Kingdom of Mysore
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, ruled by the Wodeyar family served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire. With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire, the kingdom became independent; the 17th century saw a steady expansion of its territory and during the rule of Narasaraja Wodeyar I and Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, the kingdom annexed large expanses of what is now southern Karnataka and parts of Tamil Nadu to become a powerful state in the southern Deccan. The kingdom reached the height of its economic and military power and dominion in the latter half of the 18th century under the de facto ruler Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. During this time, it came into conflict with the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Kingdom of Travancore and the British, which culminated in the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. Success in the first Anglo-Mysore war and a stalemate in the second was followed by defeat in the third and fourth.
Following Tipu's death in the fourth war of 1799, large parts of his kingdom were annexed by the British, which signalled the end of a period of Mysorean hegemony over southern Deccan. The British restored the Wodeyars to their throne by way of a subsidiary alliance and the diminished Mysore was transformed into a princely state; the Wodeyars continued to rule the state until Indian independence in 1947, when Mysore acceded to the Union of India. As a princely state, Mysore came to be counted among the more developed and urbanised regions of India; this period saw Mysore emerge as one of the important centres of art and culture in India. The Mysore kings were not only accomplished exponents of the fine arts and men of letters, they were enthusiastic patrons as well, their legacies continue to influence music and art today. Sources for the history of the kingdom include numerous extant lithic and copper plate inscriptions, records from the Mysore palace and contemporary literary sources in Kannada and other languages.
According to traditional accounts, the kingdom originated as a small state based in the modern city of Mysore and was founded by two brothers and Krishnaraya. Their origins are still a matter of debate. Yaduraya is said to have married Chikkadevarasi, the local princess and assumed the feudal title "Wodeyar", which the ensuing dynasty retained; the first unambiguous mention of the Wodeyar family is in 16th century Kannada literature from the reign of the Vijayanagara king Achyuta Deva Raya. The kings who followed ruled as vassals of the Vijayanagara empire until the decline of the latter in 1565. By this time, the kingdom had expanded to thirty-three villages protected by a force of 300 soldiers. King Timmaraja II conquered some surrounding chiefdoms, King Bola Chamaraja IV, the first ruler of any political significance among them, withheld tribute to the nominal Vijayanagara monarch Aravidu Ramaraya. After the death of Aravidu Aliya Rama Raya, the Wodeyars began to assert themselves further and King Raja Wodeyar I wrested control of Srirangapatna from the Vijayanagara governor Aravidu Tirumalla – a development which elicited, if only ex post facto, the tacit approval of Venkatapati Raya, the incumbent king of the diminished Vijayanagar empire ruling from Chandragiri.
Raja Wodeyar I's reign saw territorial expansion with the annexation of Channapatna to the north from Jaggadeva Raya – a development which made Mysore a regional political factor to reckon with. By 1612–13, the Wodeyars exercised a great deal of autonomy and though they acknowledged the nominal overlordship of the Aravidu dynasty and transfers of revenue to Chandragiri stopped; this was in marked contrast to other major chiefs Nayaks of Tamil country who continued to pay off Chandragiri emperors well into the 1630s. Chamaraja VI and Kanthirava Narasaraja I attempted to expand further northward but were thwarted by the Bijapur Sultanate and its Maratha subordinates, though the Bijapur armies under Ranadullah Khan were repelled in their 1638 siege of Srirangapatna. Expansionist ambitions turned southward into Tamil country where Narasaraja Wodeyar acquired Satyamangalam while his successor Dodda Devaraja Wodeyar expanded further to capture western Tamil regions of Erode and Dharmapuri, after repulsing the chiefs of Madurai.
The invasion of the Keladi Nayakas of Malnad was dealt with successfully. This period was followed by one of complex geo-political changes, when in the 1670s, the Marathas and the Mughals pressed into the Deccan. Chikka Devaraja, the most notable of Mysore's early kings, who ruled during much of this period, managed to not only survive the exigencies but further expanded territory, he achieved this by forging strategic alliances with the Marathas and the Mughals. The kingdom soon grew to include Salem and Bangalore to the east, Hassan to the west and Tumkur to the north and the rest of Coimbatore to the south. Despite this expansion, the kingdom, which now accounted for a fair share of land in the southern Indian heartland, extending from the Western Ghats to the western boundaries of the Coromandel plain, remained landlocked without direct coastal access. Chikka Devaraja's attempts to remedy this brought Mysore into conflict with the Nayaka chiefs of Ikkeri and the kings of Kodagu.
