Spain are the standing kings. Spanish-suited cards are still used in France in Northern Catalonia, Brittany and the Vendée with the latter two using the archaic Aluette cards. In the 19th century, corner indices and rounded corners were added and cards became reversible, relieving players from having to flip face cards right side up; the index for aces and face cards follow the local language but many decks of the Paris pattern use the numeral "1" for aces. The French suited deck has spawned many regional variations known as standard patterns based on their artwork and deck size; the Paris pattern was exported throughout continental Europe, why most French-suited patterns share a similar appearance.
The English pattern, based on the extinct Rouennais pattern, is the most well known pattern in the world. Note that patterns do not factor in Jokers as they are a recent addition which leads to every manufacturer making their own trademarked depiction of this card. All 52-card packs produced in the present will contain at least two jokers unless otherwise noted; the Paris pattern became known as the portrait officiel. From the 19th century to 1945, the appearance of the cards used for domestic consumption was regulated by the French government. All cards were produced on watermarked paper made by the state to show payment of the stamp tax; the most common deck sold in France is the 32-card deck with the 2 to 6 removed and 1s as the index for aces. 52-card decks are popular. The French have a unique habit of associating their face cards with historic or mythical personages which survives only in the portrait officiel; the Belgian-Genoese pattern is similar to its Parisian parent and is an export version not subject to France's domestic stamp tax.
The jack of clubs has a triangular shield bearing the coat of arms of the former Spanish Netherlands, face cards are unnamed, blue is replaced with green in the portraits. The diagonal dividing line lacks the beads; when the Ottoman Empire relaxed the ban against playing cards, Belgian type cards flooded their territory and is now found throughout the Balkans, North Africa, the Middle East. They are commonly found in France's former colonies. Within Belgium, the Francophone Walloons are the primary users of this pattern, the Flemish prefer the Dutch pattern; this is the second most common pattern in the world after the English pattern. Belgian decks come in either 52 cards like in France. Genoese type cards lack corner indices, they come in 40, or 52 card decks. The Piedmontese pattern is similar to the Genoese packs but its face cards have a horizontal instead of diagonal dividing line and the aces are found in a decorative garland, they come in the same number of cards as Genoese ones. The Piedmontese pattern was once used in neighboring Savoy as both were united until France annexed the latter in 1860.
A 78 card tarot version of the Piedmontese pattern, complete with knights, the fool, a suit of trumps depicting flowers, corner indices, was printed in 1902 for Savoyard players. It was discontinued some time after 1910 but reproductions have been in print since 1984; the Chambéry rules that come with the deck are similar to Piedmontese tarot games but the ace ranked between the jack and the 10 like in Triomphe. It should not be confused with the Italian-suited Piedmontese tarot. A Parisian variant appeared in Bavaria in the mid-18th century where the king of diamonds wore a turban; this originates from the German-suited Old Bavarian pattern. The king of spades, who used to represent David, no longer holds a harp; this group is associated with animal tarots. The Russian pattern created during the early 19th-century is based on a Baltic version of a Bavarian derivative; the current appearance was finalized by Adolf Charlemagne. It contains 52 or 36 cards, the latter lacking ranks 2 to 5; the stripped deck is used to play Durak.
They can be found in many countries that were once part of the Russian Soviet Union. Adler-Ceg
Backpacking is a form of low-cost, independent travel. It includes the use of public transport. Despite the name it does not have to involve travelers carrying belongings in a backpack, although, a common practice. Backpacking may include wilderness adventures, local travel and travel to nearby countries while working from the country in which they are based; the definition of a backpacker has evolved as travelers from different cultures and regions participate in the trend. A 2007 paper says "backpackers constituted a heterogeneous group with respect to the diversity of rationales and meanings attached to their travel experiences, they displayed a common commitment to a non-institutionalised form of travel, central to their self-identification as backpackers." Backpacking, as a lifestyle and as a business, has grown in the 2000s due to low-cost airlines and hostels or budget accommodations in many parts of the world. Visa laws in many countries such as Ireland, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom enable backpackers with restricted visas to work and support themselves while they are in those countries.
