Vikram Samvat. It uses solar sidereal years; the Vikram Samvat is notable because many medieval era inscriptions use it. It is said to be named after the legendary king Vikramaditya, but the term "Vikrama Samvat" does not appear in the historical records before the 9th century, rather the same calendaring system is found by other names such as Krita and Malava. In the colonial era scholarship, the era was believed to be based on the commemoration of King Vikramaditya expelling the Sakas from Ujjain; however epigraphical evidence and scholarship suggest that this theory has no historical basis and likely was an error. Starting in the 9th century and thereafter, epigraphical artwork uses Vikrama-Samvat, suggesting that sometime around the 9th-century, the Hindu calendar era, in use became popular as Vikram Samvat, while Buddhist and Jain epigraphy continued to use an era based on the Buddha or the Mahavira. According to popular tradition, the legendary king Vikramaditya of Ujjain established the Vikrama Samvat era after defeating the Śakas.
Kalakacharya Kathanaka by the Jain sage Mahesarasuri gives the following account: Gandharvasena, the then-powerful king of Ujjain, abducted a nun called Sarasvati, the sister of the monk. The enraged monk sought the help of the Śaka ruler King Sahi in Sistan. Despite heavy odds but aided by miracles, the Śaka king defeated Gandharvasena and made him a captive. Sarasvati was repatriated; the defeated king retired to the forest. His son, being brought up in the forest, had to rule from Pratishthana. On, Vikramaditya invaded Ujjain and drove away from the Śakas. To commemorate this event, he started a new era called the "Vikrama era"; the Ujjain calendar started around 58–56 BCE, the subsequent Shaka era calendar was started in 78 CE at Pratishthana. The association of the era beginning in 57 BCE with Vikramaditya is not found in any source before the 9th century CE; the earlier sources call this era by various names, including Kṛṭa, the era of the Malava tribe, or Samvat. The earliest known inscription that calls the era "Vikrama" is from 842 CE.
This inscription of Chauhana ruler Chandamahasena was found at Dholpur, is dated Vikrama Samvat 898, Vaishakha Shukla 2, Chanda. The earliest known inscription that associates this era with a king called Vikramaditya is dated 971 CE; the earliest literary work that connects the era to Vikramaditya is Subhashita-Ratna-Sandoha by the Jain author Amitagati. For this reason, multiple authors believe that the Vikram Samvat was not started by Vikramaditya, who might be a purely legendary king or the title adopted by a king who renamed the era after himself. V. A. Smith and D. R. Bhandarkar believed that Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya, changed the name of the era to "Vikrama Samvat". According to Rudolf Hoernlé, the king responsible for this change was Yashodharman: Hoernlé believed that he conquered Kashmir, is the same person as the "Harsha Vikramaditya" mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. Earlier, some scholars believed that the Vikrama Samavat corresponded to the Azes era of the Indo-Scythian king King Azes.
However, this was disputed by Robert Bracey following the discovery of an inscription of Vijayamitra, dated in two eras. The theory seems to be now discredited by Falk and Bennett, who place the inception of the Azes era in 47–46 BCE; the traditional New Year of Vikram Samvat is one of the many festivals of Nepal, marked by parties, family gatherings, the exchange of good wishes, participation in rituals to ensure good fortune in the coming year. It occurs in mid-April each year, coincides with the traditional new year in Assam, Burma, Kerala, Manipur, Punjab, Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu and Thailand. In addition to Nepal, the Vikram Samvat calendar is recognized in North and East India, in Gujarat among Hindus. Hindu religious festivals are based on a Luni-Solar calendar, not Solar calendar, based on Vikram Samvat. In North India, the new year in Vikram Samvat starts from the first day of Chaitra Skukla paksha. In Buddhist communities, the month of Baishakh is associated with Buddha's Birthday, it commemorates the birth and passing of Gautama Buddha on the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June.