Chamarajanagar is the southernmost district in the state of Karnataka, India. It was carved out of the original larger Mysore District in the year 1998. Chamarajanagar town is the headquarters of this district, it is the third least populous district in Karnataka, after Bangalore Rural. Chamarajanagar was earlier known as Sri Arikottara. Chamaraja Wodeyar, the Wodeyar king of Mysuru was born here and hence this place was renamed after him; the Vijaya Parsvanath Basadi, a holy Jain shrine was constructed by Punisadandanayaka, the commander of the Hoysala king Gangaraja in the year 1117 AD. Being the southernmost district of Karnataka, Chamarajanagar district borders the state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, it borders Mysooru district of Karnataka to the west and north and Ramanagara districts of Karnataka to the north-east, Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu to the east and Erode districts of Tamil Nadu to the south-east, Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu to the south and Wayanad district of Kerala to the south-west.
National Highway 209 starts from Bengaluru in Karnataka and ends at NH-7 north of Dindigul in Tamil Nadu pass through the district at Kollegal and ends up at Punajur, the western ghats near the Tamil Nadu - Karnataka border. Most of the district lies in the leeward region of the Nilgiris and consists of semi-arid rain-dependent flatlands along with forested hills. According to the 2011 census Chamarajanagar district has a population of 1,020,962 equal to the nation of Cyprus or the US state of Montana; this gives it a ranking of 441st in India. The district has a population density of 200 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 5.75%. Chamarajanagar has a sex ratio of 989 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 61.12%. Having a large percentage of forest cover, the district has a high population of forest-dwelling tribals; these tribals have their own dialect and their total population is said to be around 82,000. Since much of the southern area of the district is dense forest, it provided good refuge to the notorious bandit Veerappan, responsible for the death of over a hundred policemen.
He was shot dead in an encounter with the specially formed Special Task Force on 18 October 2004, in Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu. He had been on the run for over two decades; the presence of illegal quarrying for black stone imposes a great threat to the forests in the region. The main tourist attractions are Biligiriranga Hills, Male Mahadeshwara Hills and Shivasamudram falls. Bandipur national park attracts many visitors. Gopalaswamy Hills in Gundlupet attracts many visitors. Chamarajanagar Kollegal Yelandur Gundlupet Male Mahadeshwara Hills Biligiriranga Hills Bandipur National Park, Chinnada Gudi Hundi Badana Guppe Mariyala-Gangavadi Halt Mukkadahalli Mysore–Chamarajanagar branch line Kellamballi Rechamballi Kagalvadi Irasavadi Aluru Badanaguppe Mariyala Maps Of India - Map of Chamarajanagar district
Tipu Sultan known as the Tipu Sahab or Tiger of Mysore was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore and India's first freedom fighter. He was the eldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore. Tipu Sultan introduced a number of administrative innovations during his rule, including his coinage, a new Mauludi lunisolar calendar, a new land revenue system which initiated the growth of the Mysore silk industry, he expanded the iron-cased Mysorean rockets and commissioned the military manual Fathul Mujahidin, is considered a pioneer in the use of rocket artillery. He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur and Siege of Seringapatam, he embarked on an ambitious economic development program that established Mysore as a major economic power, with some of the world's highest real wages and living standards in the late 18th century. Napoleon Bonaparte, the French commander-in-chief, sought an alliance with Tipu Sultan. Both Tipu Sultan and his father used their French-trained army in alliance with the French in their struggle with the British, in Mysore's struggles with other surrounding powers, against the Marathas and rulers of Malabar, Bednore and Travancore.
Napoleon learned a lot about Islam from Tipu Sultan. Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, rose to power capturing Mysore, Tipu succeeded him as ruler of Mysore upon his father's death in 1782, he won important victories against the British in the Second Anglo-Mysore War and negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore with them after his father died from cancer in December 1782 during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. Tipu's conflicts with his neighbours included the Maratha–Mysore War which ended with the signing the Treaty of Gajendragad The treaty required that Tipu Sultan pay 4.8 million rupees as a one time war cost to the Marathas, an annual tribute of 1.2 million rupees in addition to returning all the territory captured by Hyder Ali. Tipu remained an implacable enemy of the British East India Company, sparking conflict with his attack on British-allied Travancore in 1789. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War, he was forced into the Treaty of Seringapatam, losing a number of conquered territories, including Malabar and Mangalore.