Seventeenth-century Italian adventurer Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri has been suggested as one of the world's first backpackers. While people have traveled for hundreds of years with their possessions on their backs, the modern concept of backpacking can be traced, at least to the Hippie trail of the 1960s and'70s, which in turn followed sections of the old Silk Road; some backpackers follow the same trail today. Over the past few decades, backpackers have traveled to South East Asia in large numbers which has caused popular Thai islands and several sleepy towns in Thailand and Laos to be transformed by the influx of travelers. Backpacking in Europe, South America, Central America and New Zealand has become more popular and there are several well-trodden routes around the world that backpackers tend to stick to. Technological developments and improvements have contributed to changes in backpacking. Traditionally, backpackers did not travel with expensive electronic equipment like laptop computers, digital cameras, cell phones because of concerns about theft and additional luggage weight.
Backpackers have traditionally carried their possessions in 30 litre to 60 litre backpacks, but roller-wheeled suitcases and some less-traditional carrying methods have become more common, there has been a trend towards keeping pack weights under the 7-10 kg carry-on limit of most airlines. Of importance to some backpackers is a sense of authenticity. Backpacking is perceived as being more than a holiday, but a means of education. Backpackers want to experience what they consider the "real" destination rather than a packaged version associated with mass tourism, which has led to the assertion that backpackers are anti-tourist. For many young people in Northern Europe, New Zealand, Israel, backpacking is a rite of passage. In Canada, it is quite common for gap-year students to visit Southeast Asia. Backpackers are less from China, the United States and South Korea, due to their large populations, accounted for by visa restrictions. Backpacking trips were traditionally undertaken either in a "gap year" between high school and university, or between the latter and the commencement of work.
However, the average age of backpackers has increased over time, it is now more common to see people in their 30s, 40s, older to backpack during an extended career break. Some retirees enjoy backpacking. Studies by Columbia Business School professor Adam Galinsky have found that the benefits of travelling to other countries include an increased "generalised trust, or... general faith in humanity", as well as a "creative boost", when there is true "multicultural engagement and adaptation." Backpacking has been criticised, with some criticism dating back to travellers' behaviour along the Hippie Trail. For example, the host countries and other travelers may disagree with the actions of backpackers. However, the perception of backpackers seems to have improved as backpacking has become more mainstream. Another criticism is that though one of the primary aims of backpacking is to seek the "authentic", the majority of backpackers spend most of their time interacting with other backpackers, interactions with locals are of "secondary importance".
Planning and research can be an important part of backpacking, aided by such guides from companies like Lonely Planet and Rough Guides, books by travel authors such as Rick Steves, various digital and online resources such as Wikivoyage. Resources provide information about such topics as the language, culture and history, they provide listings of accommodation and places to eat, together with maps of key locations. Digital format guidebooks are becoming more popular since the advent of smart phones and lightweight netbooks and laptops. Terms used to describe backpacking with more money and resources include flashpacking and poshpacking, which combine backpacking with flash, a slang term for being fancy, or posh, an informal adjective for upper class. Begpacking combines begging and backpacking in reference to individuals who beg, busk, or vend as a way to extend their overseas travel; the trend has drawn criticism for taking money away from p
Zwickern is an old German fishing card game for two to eight players played in Schleswig-Holstein in North Germany. The rules vary in their details depending on the region, but the basics are identical in each variation, it has been described as "a simpler and jollier version of Cassino, "exciting and entertaining" and easy to learn. It was played with just a standard 52-card deck but now it is played with 6 jokers. 58-card decks have been in production since at least the 1950s. One source recommends leaving out the jokers; the following rules are based on Parlett. King: 14 Queen: 13 Jack: 12 Ace: 11 Pip cards: face value Jokers: 2 to 14 The aim of Zwicker is to capture Aces,'honour cards' and to make'sweeps' or zwicks; each player receives four cards and four are dealt face up to the table, henceforth referred to as the tableau. The rest form the stock, placed face down on the table; the aim is to collect cards the point-scoring ones, from the tableau in turn. Each player plays a card from his hand to the table and may use it to capture cards from the tableau.