Although this festival is not held on the same day as Pahela Baishakh, the holidays fall in the same month of the Bengali and Theravada Buddhist calendars, are related through the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent. In Gujarat, the day after Diwali is celebrated as the first day of the Vikram Samvat calendar, the first day of the month Kartik; the Vikrami era is an ancient calendar and has been used by Hindus and Sikhs. It is one of the several regional Hindu calendars that have been in use on the Indian subcontinent, it is based on twelve synodical lunar months and 365 solar days; the lunar new year starts on the new moon in the month of Chaitra. This day, known as Chaitra Sukhladi, is a restricted holiday in India; the Vikrami Samvat has been in use in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times, remains in use by the Hindus in north, w
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam
Tukojirao Holkar II
Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Sir Tukoji Rao II Holkar XI Bahadur was the Maharaja of Indore belonging to the Holkar dynasty of the Marathas. His birth name was Shrimant Yukaji Jaswant Holkar, he was the son of Sardar Shrimant Santoji Rao Holkar, from the collateral branch of the Holkar dynasty. On the death of Khande Rao Holkar II in 1844 former Maharaja Marthand Rao Holkar claimed the throne for himself,but his request backed by many nobles, was not given by the British. Krishna Bai Holkar Sahiba, one of the widows of Yashwant Rao Holkar, suggested the name of the younger son of Bhao Santoji Holkar; the proposal was accepted and the 12-year-old Jaswant Holkar was installed with the regnal name of Tukoji Rao Holkar II on 23 June 1844 The regency council, controlled by the resident continued,At age 16 Tukoji Rao II began participating in the government formally. Krishna Bai died in 1849 and Tukoji further expanded his participation in the affairs and soon was granted all the powers on attaining 20 years.
In this period many reforms were introduced. In 1846 he married Maharani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Mhalsa Bai Sahib Holkar.after her death in 1849 he married Maharani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Bhagirathi Bai Sahib Holkar and Maharani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Radha Bai Sahib Holkar He died at Maheshwar on 17 June 1886 and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son Shivajirao Holkar, born in 1859. Holkar
Tukojirao Holkar III
Maharajadhiraja Sir Raj Rajeshwar Sawai Shri Tukojirao III Holkar XIII Bahadur was the Maharaja of Indore belonging to the Holkar dynasty of the Marathas and successor of Shivajirao Holkar who abdicated in his favor on 31 January 1903. His mother was Akhand Soubhagyavati Shrimant Maharani Sita Bai Sahib Holkar, he completed his education from Indore and ICC, Dehradun. He reigned under a regency council initially, he was sworn in with all the powers on 6 November 1911 at the age of 21. That same year he attended the coronation of George V of England in London, he founded the Order of the Order of Ahilyabai Holkar. He was invested as a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India in the 1918 New Year Honours, he abdicated in favour of his only son Yashwantrao Holkar II on 26 February 1926. In 1895 he married Maharani Shrimant Chandravati Bai Sahib Holkar, in 1913 he married Maharani Akhand Soubhagyavati Shrimanta Indira Bai Sahib Holkar and 1928 with Maharani Akhand Soubhagyavati Shrimanta Sharmista Devi Sahib Holkar, an American born Nancy Anne Miller.
Before the wedding, Nancy Anne Miller adopted Hinduism. Dr. Shrinivas Gosavi, personal physician to HH Tukojirao, had to ask Aadi Shankarachrya to intervene as the Hindu hierarchy around Tukojirao was against performing the conversion ceremony. Aadi Shankarachrya himself performed the ceremony and the wedding took place. Dr. Gosavi went underground for some time till he prevailed. HH Tukojirao died in Paris on 21 May 1978, he had six daughters. Yeshwant Club Daly College Indore State Maratha Empire List of Maratha dynasties and states
Mahārāja is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire, Maharaja Sri Gupta, founder of the ancient Indian Gupta Empire, but'title inflation' soon led to most being rather mediocre or petty in real power, while compound titles were among the attempts to distinguish some among their ranks; the female equivalent, denotes either the wife of a Maharaja, in states where, customary, a woman ruling without a husband. The widow of a Maharaja is known as a Rajmata "queen mother". Maharaja Kumar denotes a son of a Maharaja, but more specific titulatures are used at each court, including Yuvaraja for the heir; the form Maharaj indicates a separation of noble and religious offices, although the fact that in Hindi the suffix -a is silent makes the two titles near homophones. The word Maharaja originates in Sanskrit and is a compound karmadhāraya term from mahānt- "great" and rājan "ruler, king").
It has the Latin cognates magnum "great" and rex "king". Due to Sanskrit's major influence on the vocabulary of most languages in Greater India and Southeast Asia, the term Maharaja is common to many modern languages of India and Southeast Asian languages such as Kannada, Hindi, Rajasthani, Telugu, Punjabi, Sylheti, Gujarati and Thai; the Sanskrit title Maharaja was used only for rulers who ruled a large region with minor tributary rulers under them. Since medieval times, the title was used by monarchs of lesser states claiming descent from ancient Maharajas. On the eve of independence in 1947, British India contained more than 600 princely states, each with its own native ruler styled Raja or Rana or Thakur or Nawab, with a host of less current titles as well; the British directly ruled two-thirds of the Indian subcontinent. The word Maharaja may be understood to mean "ruler" or "king", in spite of its literal translation as "great king"; this was because only a handful of the states were powerful and wealthy enough for their rulers to be considered'great' monarchs.