He sent emissaries to foreign states, including the Ottoman Empire and France, in an attempt to rally opposition to the British. In the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the imperial forces of the British East India Company were supported by the Nizam of Hyderabad and Marathas, they defeated Tipu, he was killed on 4 May 1799 while defending his fort of Srirangapatna. He was one of the few South Indian kings to provide stiff resistance to British imperialism, along with his father Hyder Ali, he is applauded as a ruler. Tipu has criticized for his repression of Hindus and Christians. Various sources describe the massacres, forced conversion, circumcision of Hindus and Christians and the destruction of churches and temples which are cited as evidence for his religious intolerance. Other sources mention the appointment of Hindu officers in his administration and his endowments to Hindu temples, which are cited as evidence for his religious tolerance. Tipu Sultan was born on 20 November 1750 at Devanahalli, in present-day Bangalore Rural district, about 33 km north of Bangalore city.
He was named "Tipu Sultan" after the saint Tipu Mastan Aulia of Arcot. Being illiterate, Hyder was particular in giving his eldest son a prince's education and a early exposure to military and political affairs. From the age of 17 Tipu was given independent charge of important military missions, he was his father's right arm in the wars from which Hyder emerged as the most powerful ruler of southern India. Tipu's father, Hyder Ali, was a military officer in service to the Kingdom of Mysore who had become the de facto ruler of Mysore in 1761 while his mother Fatima Fakhr-un-Nisa was the daughter of Mir Muin-ud-Din, the governor of the fort of Kadapa. Hyder Ali appointed able teachers to give Tipu an early education in subjects like Urdu, Arabic, Quran, Islamic jurisprudence, riding and fencing. Tipu Sultan was instructed in military tactics by French officers in the employment of his father. At age 15, he accompanied his father against the British in the First Mysore War in 1766, he commanded a corps of cavalry in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767 at age 16.
He distinguished himself in the First Anglo-Maratha War of 1775–1779. Alexander Beatson, who published a volume on the Fourth Mysore War entitled View of the Origin and Conduct of the War with Tippoo Sultaun, described Tipu Sultan as follows: "His stature was about five feet eight inches. School and college textbooks in India recognize him as the first "freedom-fighter" along with many other rulers of the 18th century who fought European powers. In 1779, the British captured the French-controlled port of Mahé, which Tipu had placed under his protection, providing some troops for its defence. In response, Hyder launched an invasion of the Carnatic, with the aim of driving the British out of Madras. During this campaign in September 1780, Tipu Sultan was dispatched by Hyder Ali with 10,000 men and 18 guns to intercept Colonel Baillie who wa
Shivanasamudra is a small city in the Mandya District of the state of Karnataka, India. It is situated on the banks of the river Kaveri, which forms here the boundary to the Chamarajanagar District, is the location of one of the first hydro-electric power stations in Asia, set up in 1902; the project was designed by Diwan Sheshadri Iyer. The Shivanasamudra Falls is on the Kaveri River after the river has found its way through the rocks and ravines of the Deccan Plateau and drops off to form waterfalls; the island town of Shivanasamudra divides the river into twin waterfalls. This creates the fourth largest island in the rivers course. A group of ancient temples are located here and there was a village; this is a segmented waterfall. Segmented waterfalls occur where the water flow is broken into two or more channels before dropping over a cliff, resulting in multiple side by side waterfalls, it has an average width of 305 meters, a height of 98 m, an average volume of 934 cubic metres per second.
The maximum recorded volume is 18,887 cubic metres per second. It is a perennial waterfall; the time of best flow are the monsoon season of July to October. A common misconception about these waterfalls are that the left segment is called Gaganachukki and the right segment is called Bharachukki. In reality the Bharachukki falls are a few kilometers to the south-west of the Gaganachukki falls; this is due to the Kaveri river itself splitting a few kilometers to the south into western and eastern branches. The western branch results in the twin waterfalls of Gaganachukki, whereas the eastern branch results in the Bharachukki falls; the Gaganachukki waterfalls are best viewed from the Shivanasamudra watch tower. Most of the pictures showing the twin waterfalls are taken from that location. There is another approach to the Gaganachukki. Despite warnings being posted, people climb down the rocks and attempt to view the waterfalls from behind/top, resulting in many fatal accidents, it is 139 km from the city of Bangalore.
Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple located here is built in the Dravidan style of architecture. Sri Ranganathaswamy here is referred to as "Madhya Ranga", revered by Sri Vyshanava devotees among others. Among all the three Rangas, the deity here is believed to represent the youth form of the God and hence is fondly referred to as'Mohana Ranga' and'Jaganmohana Ranga'. Madhya Ranga is an ancient temple housing a beautiful idol, yet being located remotely sees few visitors; the temple remains closed to visitors as the local priest is not punctual, the Karnataka government temple authority has done little to maintain and promote this place. There are three more temples on three other sides of the island; the ancient Sri Someshwara Temple is another famous temple here at Sivasamudram. Adi guru Sri Shankaracharya is said to have visited this place and established a "Sri Chakra", it is unusually believed that the Someshwara Linga here has existed much before the Ranganantha idol and that the Saptarshis were performing pooja and worshipping this Linga.