A player make capture either by'pairing', if the value of a card in his hand is equal to one in the tableau, or by'summing' if the value of his card equals that of two or more cards in the tableau. For example, a King may capture a 9 and a 5. A played card may make as many captures as possible. So a Queen can be used to take two Queens from the tableau and, if the two remaining cards together add up to 13, they may be collected. If a player clears all the cards in the tableau, as in the last example, it is called a'sweep' or zwick and counts more when it comes to scoring; when a player's hand cards are used up, he receives four new cards. If a player cannot capture a card or cards from the tableau, he must'trail', by adding a hand card to the tableau, or'build', by placing it half over one in the tableau; the values laid on top of each other must not exceed 14. Cards placed. Once all the cards have been used up, the round ends; the winner is the player who has the most points or reached the agreed total of points.
Points are awarded for method of capture. Scoring is as follows: 10 = 10 points Zwick = 3 points Ace = 2 points 7 = 1 point 7 = 1 point Most cards taken = 1 point In the variant by McLeod, there are the following differences in matching values and scoring: Matching values King - 4 or 14, Queen - 3 or 13, Jack - 2 or 12, Ace - 1 or 11. Jokers: small jokers - 15, middle jokers - 20, large jokers - 25. Scoring Large jokers - 7 Middle jokers - 6 Small jokers - 5 10 - 3 Taking most tricks - 3 10, 2, Aces and zwicks - 1
Conquian, Coon Can or Colonel is a rummy-style card game. David Parlett describes it as an ancestor to all modern rummy games, a kind of proto-gin rummy; some believe the game originated in Spain hundreds of years ago, was brought to Mexico. Others believe the game originated in Mexico in the mid-1800s, it was first described as Coon Can in 1887 and in detail in R. F. Foster's Hoyle in 1897. Parlett notes that the 1920s American card-game writer Robert F. Foster "traces Conquian back to the early 1860s"; the name is thought to either derive from "con quién" – Spanish "with whom", or from the Chinese game Kon Khin, a variation of the earlier game Khanhoo. It is sometimes corrupted to Coon Can, Councan and Cuncá, a South American variation of the game. In 19th-century Mexican literature the word is spelled cunquián, showing thus it has nothing to do with the phrase "¿Con quién?". It is much more tempting to relate Conquian to the 19th-century Philippine card game Kungkian, or Kungkiyang, which Ilocano and Cebuano dictionaries define as "A card game, the same as pañggiñggí, except that there are only two players."
Conquian is played by two or more players with Spanish playing cards or a 40-card pack of cards ranking A 2 3 4 5 6 7 J Q K, with the rest stacked face-down on the table. The aim is to be the first to get rid including the last one drawn; the total number of cards shown must add up to nine. Each player wins the game by melding a total of ten cards, they may be melded by a straight flush sequence. After the deal, the dealer turns up the top card from the remainder of the deck to begin the discard pile; the non-dealer has the option to take the first card, but must use it to make a meld. If the non-dealer doesn't want the card, the dealer has the option to pick it up and use it for his meld. If neither player wants the first card, the non-dealer takes the first card from the draw pile and may use it to meld or discard it, they may not place the card in their hand. If either player makes a valid meld with it, they must discard one card from his hand; the other player may choose this card or draw another from the pile.