The word, can mean emperor in contemporary Indian usage. The title of Maharaja was not as common before the gradual British colonisation of India and after which many Rajas and otherwise styled Hindu rulers were elevated to Maharajas, regardless of the fact that scores of these new Maharajas ruled small states, sometimes for some reason unrelated to the eminence of the state, for example, support to the British in Afghanistan, World War I or World War II. Two Rajas who became Maharajas in the twentieth century were the Maharaja of Cochin and the legendary Maharaja Jagatjit Singh of Kapurthala. Variations of this title include the following, each combining Maha- "great" with an alternative form of Raja'king', so all meaning'Great King': Maharana, Maharawat and Maharaol. Maharajah has taken on new spellings due to migration, it has been shortened to Mahraj and Maraj but the most common is Maharajah and Maharaj. Despite its literal meaning, unlike many other titles meaning Great King, neither Maharaja nor Rajadhiraja, nor its equivalent amongst.
Maharaja,'Maharajadhiraja', never reached the standing required for imperial rank, as each was soon the object of title inflation. Instead, the Hindu title, rendered as Emperor is Samraat or Samraj, a personal distinction achieved by a few rulers of ancient dynasties such as the Mauryas and Guptas. Dharma-maharaja was the devout title of the rulers of the Ganga dynasty. In the Mughal Empire it was quite common to award to various princes a series of lofty titles as a matter of protocolary rank; the British would, as paramount power do the same. Many of these elaborate explicitly on the title Maharaja, in the following descending order: Maharajadhiraja Bahadur: Great Prince over Princes, a title of honour, one degree higher than Maharajadhiraja. Maharajadhiraja: Great Prince over Princes, a title of honour, one degree higher than Sawai Maharaja Bahadur. Sawai Maharaja Bahadur: a title of honour, one degree higher than Sawai Maharaja. Sawai Maharaja: a title of honour one degree higher than Maharaja Bahadur.
Maharaja Bahadur: a title of honour, one degree higher than Maharaja. Maharaja itself could be granted as a personal. H. the Maharaj Rana of Jhalawar Maharaja-i-Rajgan: great prince amongst princes Maharaja Sena Sahib Subah of Nagpur, another Mahratta s
Indore State known as Holkar State, was a Maratha princely state in India during the British Raj. Its rulers belonged to the Holkar dynasty and the state was under the Central India Agency. Indore was a 19 gun salute princely state. Indore princely state was located in the present-day Indian state of Madhya Pradesh; the capital of the state was the city of Indore. The state had an area of 24,605 km² and a population of 1,325,089 in 1931. Other important towns besides Indore were Rampura, Maheshwar, Mehidpur and Bhanpura. By 1720, the headquarters of the local pargana was transferred from Kampel to Indore due to the increasing commercial activity in the city. On 18 May 1724, the Nizam accepted the rights of the Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I to collect chauth from the area. In 1733, the Peshwa assumed full control of Malwa and appointed his commander Malhar Rao Holkar as the Subhedar of the province.. On 29 July 1732, Bajirao Peshwa-I granted Holkar State by merging 28 and a half parganas to Malhar Rao Holkar, the founding ruler of the Holkar dynasty.
His daughter-in-law Ahilyabai Holkar moved the state's capital to Maheshwar in 1767, but Indore remained an important commercial and military centre. After the defeat of the Holkar rulers in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, an agreement was signed on 6 January 1818 with the British and the Indore State became a British protectorate; the Holkar dynasty was able to continue to rule Indore as a princely state owing to the efforts of Dewan Tatya Jog. The capital was moved from Maheshwar to Indore on 3 November 1818 and the Indore Residency, a political residency with a British resident, was established in the city. Indore would be established as the headquarters of the British Central India Agency. In 1906, electrical infrastructure was installed in the city while a fire brigade was established in 1909. By 1918, the first master plan of the city was drawn by town planner Patrick Geddes. During the period of Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar II, efforts were made for the planned development and industrial development of Indore.