The Shakthi Devathe temple of Vanadurga Devi is 1 kilometre away from the Someshwara temple. India's second hydro-electric power station is still functional; this station was commissioned by the Diwan of Sir K. Seshadri Iyer; the power generated here was used in Kolar Gold Fields. India's and First hydro-electric power station is located at Darjeeling Sidrapong Hydroelectric Power Station, they were among the first in Asia. There are several buses available from Malavalli to Milega, it is recommended to board off at Satya Gala Hand Post. Many three-wheelers are available between the hand post. Many eco-friendly resorts, like Chukkimane, have emerged near to these waterfalls which offer a night stay for the travelers who would wish to spend another day at the falls. "Tourist Places/Attractions in mandya District". All Places India. Retrieved 13 August 2014. "Shortage of water hits power generation at Shivanasamudra plant". The Hindu. 2014-07-12. Retrieved 13 August 2014. "Shivanasamudra soon to host solar power plant".
Deccan Herald. March 17, 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2014. Shivanasamudra travel guide from Wikivoyage Sivasamudram Map Sivasamudram Travelogue Cauvery or Sivasamudram Falls Travel Guide Sivasamudram
The Wadiyar dynasty was a Hindu dynasty in Indian subcontinent that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1950, with a brief interruption in the late 1700s. The kingdom was incorporated into the Dominion of India after its independence from British rule; the word "Wadiyar" in Kannada means "Lord" or "Lordship." Historical records use the term ″ Wodeyar ″. In more modern Kannada transliteration, the variation ″Odeyar″ is used. Accoridng to legend the Wodiyars trace their ancestry to lord Krishna's Yadava clan and arrived from the Dvārakā, on seeing the natural beauty of the place made Mysore their abode. However, historians Shyam Prasad, Nobuhiro Ota, David Leeming, Aya Ikegame instead suggest that the Wodiyars were local feudal lords who adopted puranic legend to claim themselves as direct descendants of gods; the dynasty was established in 1399 by Yaduraya Wodeyar. He ruled Mysore under the Vijayanagara Empire until 1423. After Yaduraya Wodeyar, the Mysore kingdom was succeeded by the Wadiyar rulers.
The kingdom remained small during this early period and was a part of the Vijayanagara Empire. After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, the Kingdom of Mysore became independent and remained so until 1799. During the reign of Krishnaraja Wadiyar III, the region came under the control of the British Empire, his successors changed the English spelling of their royal name to Wadiyar and took the title of Bahadur. The last two monarchs of the dynasty, Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV and Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar accepted the British decoration Knight Grand Cross of The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire; the Vijayanagara Empire disintegrated in 1565. The power vacuum created, he expanded the borders of the Mysore kingdom and in 1610 changed the capital city from Mysore to Srirangapatna. Famous rulers of the dynasty included Kanthirava Narasaraja I, who expanded the frontiers of the Mysore kingdom to Trichy in Tamil Nadu; the dynasty reached its peak under Chikka Devaraja, who reformed the administration of the empire by dividing it into 18 departments and he introduced a coherent system of taxation.
From 1760 to 1799, the rule of the dynasty was nominal, with real power in the hands of the dalwai, or commanders-in-chief, Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan, who expanded the kingdom aggressively, but clashed with the British East India Company. After Tipu Sultan was killed by the British in the Battle of Srirangapatna in 1799, the Wadiyars were restored to a reduced kingdom. After restoring the Wadiyars to the throne of Mysore, the British shifted the capital back to the city of Mysore from Srirangapatna; the four-year-old boy Krishna Raja Wadiyar III, son of the last Wadiyar king, Khasa Chamaraja Wadiyar VIII, was anointed as the King of Mysore. Wadiyars had to pay an annual subsidy to the British; however the British took over the administration of the kingdom on a specious plea of non-payment of the subsidy by Mummudi Krishna Raja Wadiyar in 1831, British-appointed commissioners were in charge of the kingdom. British commissioners administered Mysore from 1831–1881. Mark Cubbon and L. B.