So whoever turns from the pile has first choice of the card turned, must either meld it, extend one of his existing melds with it, or pass. If both players pass, the second draws next. In melding, a player may "borrow" cards from their other melds to help create new ones, provided that those thereby depleted are not reduced to less than valid three-card melds. After melding, the player's discard becomes available to the opponent, who may either meld it or turn it down and make the next draw. If a player declines a faced card which can be added to one of their existing melds, they must meld it if their opponent so demands; this way, it is sometimes possible to force a player into a situation from which they can never go out, therefore creating a point of much interest to the strategy of the play. If neither is out when the last available card has been declined, the game is drawn and the stake carried forward. Winning a hand entails melding ten cards, so on the last play, the winning player must use the drawn card in his meld.
Play may be extended over several hands by playing to a specified point total. Points still in the losing player's hand are awarded to the winner. Face value for cards 2–7, 10 points for Jacks, Queens, or Kings, 15 points for Aces; the Jacks and Kings may be removed instead of 8s, 9s and 10s. No cards are removed; each player may attempt to meld ten. Three players can attempt to meld nine. Four players can attempt to meld eight. Trading can happen after the players have before the first draw; each player passes it clockwise to the next person at the table. Players agree among themselves. Khanhoo Buraco Rummy Mus Cooncan: A Game of Cards Called "Rum". Full-text reproduction of the 1913 publication by Robert Frederick Foster in electronic form now in the public domain. See the 2007 Edition, ISBN 0-548-31771-2. Dawson, L.. "Colonel" in Hoyles Card Games Routledge, Abingdon. Pp. 100-101
Paskahousu is a Finnish card game. The object of the game is to play higher cards than the played cards, first to get replacement cards from the stock pile, after the stock pile has exhausted, to get rid of one's cards, it is similar to Shithead. Although the basic play is the same across rule variants, the details of the rules vary tremendously, it is impossible to find two identical descriptions of the game in the literature. See the miscellaneous rule variations section below for how the rules vary. One of the most widespread variants is Valepaska, in which the cards are played face down, players need not announce their plays truthfully. One deck of 52 cards is used. An ace is the highest; the game is played by three to six players. Everyone is dealt five cards; the rest of the cards form a face-down stock. In each turn a player places one or more cards of the same rank from his hand into a pile next to the stock according to the following rules: If the pile is empty, the player must play cards that are lower than jack.
If the pile is not empty, the new cards must be of the same rank or of a higher rank than the previous cards in the pile. Twos can be played on an empty table. Only another two can be played on top of a two. If the top cards of the pile are lower than seven, the player is not allowed to play face cards. Aces can be played only on top of face cards or to start an empty pile, but the next player must pick it up. Tens can be played on an empty pile. If the player cannot or does not want to play cards according to the previous rules, he must take the entire pile in hand. After the player has either played cards or taken the pile, it is the next player's turn. If a player plays a ten or an ace, the pile falls; the pile falls when a player plays cards so that there are four cards of the same rank on top of the pile. When the pile falls, the cards in the pile are discarded from play, the same player plays the first cards to the now-empty pile. Ten causes a pile with the previous card 3-9 to fall. An ace causes the pile with the previous card J-K.
An ace cannot be played on 3-9, Ten cannot be played on J-K. If a player has fewer than five cards in his hand, he must take cards from the stock so that he has five cards; when a player gets rid of all his cards after the stock has exhausted, he is out and does not participate in the game anymore. The first player to go out is the winner; the loser is the player. In some circles the loser is called shitty pants. In Valepaska the cards are played face down, when playing cards you announce which cards you play. You are allowed to lie. A challenge means. If you were honest, the challenger must take the pile in his hand, if you lied, you must take the pile. Only the latest play can be challenged. Variant: After a challenge the next player in turn plays, except if the challenged player was honest and caused the pile fall, in which case he continues. According to www.korttipelit.net there are no standard rules to determine who continues the play after a challenge. The author of the website recommends that an exposed liar must never continue, an honest player who caused the pile fall must always be allowed to continue.