During the reigns of Maharaja Shivaji Rao Holkar, Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar III, Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar, business flourished thanks to the railways, introduced in the state in 1875. In 1926, Maharaja Tukoji Rao III Holkar XIII abdicated after being implicated in a murder case involving a court dancer and her lover. After the independence of India in 1947, Indore State, along with a number of neighbouring princely states, acceded to India. Yashwant Rao Holkar II, the last ruler of the state, signed the instrument of accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1950; the territories of the state became part of the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat. The kings of Indore held the title of'Maharaja' Holkar; the rulers of the state were entitled to a 19 gun salute by the British authorities. C. 1808 – 1811: Bala Ram Seth 1811 – Dec 1817: Ganpal Rao 1818 – Apr 1826: Tantia Jogh Apr 1826 – 1827?: Raoji Trimbak 1827: Daji Bakhshi 1827? – 1829: Appa Rao Krishna 1829 – 1834?: Madhav Rao Phadnis Apr 1834 – Nov 1836: Sardar Revaji Rao Phanse 1836 – 1839?: Abbaji Ballal 1839?
– 1840?: Bhao Rao Phanse 1840? – Oct 1841: Narayan Rao Palshikar 1841 – 1842?: the ruler 1842? – 1848: Bhao Rao Phanse 1848 – 1849?: Ram Rao Palshikar 1852 – 1873: the ruler 1873 – 1875: Sir Madhava Rao 1875 - 1881: Ragunath Rao 1881? – 1884?: Shahamat Ali 1884 - 1886: Nana Moroji Trilokekar 1886 - 1888: Ragunath Rao c. 1890s: Balkrishna Atmaram Gupte c. 1890s – 1913?: Munshi Nanak Chand ji Airen 4 Apr 1913 – Oct 1914: Narayan Ganesh Chandravarkar 1914 - 1916:.... 1916 – c. 1921?: Ram Prasad Dube Nov 1921 – 1923?: Chettur Sankaran Nair 1923? – 1926?: Ram Prasad Dube Feb 1926 – 1939: Siremal Bapna 1939 – 1942?: Sardar Dina Nath 1942 - 1947: Raja Gyannath Madan 1947: R. G. Horton 1 Sep 1947 – 3 Jan 1948: E. P. Menon Jan 1948: N. C. Mehta 26 Jan 1948 – Mar 1948: M. V. Bhide British Residents of the Indore Residency. 1840–1844: Sir Claude Martin Wade 1845–1859: Robert North Collie Hamilton 1859–1861: Sir Richmond Campbell Shakespear 1861–1869: Richard John Meade 1869–1881: Henry D. Daly 1881–1888: Henry Lepel-Griffin 1888–1890: P.
F. Henvey 1890–1894: R. J. Crosthwaite 1894–1899: David W. K. Barr 1899–1902: Robert Henry Jennings 1902–1903: Francis Younghusband 1903–1907: Oswald Vivian Bosanquet 1907–1909: James Levett Kaye 1909–1910: Charles Beckford Luard 1910–1916: Charles Lennox Russell 1916–1919: Oswald Vivian Bosanquet 1919?-1921: Francis Granville Beville 1921–1924: Denys Brooke Blakeway 1924–1929: Sir Reginald Glancy Mar 1927-Oct 1927: Edward Herbert Kealy 1929–1930: H. R. N. Pritchard 1930–1931: Frederick Bailey 1931–1932: G. M. Ogilvie 1933–21 Mar 1935: Rawdon James MacNabb 1935–1940: Kenneth Samuel Fitze 1940–1942: Gerald Thomas Fisher 1942–1946: Walter F. Campbell 1946–1947: Henry Mortimer Poulton Agents to the Governor-General for the Central India Agency; the headquarters of the agent were at Indore. 1845–1854: Robert North Collie Hamilton 1854–1899: the British Residents in Indore 1899–1900: David W. K. Barr Mar 1900-1905: Charles S. Bayley 1905–1910: Hugh Daly 1910–1912: Michael Francis O'Dwyer 1912–1913: John B. Wood 1913–1916: Oswald Vivian Bosanquet 1916–19
The Daly College is a co-educational residential and day boarding school located in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India. It was founded by Sir Henry Daly of the British Indian Army during India's colonial British Raj; the school started in 1870 as the Residency School. It was renamed as the East Rajkumar College in 1876, in 1882, it came to be known as The Daly College, it was established by the Resident Governor of the erstwhile Presidency, to educate the children of the royalty and aristocracy of Central Indian Princely States of the'Marathas','Rajputs','Mohameddans' and'Bundelas'. It is one of the oldest co-educational boarding schools in the world; as of 2015 the school has more than 2,000 students. It is ranked 1st in India by Educationworld India for the year 2015 in the category day-cum-boarding schools. Daly College is affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education and CIE. In 2007, the first International Round Square Conference was held at Daly College, was attended by former King Constantine II of Greece as its president.