Bowring are among the well-known commissioners of the period. In 1868, the British Parliament heeded the king's plea and decided to restore the kingdom to his adopted son Chamaraja Wadiyar IX. In 1881, the transfer of power back to the Wadiyars heralded an important phase in the making of modern Mysore. For the first time in India, democratic experiments were introduced by the establishment of a representative assembly; the next king, Nalvadi Krishna Raja Wadiyar, earned great fame as a saintly King-Rajarishi, his kingdom was hailed as Ramarajya by Mahatma Gandhi as an ideal kingdom comparable to the one ruled by the historical hero Lord Rama. Under British hegemony, the Wadiyars, freed from security concerns, shifted their attention to the patronage of the fine arts, they made Mysore a cultural center of Karnataka, fostering a number of famous musicians and painters. The last king of the Wadiyar dynasty was Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar, who ruled from 1940 until Indian independence from British rule.
In the year 1947, after India attained independence, he ceded his kingdom to the Dominion of India, but continued as the Maharajah until India became a Republic in 1950. He became the Raja Pramukh—a constitutional position—as the head of Mysore State in the Republic of India from 1950–1956. After the reorganization of the Indian states on a linguistic basis, he was appointed Governor of the integrated Mysore State in 1956 and held the post until 1964, he was Governor of Madras state for two years. The Indian Constitution continued to recognize him as the Maharajah of Mysore, until 1971, when Mrs. Indira Gandhi Prime Minister of India, abolished the titles and Privy Purse of over 560 Maharajahs; the Maharajah died in 1974. His only son, Srikantadatta Narasimha Raja Wadiyar, was a member of the Indian Parliament for many years. See Maharaja of Mysore A curse was believed to be cast on the Wadiyars in 1612 by Alamelamma, wife of King Tirumalaraja, who ruled the Vijayanagar Empire, it is believed that when her jewels were being taken under the orders of the Wodeyar ruler, she ran over to a cliff overlooking the Kaveri river and cursed before jumping to death — "Talakadu MaraLagali, Malangi Maduvagali, Mysooru Arasarige Makkalaagadirali" (May Talakadu be
Mysore Palace is a historical palace and a royal residence at Mysore in the Indian State of Karnataka. It is the seat of the Kingdom of Mysore; the palace is in the centre of Mysore, faces the Chamundi Hills eastward. Mysore is described as the'City of Palaces', there are seven palaces including this one; the land on which the palace now stands was known as puragiri, is now known as the Old Fort. Yaduraya built the first palace inside the Old Fort in the 14th century, demolished and constructed multiple times; the current structure was constructed between 1897 and 1912, after the Old Palace was burnt ablaze Mysore Palace is now one of the most famous tourist attractions in India, after the Taj Mahal, with more than 6 million annual visitors. The last palace, now known as the Old Palace or the Wooden Palace, was burnt into ashes during the 1896 Dasara festivities. Maharaja Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV and his mother Maharani Kempananjammanni Devi, commissioned the British architect Lord Henry Irwin to build a new palace.
Meanwhile, the royal family stayed in the closeby Jaganmohan Palace.the construction was overseen by B. P. Raghavulu Naidu, an executive engineer in the Mysore Palace division, he had conducted elaborate architectural studies during visits to Delhi and Calcutta, these were used in planning for the new palace. The construction cost was placed at Rs 41,47,913 and was completed in 1912; the palace was further expanded in around 1930 during the reign of Maharaja Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar. Although the construction was completed in 1912, the fort continued to be beautified and its inhabitants were moved to the newer extensions built off the palace; the architectural style of domes of the palace is described as Indo-Saracenic, with blends of the Hindu, Mughal and Gothic styles. It is a three-story stone structure with marble domes, has a 145-foot five-story tower; the palace is surrounded by a large garden. The entrance gate and arch hold the emblem and coat of arms of the kingdom of Mysore, around, written the kingdom's motto in Sanskrit: "न बिभॆति कदाचन".
The main complex is 156 Ft in width. There are fire extinguishing machines located in all parts of the palace in order to prevent any fires; the palace has three entrances: the East Gate, the South Entrance, the West Entrance. In addition, there are numerous secret tunnels from the palace cellar leading to Srirangapatna, other palaces, confidential areas; the three-story stone building of fine grey granite with deep pink marble domes has a facade with several expansive arches and two smaller ones flanking the central arch, supported by tall pillars. Above the central arch is a sculpture of Gajalakshmi, the Goddess of wealth, prosperity and abundance with her elephants. There are three major exclusive temple buildings within the Old Fort, about 18 inside the palace heart building; the palace was built adjacent to the older Parakala Mutt headquarters, whose leaders have remained the rajagurus of Mysore kings. The kings of Mysore were devotees of Goddess Chamundi, hence the palace's facing the Chamundi Hills.
The palace houses two durbar halls and incorporates an array of courtyards and buildings. Official virtual tour website of Mysore Palace Mysore Palace Official Mysore Dasara website Palaces of Mysore Mysore Palace lighting