In some circles, notably in the English-language literature, Valepaska is called Paskahousu. Pöytäpaska known as Espanjalainen paskahousu can be played by two or three players; the rules are the same as with the following additions. In addition to the hand, each player is dealt four cards face down and four cards face up on the table, they are played after the stock and the cards in your hand have exhausted. The cards face up are played. Note that you are allowed to see a face down card only when you play it. If it cannot be played according to the rules, you must take the card and the entire pile to your hand. If you must take the pile when playing the table cards, the pile becomes your hand cards, you must get rid of your hand cards before you can continue playing from the table. To avoid deadlocks, it may be advisable to use relaxed rules for playing face cards. See Miscellaneous Rule Variations for possible rules. According to some rules, in Pöytäpaska ace does not fall the pile, ten can be played on the top of anything and face cards can be played on the top of all smaller or equal cards, anything can be played on the top of a two.
According to some rules, the players are dealt 3 +3 table cards. If these rules are used, the game will be identical to Shithead. In Ruotsalainen paskahousu all the cards are dealt, there is no stock; the game proceeds like the ordinary Paskahousu. These rules can be used with any of the variants mentioned above. Four twos do not cause the pile to fall. Four same cards do not cause the pile to fall. Only aces and tens fall piles. Face cards can be only played on the top of higher. Face cards can be played on the empty table and on the top of all smaller cards Aces can be played on the top of the face cards. Face cards can be play
Beggar-my-neighbour known as Strip Jack naked or Beat your neighbour out of doors, is a simple card game somewhat similar in nature to war, has spawned a more complicated variant, Egyptian Ratscrew. The game was invented in Britain and has been known there since at least the 1840s, it appears in Charles Dickens's 1861 novel Great Expectations, as the only card game Pip, the book's protagonist, as a child seems to know how to play. A standard 52-card deck is divided between two players, the two stacks of cards are placed on the table face down; the first player lays down his top card face up to start a central pile, the opponent plays his top card face up, on it, this goes on alternately as long as no Ace or court card appears. These cards are called "penalty cards." If either player turns up such a card, his opponent has to pay a penalty: four cards for an Ace, three for a King, two for a Queen, or one for a Jack. He does this playing the required number of cards to the central pile; when he has done so, if they are all numerals, the player of the penalty card wins the hand, takes all the cards in the pile and places them under his pack.
The game continues in the winner having the advantage of placing the first card. However, if the second player turns up another Ace or court card in the course of paying to the original penalty card, his payment ceases and the first player must pay to this new card; this changing of penalisation can continue indefinitely. When a single player has all of the cards in the deck in his stack, he has won. For more than two players, play proceeds clockwise. If a player reveals a new penalty card while paying their penalty, the next player around pays the tax. A longstanding question in combinatorial game theory asks whether there is a game of beggar-my-neighbour that goes on forever; this can happen only if the game is periodic—that is, if it reaches some state it has been in before. Some smaller decks of cards have infinite games. John Conway once listed this among his anti-Hilbert problems, open questions whose pursuit should emphatically not drive the future of mathematical research; the search for a non-terminating game has resulted in "longest known games" of increasing length.
War Egyptian Ratscrew Marc Paulhus. "Beggar My Neighbour". The American Mathematical Monthly. Mathematical Association of America. 106: 162–165. Doi:10.2307/2589054. JSTOR 2589054.. Morehead, Albert H.. The New Complete Hoyle Revised: The Authoritative Guide to the Official Rules of all Popular Games of Skill and Chance. London, New York, Auckland, Toronto: Doubleday. P. 456. ISBN 0-385-40270-8
Rummy is a group of matching-card games notable for similar gameplay based on matching cards of the same rank or sequence and same suit. The basic goal in any form of rummy is to build melds which consists of sets, three or four of a kind of the same rank. If a player discards a card, making a run in the discard pile, it may not be taken up without taking all cards below the top card; the Mexican game of Conquian is considered by games scholar David Parlett to be ancestral to all rummy games, which itself is derived from a Chinese game called Khanhoo and, going further back, Mahjong. The Rummy principle of drawing and discarding with a view to melding appears in Chinese card games at least in the early 19th century, as early as the 18th century, is the essence of Mahjong. Rummy games are popular in India, it is that Indian Rummy is an extension of gin rummy and 500 rum, which originated from the United States. Depending on the variation each player receives a certain number of cards from either a standard deck of 52 cards, more than one deck or a special deck of cards used for specific games.