In December that year, a commemorative stamp on the college was released by India Post. The school is a member of the G20 Schools Group; the Daly College now has a Business School under its umbrella – the Daly College Business School, in collaboration with the De Montfort University, Leicester, UK. DCBS offers an undergraduate course in business management- Bachelor in Management; the school has its origins in the Residency School, founded by Sir Henry Daly Governor General of India's Agent to Central India Agency in 1870, as a school for the children of nobility and aristocrats in the Indore Residency. It was renamed as the East Rajkumar College in 1876, in 1882 the school received its present name, The Daly College, after its founder; the school was visited by Lord Northbrook Viceroy and Governor-General of India in 1875, thereafter it was renamed "Indore Residency College" in 1876. In 1882 the Chiefs named the school "The Daly College" to honour the contribution of Sir Henry Daly; the foundation stone of the new building was laid on 14 November 1885 by Lord Dufferin Viceroy and Governor-General of India, as a memorial in the honour of Sir Henry Daly.
In 1891 the two Maratha Maharajas, Sir Shivaji Rao Holkar of Indore and Sir Madho Rao Scindia of Gwalior donated the two student houses,'Gwalior House' and'Indore House'. In 1898 the "Rajkumar School", which had opened at Nowgaon near Chhatarpur in 1872, was amalgamated with the Daly College. Lt. Gen. H. H. Maharajadhiraja Sir Madho Rao Scindia, Maharaja of Gwalior unveiled a bust in the honour of Sir Henry Daly in the main building of the school. In 1905, Sir Henry's son, Sir Hugh Daly, was appointed agent to the Governor-General for Central India at Indore, to the position occupied by his father, he made it flourish it as a Chief's College. H. H. Maharajadhiraja Sir Tukojirao Holkar III, Maharaja of Indore donated 118 acres of land east of the old campus and rulers contributed to build on the newly acquired land. Construction started in 1906 on two student houses, a temple, a mosque and the Principal's residence; the main building was constructed with marble from the Udaipur quarries and was designed in the Indo-Saracenic architecture by Col.
Sir Samuel Swinton Jacob. The clock tower was donated by H. H Maharaja Sir Sayaji Rao III Gaekwad of Baroda; the main building was inaugurated on 8 November 1912 by H. E. Lord Hardinge Viceroy and Governor-General of India, after which the old campus was given up. For the next 28 years the college was open to the sons of the Princes and Chiefs of Central India as well as the rest in the Indian Empire. In 1940 the Board of Governors decided to prepare students for a free India; the Daly College came together with a few other institutions and started the Indian Public Schools Conference. Its doors were thrown open to admissions on merit, regardless of creed; the school added an 1100+ seat auditorium to its infrastructure. The school became coeducational residential in 1997, in 2005 it became a member of the Round Square, it was proclaimed the second best school in India in 2013. The school won the prestigious "Kasliwal Trophy" for a record 20 times. Motto – The Sanskrit motto "Gyanamev Shakti" or "Knowledge is power".
Coat of arms – The arms represent the main section of the Central Indian Community Maratha, Rajput and Mohammedan. The arms have been devised in great measure from those given to chiefs on the Delhi, banners of 1877. 1st Quarter –'Tenne' is the nearest Heraldic colour to'Bhagwa', the colour of Maratha standard and of Shaivite devotee: the wings and flame represent the Pawars, who derived descent from the Parmars, the worldwide Sovereignty of clan being proverbial, while they were Aganikulas, the play of 6 argent and gules gives the well known Holkar banner, while the horse of Khandoba is their emblem, the chief azure is for Scindia, the cobra is the mark of the house. 2nd Quarter – A Barry of fives is the Pachranga of the Rajputs: the sun representing the Suryavanshis and the moon the Chandravanshis, the flame the Agnivanshis. 3rd Quarter – Green is the Mohammedan colour and the crescent their badge: the tower represents Bhopal and its fort of Fatehgarh, the spear and'talwar' the Pindari element, the fish, the Mani Martib- the sacred emblem.
4th Quarter – Purpure or murrey is given to all Bundela Arms, the Chevron'gutty de sang' refers to the traditional origin from'bund' a drop, the fort on a hill to the famous Ath-kot of Bundelkhand, a