The undealt cards are placed face down in the middle, it is known as the stock. In most variations a single card is turned face up next to the stock where players discard or shed cards, it is known as the discard pile. A meld can either be a run. A set consists of at least three cards of the same rank, for example 4♥ 4♦ 4♠ or K♥ K♦ K♠ K♣. A run consists of at least three consecutive cards of the same suit J♣ Q♣ K♣ or 4♥ 5♥ 6♥ 7♥. Few variations allow runs that have mixed suits. In a few variations of rummy other patterns may be allowed. In some variations the melds must be 3 or 4 cards, while other variations allow larger melds through the use of longer runs, for example: 8♠ 9♠ 10♠ J♠ Q♠ or, if multiple decks or wild cards are used, 5♦ 5♦ 5♥ 5♠ 5♠ or Q♥ Q♦ Jkr Q♣. Wild cards may be used to represent any card in a meld; the number of wild cards in a meld may be restricted. Depending on the variation of the game, players take turns adding and shedding cards from their hands. There are numerous and quite different ways of doing this though it involves picking a card from the stock and discarding a card to the discard pile.
In some variations melds are revealed to all players by placing them face up on the table, in other variations each player keeps their hand hidden until the show. Some variations permit picking up the entire discard pile. A few variations permit. In most variations a player must put all of their cards into at least two melds. Once the player has melded all their cards they reveal their entire hand and the player submits their hand to validation. All other players reveal their deadweight; the action of submitting the cards is called Showing. After a successful show, the winner or all players score their hand. In most variations numbered cards have certain assigned points and the royal cards have assigned points and the A has a different point value. Scoring involves each player adding up points in their melded cards and deducting points from cards that have not been melded; the winner may receive a bonus for winning. Some special or difficult melds may give extra points to a hand. A player may have a negative score.
Play continues until one player passes a threshold, for example 1,000 points. There are many variations of the card game. Basic Rummy is called Sai Rummy. Another type of Rummy is called Sanka Rummy; the version of rummy prevalent in India is called Indian Rummy. They all share a common set of features found in the basic game. A standard deck of 52 cards is used; the cards rank from 2 to A. Rummy can be played to a fixed number of deals. All rummy games i.e. forming valid combinations of sequences and/or sets. Players discard a card on their turns to achieve the goal; the one who melds his/her cards before all others, is the winner in that game of rummy. Each player draws a card; the player with the lowest card deals first. The deal proceeds clockwise; the player on the dealer's gem right cuts. The number of cards dealt depends on the number of players. If there are two players, each player gets ten cards. In three or four player games, seven cards are dealt to each player. Five or six players may play, in which case each player receives six cards.
Starting with the player to the dealer's left, cards face down, one at a time. The dealer puts the rest of the deck, face down, between the players; this forms the stock pile. A single card is drawn and placed face up next to the stack; this is called the discard pile. Play begins with the player on the dealer's left and proceeds clockwise. On their turn, each player draws the top card from the discard pile; the player may meld or lay off, which are both optional, before discarding a single card to the top of the discard pile to end their turn. If a player has three cards of the same suit in a sequence, they may meld by laying these cards, face up, in front of them. If they have at least three cards of the same value, they may meld a group. Aces can be played as high or low but not both, for example Q♠ K♠ A♠ and A♠ 2♠ 3♠ are legal, but not K♠ A♠ 2♠. Melding is optional. A player may choose, for reasons of strategy; the most important